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Encyclopedia > Medicine
Medicine Portal

Medicine is the science and "art" of maintaining and/or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. The term is derived from the Latin ars medicina meaning the art of healing.[1][2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... A medical record folder being pulled from the records A medical record, health record, or medical chart is a systematic documentation of a patients medical history and care [1][2]. The term Medical record is used both for the physical folder for each individual patient and for the body... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The modern practice of medicine occurs at the many interfaces between the art of healing and various sciences. Medicine is directly connected to the health sciences and biomedicine. Broadly speaking, the term 'Medicine' today refers to the fields of clinical medicine, medical research and surgery, thereby covering the challenges of disease and injury. Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. ...

The Rod of Asclepius, with its single snake, is an ancient Greek symbol associated with medicine. The American Medical Association, the American Osteopathic Association, the Royal Society of Medicine, the Australian Medical Association, the British Medical Association, and the World Health Organization display the Rod of Asclepius in their logos or emblems.
The Rod of Asclepius, with its single snake, is an ancient Greek symbol associated with medicine. The American Medical Association, the American Osteopathic Association, the Royal Society of Medicine, the Australian Medical Association, the British Medical Association, and the World Health Organization display the Rod of Asclepius in their logos or emblems.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 68 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medicine Medical community of ancient Rome ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 68 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medicine Medical community of ancient Rome ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... American Osteopathic Association Founded in 1898 in Kirksville, MO, the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative organization for osteopathic physicians in the United States. ... The Logo and Coat of Arms of the Society. ... The Australian Medical Association (the AMA) is the dominant professional association for Australian doctors and medical students. ... // The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. ... WHO redirects here. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Emblem and symbol are often used interchangeably in day-to-day conversation without harm. ...

History of medicine

Physician treating a patient. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
Physician treating a patient. Louvre Museum, Paris, France.
Main article: History of medicine

The earliest type of medicine in most cultures was the use of plants (Herbalism) and animal parts. This was usually in concert with 'magic' of various kinds in which: animism (the notion of inanimate objects having spirits); spiritualism (here meaning an appeal to gods or communion with ancestor spirits); shamanism (the vesting of an individual with mystic powers); and divination (the supposed obtaining of truth by magic means), played a major role. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x845, 606 KB) Description fr: Médecin soignant un patient. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x845, 606 KB) Description fr: Médecin soignant un patient. ... This article is about the museum. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... // By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


The practice of medicine developed gradually in ancient Egypt, India, China, Greece, Persia, the Islamic world, medieval Europe, and elsewhere. Medicine as it is now practiced largely developed during the Middle Ages and early modern period in Persia (Rhazes and Avicenna), Spain (Abulcasis, 11th century), Syria (Ibn al-Nafis, 13th century), England (William Harvey, 17th century), Germany (Rudolf Virchow) and France (Jean-Martin Charcot, Claude Bernard and others). The new "scientific" or "experimental" medicine (where results are testable and repeatable) replaced early Western traditions of medicine, based on herbalism, the Greek "four humours" and other pre-modern theories. The focal points of development of clinical medicine shifted to the United Kingdom and the USA by the early 1900s (Canadian-born) Sir William Osler, Harvey Cushing). Possibly the major shift in medical thinking was the gradual rejection in the 1400s during the Black Death of what may be called the 'traditional authority' approach to science and medicine. This was the notion that because some prominent person in the past said something must be so, then that was the way it was, and anything one observed to the contrary was an anomaly (which was paralleled by a similar shift in European society in general - see Copernicus's rejection of Ptolemy's theories on astronomy). People like Vesalius led the way in improving upon or indeed rejecting the theories of great authorities from the past such as Galen, Hippocrates, and Avicenna/Ibn Sina, all of whose theories were in time almost totally discredited. Such new attitudes were also only made possible by the weakening of the Roman Catholic church's power in society, especially in the Republic of Venice. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Persia redirects here. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Astrology played an important part in Medieval medicine; most educated physicians were trained in at least the basics of astrology to use in their practice. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... edit Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BCE. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English medical doctor, who is credited with being the first to correctly describe, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (October 13, 1821, Schivelbein (Pomerania) - September 5, 1902, Berlin) was a German doctor, anthropologist, public health activist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist and politician. ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ... Claude Bernard Claude Bernard (July 12, 1813 - February 10, 1878) was a French physiologist. ... Biomedical Research involves thorough investigation of any matter related to the domain of living or biological Systems. ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... Sir William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. ... Harvey Cushing (c. ... Copernicus redirects here. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Andreas Vesalius (Brussels, December 31, 1514 - Zakynthos, October 15, 1564) was an anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). ... For other uses, see Galen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Evidence-based medicine is a recent movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice (ways of doing things) through the use of the scientific method and modern global information science by collating all the evidence and developing standard protocols which are then disseminated to healthcare providers. One problem with this 'best practice' approach is that it could be seen to stifle novel approaches to treatment. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ...

