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Encyclopedia > Medieval Warm Period

The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. WARM is an American adult contemporary radio station based in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania broadcasting at 103. ... The Atlantic Ocean forms a component of the all-encompassing World Ocean and is directly linked to the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Southern Ocean. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ...


The MWP is often invoked in contentious discussions of global warming and the greenhouse effect. Some refer to the event as the Medieval Climatic Anomaly as this term emphasizes that effects other than temperature were important.[1] Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ...

The Medieval Warm Period varies little between different studies.

Contents

Image File history File links 2000_Year_Temperature_Comparison. ... Image File history File links 2000_Year_Temperature_Comparison. ...

Initial research

The Medieval Warm Period theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm weather around 800-1300 AD, during the European Medieval period. Initial research on the MWP and the following Little Ice Age (LIA) was largely done in Europe, where the phenomenon was most obvious and clearly documented. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...


It was initially believed that the temperature changes were global. However, this view has been questioned; the 2001 IPCC report summarises this research, saying "…current evidence does not support globally synchronous periods of anomalous cold or warmth over this time frame, and the conventional terms of 'Little Ice Age' and 'Medieval Warm Period' appear to have limited utility in describing trends in hemispheric or global mean temperature changes in past centuries".[2] Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...


Palaeoclimatologists developing regionally specific climate reconstructions of past centuries conventionally label their coldest interval as "LIA" and their warmest interval as the "MWP".[3][4] Others follow the convention and when a significant climate event is found in the "LIA" or "MWP" time frames, associate their events to the period. Some "MWP" events are thus wet events or cold events rather than strictly warm events, particularly in central Antarctica where climate patterns opposite to the North Atlantic area have been noticed.


The final 150-200 years of the Medieval Warm Period coincides with a peak in solar activity named the Medieval Maximum (11001250). 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ...


Climate events

North Atlantic and North American regions

During the MWP wine grapes were grown in Europe as far north as southern Britain[5][6][7] although less extensively than they are today[8] (however, factors other than climate strongly influence the commercial success of vineyards and the time of greatest extent of medieval vineyards falls outside the MWP). The Vikings took advantage of ice-free seas to colonize Greenland and other outlying lands of the far north. The MWP was followed by the Little Ice Age, a period of cooling that lasted until the 19th century. The climate of Greenland deteriorated to such an extent that the Viking colonies died out or were abandoned in the 14th century. In Virginia's Chesapeake Bay, researchers found large temperature excursions during the Medieval Warm Period (about 8001300) and the Little Ice Age (about 14001850), possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation.[9] Sediments in Piermont Marsh of the lower Hudson Valley show a dry Medieval Warm period from AD 800–1300.[10] A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... It has been suggested that Veraison be merged into this article or section. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article contains a trivia section. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A simplified summary of the path of the Thermohaline Circulation. ... It has been suggested that Mid-Hudson Region be merged into this article or section. ...


Prolonged droughts affected many parts of the western United States and especially eastern California and the western Great Basin.[4] Alaska experienced three time intervals of comparable warmth: A.D. 1300, 8501200, and post-1800.[11] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... This article is about the year 1. ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


A radiocarbon-dated box core in the Sargasso Sea shows that the sea surface temperature was approximately 1°C cooler than today approximately 400 years ago (the Little Ice Age) and 1700 years ago, and approximately 1°C warmer than today 1000 years ago (the Medieval Warm Period).[12] Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... An image of the distribution and size of eel larvae shows the approximate location of the Sargasso Sea. ...


Other regions

The climate in equatorial east Africa has alternated between drier than today, and relatively wet. The drier climate took place during the Medieval Warm Period (~AD 10001270).[13] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


An ice core from the eastern Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula, clearly identifies events of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period.[14] The core clearly shows a distinctly cold period about AD 1000–1100, neatly illustrating the fact that "MWP" is a moveable term, and that during the "warm" period there were, regionally, periods of both warmth and cold. Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ...


Corals in the tropical Pacific ocean suggest that relatively cool, dry conditions may have persisted early in the millennium, consistent with a La Niña-like configuration of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation patterns.[15] Although there is an extreme scarcity of data from Australia (for both the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age) evidence from wave built shingle terraces for a permanently full Lake Eyre[16] during the ninth and tenth centuries is consistent with this La Niña-like configuration, though of itself inadequate to show how lake levels varied from year to year or what climatic conditions elsewhere in Australia were like. El Niño is also the nickname of Sergio García. ... El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Adhikari and Kumon (2001) in investigating sediments in Lake Nakatsuna in central Japan have verified there the existence of both the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age.[17]


For further discussion of regional and global temperature variations see: Temperature record. The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time. ...