Genomics and knowledge of human genetics is already having some influence on medicine, as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in molecular biology and genetics are influencing medical practice and decision-making. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2214x3040, 347 KB) ampoule,ampul,ampule File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medicine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2214x3040, 347 KB) ampoule,ampul,ampule File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medicine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Pharmaceutical ampoules An ampoule is a small glass vial which is hermetically sealed by melting the thin top usually with a blowtorch flame after filling, and is most commonly used as a container for hypodermic injection solutions (eg. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms entire genome; Rathore et al, . Investigation of single genes, their functions and roles is something very common in todays medical and biological research, and cannot be said to be genomics but rather the most typical feature of molecular biology. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in genes or chromosomes. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ...


Pharmacology has developed from herbalism and many drugs are still derived from plants (atropine, ephedrine, warfarin, aspirin, digoxin, vinca alkaloids, taxol, hyoscine, etc). The modern era began with Robert Koch's discoveries around 1880 of the transmission of disease by bacteria, and then the discovery of antibiotics shortly thereafter around 1900. The first of these was arsphenamine / Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich in 1908 after he observed that bacteria took up toxic dyes that human cells did not. The first major class of antibiotics was the sulfa drugs, derived by French chemists originally from azo dyes. Throughout the twentieth century, major advances in the treatment of infectious diseases were observable in (Western) societies. The medical establishment is now developing drugs targeted towards one particular disease process. Thus drugs are being developed to minimise the side effects of prescribed drugs, to treat cancer, geriatric problems, long-term problems (such as high cholesterol), chronic diseases type 2 diabetes, lifestyle and degenerative diseases such as arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Azo compounds refer to chemical compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R, in which R and R can be either aryl or alkyl. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Practice of medicine

The practice of medicine combines both science as the evidence base and art in the application of this medical knowledge in combination with intuition and clinical judgment to determine the treatment plan for each patient. Image File history File links Tr_icsi_03. ... Image File history File links Tr_icsi_03. ... AIH redirects here. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


Central to medicine is the patient-physician relationship established when a person with a health concern seeks a physician's help; the 'medical encounter'. Other health professionals similarly establish a relationship with a patient and may perform various interventions, e.g. nurses, radiographers and therapists. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


As part of the medical encounter, the healthcare provider needs to:

  • develop a relationship with the patient
  • gather data (medical history, systems enquiry, and physical examination, combined with laboratory or imaging studies (investigations))
  • analyze and synthesize that data (assessment and/or differential diagnoses), and then:
  • develop a treatment plan (further testing, therapy, watchful observation, referral and follow-up)
  • treat the patient accordingly
  • assess the progress of treatment and alter the plan as necessary (management).

The medical encounter is documented in a medical record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions.[3] A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... A medical record folder being pulled from the records A medical record, health record, or medical chart is a systematic documentation of a patients medical history and care [1][2]. The term Medical record is used both for the physical folder for each individual patient and for the body...


Health care delivery systems

Medicine is practiced within the medical system, which is a legal, credentialing and financing framework, established by a particular culture or government. The characteristics of a health care system have significant effect on the way medical care is delivered. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Financing has a great influence as it defines who pays the costs. Aside from tribal cultures, the most significant divide in developed countries is between universal health care and market-based health care (such as practiced in the U.S.). Universal health care might allow or ban a parallel private market. The latter is described as single-payer system. http://www. ... Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ...


Transparency of information is another factor defining a delivery system. Access to information on conditions, treatments, quality and pricing greatly affects the choice by patients / consumers and therefore the incentives of medical professionals. While US health care system has come under fire for lack of openness, new legislation may encourage greater openness. There is a perceived tension between the need for transparency on the one hand and such issues as patient confidentiality and the possible exploitation of information for commercial gain on the other.


Health care delivery

See also: clinic, hospital, and hospice
Painting of Henriette Browne
Painting of Henriette Browne

Medical care delivery is classified into primary, secondary and tertiary care. A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x731, 201 KB) Henriette Browne: [ohne Titel] Source: http://auktion-bergmann. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x731, 201 KB) Henriette Browne: [ohne Titel] Source: http://auktion-bergmann. ...


Primary care medical services are provided by physicians or other health professionals who have first contact with a patient seeking medical treatment or care. These occur in physician offices, clinics, nursing homes, schools, home visits and other places close to patients. About 90% of medical visits can be treated by the primary care provider. These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. Primary care may be provided in community health centres. ... A clinic or outpatient clinic is a small medical facility that provides health care for ambulatory patients - as opposed to inpatients treated in a hospital. ... Rest home for seniors in Český Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ...


Secondary care medical services are provided by medical specialists in their offices or clinics or at local community hospitals for a patient referred by a primary care provider who first diagnosed or treated the patient. Referrals are made for those patients who required the expertise or procedures performed by specialists. These include both ambulatory care and inpatient services, emergency rooms, intensive care medicine, surgery services, physical therapy, labor and delivery, endoscopy units, diagnostic laboratory and medical imaging services, hospice centers, etc. Some primary care providers may also take care of hospitalized patients and deliver babies in a secondary care setting. Services provided by medical specialists who generally do not have first contact with patients (eg, cardiologist, urologists, dermatologists). ... A medical specialist is someone who specializes in a particular field of medicine. ... Ambulatory care is any medical care delivered on an outpatient basis. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... The emergency department (ED), sometimes termed the emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW), accident & emergency (A&E) department or casualty department is a hospital or primary care department that provides initial treatment to patients with a broad spectrum of illnesses and injuries, some of which may be life-threatening and... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ... Parturition redirects here. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...


Tertiary care medical services are provided by specialist hospitals or regional centers equipped with diagnostic and treatment facilities not generally available at local hospitals. These include trauma centers, burn treatment centers, advanced neonatology unit services, organ transplants, high-risk pregnancy, radiation oncology, etc. In medicine, tertiary healthcare is specialized consultative care, usually on referral from primary or secondary medical care personnel, by specialists working in a center that has personnel and facilities for special investigation and treatment. ... A trauma center is a hospital equipped to perform as a casualty receiving station for the emergency medical services by providing the best possible medical care for traumatic injuries 24 hours a day, 365 days per year. ... For other uses, see Burn. ... Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics defined as the care of the ill or premature newborn infant. ... “Transplant” redirects here. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ...


Modern medical care also depends on information - still delivered in many health care settings on paper records, but increasingly nowadays by electronic means.


Patient-physician-relationship

This kind of relationship and interaction is a central process in the practice of medicine. There are many perspectives from which to understand and describe it. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


An idealized physician's perspective, such as is taught in medical school, sees the core aspects of the process as the physician learning the patient's symptoms, concerns and values; in response the physician examines the patient, interprets the symptoms, and formulates a diagnosis to explain the symptoms and their cause to the patient and to propose a treatment. The job of a physician is similar to a human biologist: that is, to know the human frame and situation in terms of normality. Once the physician knows what is normal and can measure the patient against those norms, he or she can then determine the particular departure from the normal and the degree of departure. This is called the diagnosis. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


The four great cornerstones of diagnostic medicine are anatomy (structure: what is there), physiology (how the structure/s work), pathology (what goes wrong with the anatomy and physiology) and psychology (mind and behavior). In addition, the physician should consider the patient in their 'well' context rather than simply as a walking medical condition. This means the socio-political context of the patient (family, work, stress, beliefs) should be assessed as it often offers vital clues to the patient's condition and further management. In more detail, the patient presents a set of complaints (the symptoms) to the physician, who then obtains further information about the patient's symptoms, previous state of health, living conditions, and so forth. The physician then makes a review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry, which is a set of ordered questions about each major body system in order: general (such as weight loss), endocrine, cardio-respiratory, etc. Next comes the actual physical examination; the findings are recorded, leading to a list of possible diagnoses. These will be in order of probability. The next task is to enlist the patient's agreement to a management plan, which will include treatment as well as plans for follow-up. Importantly, during this process the healthcare provider educates the patient about the causes, progression, outcomes, and possible treatments of his ailments, as well as often providing advice for maintaining health. This teaching relationship is the basis of calling the physician doctor, which originally meant "teacher" in Latin. The patient-physician relationship is additionally complicated by the patient's suffering (patient derives from the Latin patior, "suffer") and limited ability to relieve it on his/her own. The physician's expertise comes from his knowledge of what is healthy and normal contrasted with knowledge and experience of other people who have suffered similar symptoms (unhealthy and abnormal), and the proven ability to relieve it with medicines (pharmacology) or other therapies about which the patient may initially have little knowledge. Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ...


The physician-patient relationship can be analyzed from the perspective of ethical concerns, in terms of how well the goals of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice are achieved. Many other values and ethical issues can be added to these. In different societies, periods, and cultures, different values may be assigned different priorities. For example, in the last 30 years medical care in the Western World has increasingly emphasized patient autonomy in decision making. Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...