Criticism

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted research claiming that there is a lack of data supporting that the Medieval Warming Period ever took place. Instead, they state that there were no multi-century periods when global or hemispheric temperatures were the same or warmer than in the 20th century. Summarily, it "appears that the 20th century, and in particular the late 20th century, is likely the warmest the Earth has seen in at least 1200 years."[18] This suggests that claims from global warming critics that regions of the North Atlantic were once capable of sustaining tropical wildlife and plantlife is false and unfounded. [19]


See also

The Holocene Climate Optimum was a warm period during roughly the interval 7,000 to 5,000 years B.P.. This event has also been known by many other names, including: Hypisthermal, Altithermal, Climatic Optimum, Holocene Optimum, Holocene Thermal Maximum, and Holocene Megathermal. ... This page discusses the description of the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age in various reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ... Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in weather and their effect on human history. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ...

References

  1. ^ Bradley, Raymond S. Climate System Research Center. "Climate of the Last Millenium." 2003. February 23, 2007. [1]
  2. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis 2.3.3 Was there a “Little Ice Age” and a “Medieval Warm Period”?. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  3. ^ Jones, P. D., and M. E. Mann (2004). "Climate over past millennia". Rev. Geophys. 42 (RG2002): 404-405. DOI:10.1029/2003RG000143. 
  4. ^ a b Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughes, Henry F. Diaz (2003). "Climate in Medieval Time". Science 302 (5644): 404-405. DOI:10.1126/science.1090372.  (links to pdf file)
  5. ^ The History of English Wine: Domesday & Middle Ages. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  6. ^ Jones, Gregory (August 2004). Making Wine in a Changing Climate. Geotimes. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  7. ^ Schmidt, Gavin (2006). Medieval warmth and English wine. RealClimate. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  8. ^ The Vineyards of England and Wales. English-Wine.com. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  9. ^ Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th Century Temperature Variability from Chesapeake Bay. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  10. ^ Marshes Tell Story Of Medieval Drought, Little Ice Age, And European Settlers Near New York City. Earth Observatory News (May 19, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  11. ^ Hu FS, Ito E, Brown TA, Curry BB, Engstrom DR (2001). "Pronounced climatic variations in Alaska during the last two millennia". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (19): 10552-10556. DOI:10.1073/pnas.181333798. 
  12. ^ Keigwin, Lloyd D. (29 November 1996). "The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period in the Sargasso Sea". Science 274 (5292): 1503 - 1508. DOI:10.1126/science.274.5292.1503. Retrieved on 2006-05-04. 
  13. ^ Drought In West Linked To Warmer Temperatures. Earth Observatory News (October 7, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  14. ^ Khim, B-K; Yoon H.; Kang C.Y.; Bahk J.J. (November 2002). "Unstable Climate Oscillations during the Late Holocene in the Eastern Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula". Quaternary Research 58 (3): 234-245(12). Retrieved on 2006-05-04. 
  15. ^ Cobb, Kim M.; Chris Charles, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards (July 8, 2003). The Medieval Cool Period And The Little Warm Age In The Central Tropical Pacific? Fossil Coral Climate Records Of The Last Millennium. The Climate of the Holocene (ICCI) 2003. Retrieved on 2006-05-04.
  16. ^ Allen, Robert J.; The Australasian Summer Monsoon, Teleconnections, and Flooding in the Lake Eyre Basin; published 1985 by Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, S.A. Branch; ISBN 0909112096
  17. ^ Adhikari DP, Kumon, F. (2001). "Climatic changes during the past 1300 years as deduced from the sediments of Lake Nakatsuna, central Japan.". Limnology 2 (3): 157-168. DOI:10.1007/s10201-001-8031-7. 
  18. ^ Paleoclimatology Global Warming - The Data. NOAA (November 10, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  19. ^ The Medieval Warm Period was just as warm as today. Grist Environmental News and Commentary (December 13, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  • Bradley and Jones, 1993
  • M.K. Hughes and H.F. Diaz, "Was there a 'Medieval Warm Period?", Climatic Change 26: 109-142, March 1994
  • Crowley and Lowery, 2000.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RealClimate is a commentary site (blog) on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Middle Ages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3264 words)
The spread of Christianity in the Migrations Period, both from the Mediterranean area and from Ireland, occasioned a pre-eminent cultural and ideological role for its abbots, and the collapse of a res publica meant that the bishops became identified with the remains of urban government.
Indeed, throughout this period the Byzantine Empire was in decline, having peaked in influence during the Early Middle Ages.
In England the change of monarchs which occurred on 22 August 1485 at the Battle of Bosworth is often considered to mark the end of the period, Richard III representing the old medieval world and the Tudors, a new royal house and a new historical period.
Medieval Warm Period - definition of Medieval Warm Period in Encyclopedia (477 words)
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum was an unusually warm period in history lasting from about the 10th century to about the 14th century.
The period was followed by the Little Ice Age (LIA), a period of cooling that lasted until the 19th century when the current period of global warming began.
The IPCC TAR says of the MWP that the posited Medieval Warm Period appears to have been less distinct, more moderate in amplitude, and somewhat different in timing at the hemispheric scale than is typically inferred for the conventionally-defined European epoch.
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