The relationship and process can also be analyzed in terms of social power relationships (e.g., by Michel Foucault), or economic transactions. Physicians have been accorded gradually higher status and respect over the last century, and they have been entrusted with control of access to prescription medicines as a public health measure. This represents a concentration of power and carries both advantages and disadvantages to particular kinds of patients with particular kinds of conditions. A further twist has occurred in the last 25 years as costs of medical care have risen, and a third party (an insurance company or government agency) now often insists upon a share of decision-making power for a variety of reasons, reducing freedom of choice of healthcare providers and patients in many ways. Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


The quality of the patient-physician relationship is important to both parties. The better the relationship in terms of mutual respect, knowledge, trust, shared values and perspectives about disease and life, and time available, the better will be the amount and quality of information about the patient's disease transferred in both directions, enhancing accuracy of diagnosis and increasing the patient's knowledge about the disease. Where such a relationship is poor the physician's ability to make a full assessment is compromised and the patient is more likely to distrust the diagnosis and proposed treatment. In these circumstances and also in cases where there is genuine divergence of medical opinions, a second opinion from another physician may be sought. A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ...


In some settings, e.g. the hospital ward, the patient-physician relationship is much more complex, and many other people are involved when somebody is ill: relatives, neighbors, rescue specialists, nurses, technical personnel, social workers and others.


Clinical skills

A complete medical evaluation includes a medical history, a systems enquiry, a physical examination, appropriate laboratory or imaging studies, analysis of data and medical decision making to obtain diagnoses, and a treatment plan.[4] The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... The medical history of a patient (sometimes called anamnesis [1][2] ) is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis). ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ...


The components of the medical history are:

  • Chief complaint (CC): the reason for the current medical visit. These are the 'symptoms.' They are in the patient's own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one. Also called 'presenting complaint.'
  • History of present illness / complaint (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom.
  • Current activity: occupation, hobbies, what the patient actually does.
  • Medications (DHx): what drugs the patient takes including prescribed, over-the-counter, and home remedies, as well as alternative and herbal medicines/herbal remedies such as St John's wort. Allergies are also recorded.
  • Past medical history (PMH/PMHx): concurrent medical problems, past hospitalizations and operations, injuries, past infectious diseases and/or vaccinations, history of known allergies.
  • Social history (SH): birthplace, residences, marital history, social and economic status, habits (including diet, medications, tobacco, alcohol).
  • Family history (FH): listing of diseases in the family that may impact the patient. A family tree is sometimes used.
  • Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry (have you noticed any weight loss, fevers, lumps and bumps? etc), followed by questions on the body's main organ systems (heart, lungs, digestive tract, urinary tract, etc).

The physical examination is the examination of the patient looking for signs of disease ('Symptoms' are what the patient volunteers, 'Signs' are what the healthcare provider detects by examination). The healthcare provider uses the senses of sight, hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (taste has been made redundant by the availability of modern lab tests). Four chief methods are used: inspection, palpation (feel), percussion (tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation (listen); smelling may be useful (e.g. infection, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis). The clinical examination involves study of: This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Binomial name Hypericum perforatum L. St Johns wort (IPA pronunciation: , rhyming with hurt, or ) used alone refers to the species Hypericum perforatum, also known as Klamath weed or Goat weed, but, with qualifiers, is used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In medicine, a family history consists of information about disorders that a patients direct blood relatives have suffered from. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Gut redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Excretory system. ... In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Inspection (Latin word Inspectio or the act of beholding) 1. ... Palpation is a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional). ... Percussion is a method used by a doctor to find out about the changes in the thorax or abdomen. ... Auscultation is the technical term for listening to the internal sounds of the body, usually using a stethoscope. ... Uremia is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure, when kidney function is compromised and urea, a waste product normally excreted in the urine, is retained in the blood. ... Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is a life-threatening complication in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus (chronic high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). ...

  • Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation
  • General appearance of the patient and specific indicators of disease (nutritional status, presence of jaundice, pallor or clubbing)
  • Skin
  • Head, eye, ear, nose, and throat (HEENT)
  • Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels)
  • Respiratory (large airways and lungs)
  • Abdomen and rectum
  • Genitalia (and pregnancy if the patient is or could be pregnant)
  • Musculoskeletal (spine and extremities)
  • Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves)
  • Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought)

Laboratory and imaging studies results may be obtained, if necessary. A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... ˌ For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium. ... Clubbing is also used to refer to the activity of gathering socially at nightclubs. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Medical imaging designates the ensemble of techniques and processes used to create images of the human body (or parts thereof) for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and function). ...


The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of possible diagnoses (the differential diagnoses), along with an idea of what needs to be done to obtain a definitive diagnosis that would explain the patient's problem. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The treatment plan may include ordering additional laboratory tests and studies, starting therapy, referral to a specialist, or watchful observation. Follow-up may be advised.


This process is used by primary care providers as well as specialists. It may take only a few minutes if the problem is simple and straightforward. On the other hand, it may take weeks in a patient who has been hospitalized with bizarre symptoms or multi-system problems, with involvement by several specialists.


On subsequent visits, the process may be repeated in an abbreviated manner to obtain any new history, symptoms, physical findings, and lab or imaging results or specialist consultations.


Branches of medicine

Working together as an interdisciplinary team, many highly trained health profession also besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care. Some examples include: nurse(s) emergency medical technicians and paramedics, laboratory scientists, (pharmacy, pharmacists), (physiotherapy,physiotherapists), respiratory therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians and bioengineers. Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... This article is about the occupation. ... Respiratory therapy is an allied health field involved in the treatment of breathing disorders which include chronic lung problems (i. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) deals with engineering biological processes in general. ...


The scope and sciences underpinning human medicine overlap many other fields. Dentistry and psychology, while separate disciplines from medicine, are considered medical fields. This article is about the dental profession. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ...

Midlevel Practitioners
Nurse practitioners, midwives and physician assistants, treat patients and prescribe medication in many legal jurisdictions.
Veterinary Medicine
Veterinarians apply similar techniques as physicians to the care of animals. The original focus of veterinary medicine was primarily the health care of domestic animals. In recent years the discipline has broadened to include all vertebrate animals and even some of the more economically valuable or scientifically interesting invertebrates. Veterinary and human medicine had similar origins but diverged in the West largely under the influence of Christian doctrine which emphasized a fundamental difference between humans and all other species. The two disciplines re-converged to some degree after the Renaissance when scientific study of anatomy and physiology revealed undeniable similarities between humans and other animals. The similarities further extend into pathology and disease control leading the early pioneer in scientific pathology Rudolph Virchow to proclaim the doctrine of "one medicine."

Physicians have many specializations and subspecializations which are listed below. There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialities are in. Certified Nurse Practitioners (CNPs) are registered nurses who have advanced formal education and are certified as specialists in the care of patients. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... In the United States, a Physician Assistant (PA) is a health care professional licensed to practice medicine with the supervision of a licensed physician (either an M.D. or D.O.) [1] PAs are not to be confused with medical assistants, who perform administrative and clinical tasks in hospitals and... In American and Canadian English, a veterinarian (from Latin veterinae, draught animals) is an animal doctor, a practitioner of veterinary medicine. ...


Diagnostic specialties

  • Clinical laboratory sciences are the clinical diagnostic services which apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients. In the United States these services are supervised by a pathologist. The personnel that work in these medical laboratory departments are technically trained staff, each of whom usually hold a medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests, assays, and procedures needed for providing the specific services.

A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are done on biological specimens in order to get information about the health of a patient. ... Medical technology refers to the diagnostic or therapeutic application of science and technology to improve the management of health conditions. ... A medical test is any kind of diagnostic medical procedure performed for health reasons. ... An assay is a procedure where the concentration of a component part of a mixture is determined. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... “PCR” redirects here. ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH Cytogenetics is the study of the structure of chromosome material. ... A metaphase cell positive for the bcr/abl rearrangement using FISH. The chromosomes can be seen in blue. ... Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Medical ultrasonography is an ultrasound-based imaging diagnostic technique used to visualize internal organs, their size, structure and their pathological lesions. ... NMR redirects here. ... Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. ...

Clinical disciplines

Surgery being performed
  • Anesthesiology (AE) or anaesthesia (BE) is the clinical discipline concerned with providing anesthesia. Pain medicine is often practiced by specialised anesthesiologists/anesthetists.
  • Dermatology is concerned with the skin and its diseases. In the UK, dermatology is a subspeciality of general medicine.
  • Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric emergencies.
  • Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease.
  • General practice, family practice, family medicine or primary care is, in many countries, the first port-of-call for patients with non-emergency medical problems. Family practitioners are usually able to treat over 90% of all complaints without referring to specialists.[citation needed]
  • Geriatrics focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life.
  • Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Physicians whose primary professional focus is hospital medicine are called hospitalists in the USA.
  • Internal medicine is concerned with systemic diseases of adults, i.e. those diseases that affect the body as a whole (restrictive, current meaning), or with all adult non-operative somatic medicine (traditional, inclusive meaning), thus excluding pediatrics, surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, and psychiatry. There are several subdisciplines of internal medicine:

surgery from PDimages. ... surgery from PDimages. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... Pain medicine is a branch of anaesthetics concerned with the treatment of acute and chronic pain. ... Dermatology (from Greek δερμα, skin) is a branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its appendages (hair, sweat glands, etc). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Gender-based medicine or simply gender medicine is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... A general practitioner (GP) or family physician (FP) is a physician who provides primary care. ... Geriatrics is the branch of medicine that focuses on health promotion and the prevention and treatment of disease and disability in later life. ... Hospital medicine is the discipline concerned with the general medical care of hospitalized patients. ... Hospital medicine is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... Cardiology is the branch of medicine pertaining to the heart. ... Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is concerned with providing greater than ordinary medical care and observation to people in a critical or unstable condition. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Gastroenterology (MeSH heading[2] ) is the branch of medicine where the digestive system and its disorders are studied. ... Hematology (American English) or haematology (British English) is the branch of biology (physiology), pathology, clinical laboratory, internal medicine, and pediatrics that is concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... See cancer for the biology of the disease, as well as a list of malignant diseases. ... In medicine, pulmonology (aka pneumology) is the specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. ... Rheumatology, a subspecialty of internal medicine, is devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... The Human Nervous System. ... Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... The shamefulness associated with the examination of female genitalia has long inhibited the science of gynaecology. ... Obstetrics and Gynaecology (often abbreviated to OB/GYN or O&G) are the two surgical specialties dealing with the female reproductive organs, and as such are often combined to form a single medical speciality and postgraduate training program. ... Reproductive endocrinology (RE) is a medical subspecialty that addresses hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... This article is about incurable disease. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Pediatric endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing with variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, as well as diabetes and other disorders of the endocrine glands. ... Oncology is the medical study and treatment of cancer. ... Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases and vision care in children. ... Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics defined as the care of the ill or premature newborn infant. ... Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) or physiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with functional restoration of a person affected by physical disability. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... The biopsychosocial model of medicine, is a way of looking at the mind and body of a patient as two important systems that are interlinked. ... This article is about the medical term. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Behavior (U.S.) or behaviour (U.K.) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiation hazard symbol. ... Image A: A normal chest X-ray. ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... For the album by The Huntingtons, see Plastic Surgery (album). ... Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... In medicine, the field of (cardio)thoracic surgery or cardiovascular surgery is involved in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting organs inside the thorax, i. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... // Urgent care is the delivery of ambulatory care in a facility dedicated to the delivery of unscheduled, walk-in care outside of a hospital emergency department. ...

Interdisciplinary fields

Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine are:

Aviation medicine is a branch of medicine that applies medical knowledge to the human factors in aviation. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer-Earth objects and generally anything that involves the technologies, science, and politics regarding space endeavors. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Dictionary Collection of links to free medical resources Categories: Medicine | Health ... Conservation medicine is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. ... // Disaster Medicine is the area of physician medical specialization serving the duel areas of providing medical care to disaster survivors and providing medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery leadership throughout the disaster life cycle. ... Diving medicine is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of conditions caused by humans entering the undersea environment. ... Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the medical use of oxygen at a higher than atmospheric pressure. ... Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the field of knowledge that integrates medicine with evolutionary biology, more specifically with the adaptationist program. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... This article is about law in society. ... Keraunomedicine is the medical study of lightning casualties. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities (literature, philosophy, ethics, history and religion), social science (anthropology, cultural studies, psychology, sociology), and the arts (literature, theater, film, and visual arts) and their application to medical education and practice. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... For other usages see Theatre (disambiguation) Theater (American English) or Theatre (British English and widespread usage among theatre professionals in the US) is that branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound and spectacle &#8212... This article is about motion pictures. ... The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the discipline that exists at the intersection of information technology and medicine. ... Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the application of information technology to healthcare. ... eHealth (also written e-health) is a relatively recent term for health care practice which is supported by electronic processes and communication, some people would argue the term is interchangeable with Health care informatics. ... This article is about the machine. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... ... // What is occupational medicine Occupational medicine is the branch of clinical medicine most active in the field of occupational health. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a drugs efficacy or toxicity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A sportsperson (British and American English) or athlete (principally American English) is any person who participates regularly in a sport. ... Look up amateur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about people called professionals. ... In sports, a coach or manager is an individual involved in the direction and instruction of the on-field operations of an athletic team or of individual athletes. ... Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Dictionary Collection of links to free medical resources Categories: Medicine | Health ... Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers. ...

Medical education

An image of a 1901 examination in the faculty of medicine.
An image of a 1901 examination in the faculty of medicine.

Medical education is education connected to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a physician or further training thereafter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x768, 177 KB) Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) 1901 examination at faculty of medicine File links The following pages link to this file: Medicine Postgraduate education Medical school ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (955x768, 177 KB) Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) 1901 examination at faculty of medicine File links The following pages link to this file: Medicine Postgraduate education Medical school ... Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner, either the initial training to become a doctor or further training thereafter. ... Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ...


Medical education and training varies considerably across the world, however typically involves entry level education at a university medical school, followed by a period of supervised practice (Internship and/or Residency) and possibly postgraduate vocational training. Continuing medical education is a requirement of many regulatory authorities. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A medical school or faculty of medicine is a tertiary educational institution or part of such an institution that teaches medicine. ... A medical intern, in the context of medical education in the United States, is a historical term for a physician in training who has completed medical school, passed step two of the USMLE or COMLEX-USA, and is undergoing his or her first year of post-graduate training (PGY1). ... Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America and leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ... Continuing medical education (CME) is a form of continuing professional development (CPD) that consists of educational activities which serve to maintain, develop, or increase the knowledge, skills, and professional performance and relationships that a medical practitioner uses to provide services for patients, the public, or the profession [1]. The content...


Various teaching methodologies have been utilised in medical education, which is an active area of educational research.


Presently, in England, a typical medicine course at university is 5 years (4 if the student already holds a degree). Amongst some institutions and for some students, it may be 6 years (including the selection of an intercalated BSc - taking one year - at some point after the pre-clinical studies). This is followed by 2 Foundation years afterwards, namely F1 and F2. Students register with the UK General Medical Council at the end of F1. At the end of F2, they may pursue further years of study.


In the USA, a potential medical student must first complete an undergraduate degree (Typically a BSc with a major in biology, biochemistry or medical science), before applying to a graduate medical school to pursue an (M.D.) program. BSC is an abbreviation for: Bachelor of Science (usually written BSc), an academic science degree Base Station Controller, a subsystem in a GSM mobile phone network Binary symmetric channel in coding theory Binary Synchronous Communications, a data link protocol developed by IBM in the 1960s In medical literature: best supportive... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ...


In Australia, students have two options. They can choose to take an accelerated six-year undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) straight from high school, or complete a bachelors degree (usually in the medical sciences) and then apply for a four year graduate entry Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) program. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated MB BChir, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, MB BS etc. ... Graduate Medical Program (GMP) or sometimes also known as Graduate Entry Program (GEP) are terms generally used outside of North America to refer to medical programs usually of 4-years duration where applicants are university graduates who have taken aptitude tests such as the GAMSAT or MCAT. These tests are... Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinæ Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiæ (abbreviated MB BChir, MB BCh, MB ChB, BM BS, MB BS etc. ...


Legal restrictions

In most countries, it is a legal requirement for medical doctors to be licensed or registered. In general, this entails a medical degree from a university and accreditation by a medical board or an equivalent national organization, which may ask the applicant to pass exams. This restricts the considerable legal authority of the medical profession to physicians that are trained and qualified by national standards. It is also intended as an assurance to patients and as a safeguard against charlatans that practice inadequate medicine for personal gain. While the laws generally require medical doctors to be trained in "evidence based", Western, or Hippocratic Medicine, they are not intended to discourage different paradigms of health. Look up Charlatan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hippocrates: a conventionalized image in a Roman portrait bust (19th century engraving) Hippocrates of Cos (c. ...


Criticism

Criticism of medicine has a long history. In the Middle Ages, some people did not consider it a profession suitable for Christians, as disease was often considered God-sent. God was considered to be the 'divine physician' who sent illness or healing depending on his will. However, many monastic orders, particularly the Benedictines, considered the care of the sick as their chief work of mercy. Barber-surgeons generally had a bad reputation that was not to improve until the development of academic surgery as a speciality of medicine, rather than an accessory field. [citation needed] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... Barbers were often recruited for the job of surgery in earlier military history. ...


Through the course of the twentieth century, healthcare providers focused increasingly on the technology that was enabling them to make dramatic improvements in patients' health. The ensuing development of a more mechanistic, detached practice, with the perception of an attendant loss of patient-focused care, known as the medical model of health, led to further criticisms. This issue started to reach collective professional consciousness in the 1970s and the profession had begun to respond by the 1980s and 1990s. [citation needed] Medical model is the term (cited by psychiatrist Ronald D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays) for the set of procedures in which all doctors are trained. ...


The noted anarchist Ivan Illich heavily criticized modern medicine. In his 1976 work Medical Nemesis, Illich stated that modern medicine only medicalises disease and causes loss of health and wellness, while generally failing to restore health by eliminating disease. This medicalisation of disease forces the human to become a lifelong patient.[5] Other less radical philosophers have voiced similar views, but none were as virulent as Illich. Another example can be found in Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology by Neil Postman, 1992, which criticises overreliance on technological means in medicine. [citation needed] This article is about the Austrian philosopher. ... Wellness may mean: Wellness (alternative medicine) - Here, wellness is generally used to mean a healthy balance of the mind-body and spirit that results in an overall feeling of well-being. ... Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 - October 5, 2003) was a prominent American educator, media theorist, and cultural critic. ...


Criticism of modern medicine has led to some improvements in the curricula of medical schools,[citation needed] which now teach students systematically on medical ethics, holistic approaches to medicine, the biopsychosocial model and similar concepts. Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... Holistic health is a philosophy which promotes wholeness over the reductionism and dualism of conventional Western medicine. ... please be mindful of the scientific process - if you are going to edit, hold you bias in check and provide citations! The biopsychosocial model is a general model that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors) and social factors (abbreviated BPS) all play a significant role in...


The inability of modern medicine to properly address some common complaints continues to prompt many people to seek support from alternative medicine. Although most alternative approaches lack scientific validation, some may be effective in individual cases. Some physicians combine alternative medicine with orthodox approaches. Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ...


Medical errors and overmedication are also the focus of many complaints and negative coverage. Practitioners of human factors engineering believe that there is much that medicine may usefully gain by emulating concepts in aviation safety, where it was long ago realized that it is dangerous to place too much responsibility on one "superhuman" individual and expect him or her not to make errors. Reporting systems and checking mechanisms are becoming more common in identifying sources of error and improving practice. See also preventable medical errors In the United States medical error is estimated to result in 44,000 to 98,000 unnecessary deaths and 1,000,000 excess injuries each year. ... Overmedication is when a doctor prescribes unnecessary or excessive medication to a patient. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... During the 1920s, the first laws were passed in the USA to regulate civil aviation. ... For other uses, see Error (disambiguation). ...


See also

Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... In public health, a big killer is a disease or other major cause of loss of human life. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Working together as an interdisciplinary team, many highly trained health professionals besides medical practitioners are involved in the delivery of modern health care. ... In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... A listing of diseases. ... // Adenoid disorders Adrenal disorders Allergic disorders Anorectal disorders Anxiety disorders Appendix disorders Articulation disorders Autonomic nerve disorders Balance disorders Behavioral disorders Bleeding disorders Cartilage disorders Cephalic disorders Chromosomal disorders Clotting disorders Communication disorders Conjunctival disorders Connective tissue disorders Cornea disorders Delusional disorders Depressive disorders Disc disorders Dissociative disorders Digestive disorders... This is a list of medical acronyms and abbreviations. ... It has been suggested that Medical Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms be merged into this article or section. ... This article is a list of medical schools by region and country. ... Foundations De Materia Medica Author: Pedanius Dioscorides Publication data: De Materia Medica, 50–70 Online version: Online version of first volume Description: This five-volume work was a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias. ... Medical Dictionary is a lexicon for words used in medicine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... A medical journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of medicine. ... Medicalization means an expansion of the medical institution and reviewing deviance and all the processes of human life from a medical perspective. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... This article is about large epidemics. ... A patient having his blood pressure taken by a doctor. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... For other uses, see Doctor. ... A rare disease (sometimes known as an orphan disease) has such a low prevalence in a population that a doctor in a busy general practice would not expect to see more than one case a year. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Traumatology (from Greek Trauma meaning injury or wound) is the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or violence to a person, and the surgical treatment and repair of the damage. ...

References

  1. ^ Etymology: Latin: medicina, from ars medicina "the medical art," from medicus "physician."(Etym.Online) Cf. mederi "to heal," etym. "know the best course for," from PIE base *med- "to measure, limit. Cf. Greek medos "counsel, plan," Avestan vi-mad "physician")
  2. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=medicine
  3. ^ AHIMA e-HIM Work Group on the Legal Health Record. (2005). "Update: Guidelines for Defining the Legal Health Record for Disclosure Purposes.". Journal of AHIMA 78 (8): 64A–G. 
  4. ^ Coulehan JL, Block MR (2005). The Medical Interview: Mastering Skills for Clinical Practice, 5th ed., F. A. Davis. ISBN 0-8036-1246-X. 
  5. ^ Ivan Illich (1976). Medical Nemesis. ISBN 0-394-71245-5 ISBN 0-7145-1095-5 ISBN 0-7145-1096-3. 

Ars is a slang Israeli term for a person of bad manners, flashy jewelry, and overall rudeness. ... See Pie (disambiguation) for other uses of PIE. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... This article is about the Austrian philosopher. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Institute of Medicine (197 words)
The Institute of Medicine serves as adviser to the nation to improve health.
Established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine provides independent, objective, evidence-based advice to policymakers, health professionals, the private sector, and the public.
The mission of the Institute of Medicine embraces the health of people everywhere.
Medicine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4387 words)
Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.
Medicine as it is practiced now developed largely in the late 18th and early 19th century in England (William Harvey), Germany (Rudolf Virchow) and France (Jean-Martin Charcot, Claude Bernard and others).
Evidence-based medicine is a recent movement to establish the most effective algorithms of practice (ways of doing things) through the use of the scientific method and modern global information science by collating all the evidence and developing standard protocols which are then disseminated to doctors.
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