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Encyclopedia > Medici
Medici

Money to get power, and power to guard the money
Information
Notable members Cosimo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
Leo X
Catherine
Clement VII
Leo XI

The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. The family produced three popes (Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI), numerous rulers of Florence (notably Lorenzo the Magnificent, patron of some of the most famous works of renaissance art), and later members of the French and English royalty. Like other Signore families they dominated their city's government. They were able to bring Florence under their family's power, allowing for an environment where art and humanism could flourish. They led the birth of the Italian Renaissance along with the other great signore families of Italy like the Visconti and Sforza families of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, the Gonzaga of Mantua, and others. Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Leo XI, né Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (June 2, 1535, Florence – April 27, 1605, Rome), was Pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Leo XI, né Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (June 2, 1535, Florence – April 27, 1605, Rome), was Pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... A Signore was the unofficial head of state in the Italian city-states. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... A Signore was the unofficial head of state in the Italian city-states. ... Coat of Arms of the Visconti of Milan depicting the biscione, a serpent who appears to be swallowing a human, but is actually giving birth to it. ... Map of Italy in 1494. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For Tolkiens fictional character, see Estë To know more about the city, see Este The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ... The Gonzaga family ruled Mantua in Northern Italy from 1328 to 1708. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ...


The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected in Europe. There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. From this base, the family acquired political power initially in Florence, and later in wider Italy and Europe. A notable contribution to the profession of accounting was the improvement of the general ledger system through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. This system was first used by accountants working for the Medici family in Florence. The Medici Bank (1397 – 1494) was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during the 15th century. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... In accountancy, the double-entry bookkeeping (or double-entry accounting) system is the basis of the standard system used by businesses and other organizations to record financial transactions. ...

Contents

History

The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region, north of Florence, being mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230[citation needed]. Mugello is a landscape north of Florence in northern Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ...


The origin of the name is uncertain although its Italian meaning is "medical doctor". Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medicis in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt, and one Antonio was sentenced to death in 1396. The involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florence's politics for twenty years, with the exception of two: from one of the latter, that of Averardo (Bicci) de' Medici, originated the Medici dynasty. For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... The Albizzi family was a Florentine family based in Arezzo and rivals of the Medici and Alberti families. ... Strozzi, the name of an ancient and noble Florentine family, which was already famous in the 14th century. ... Salvestro Alammano de Medici (1331-1388) was a former Gonfaloniere and Provost of the city of Florence. ... In late medieval Florence, the disenfranchised ciompi (wool carders) were a class of labourers in the textile industry who were not represented by any guild. ...


Averardo's son, Giovani di Bicci, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city. Although never held any political charge, he gained a strong popular support to the family when he supported the introduction of a proportional taxing system. Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (1360 – February 20 or February 28, 1429) was the founder of the famous and powerful Medici dynasty of Florence and the Medici bank; father of Cosimo de Medici (Pater Patriae), and great-grandfather of Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnificent). ... The Medici Bank (1397 – 1494) was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during the 15th century. ...


His son Cosimo the Elder took over in 1434 as gran maestro, and the Medici became unofficial heads of state of the Florentine republic.[1] Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... A Gran maestro is the unofficial head of state of an Italian city. ...

The "senior" branch of the family — those descended from Cosimo the Elder — ruled until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This century-long rule was only interrupted on two occasions (between 1494–1512 and 1527–1530), when popular revolts sent the Medici into exile. Power then passed to the "junior" branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, younger son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I the Great. The Medici's rise to power was chronicled in detail by Benedetto Dei. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2536 × 2525 pixel, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2536 × 2525 pixel, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Piero de Medici (the Gouty), Italian Piero il Gottoso (1416 – December 2, 1469), was the de facto ruler of Florence from 1464 to 1469, during the Italian Renaissance. ... Botticelli redirects here. ... The Madonna of the Magnificat (Italian: Madonna del Magnificat) is a painting by the Italian Renaissance master Sandro Botticelli, executed in 1481. ... This article is on the first Duke of Florence. ... Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434-1531 Cosimo de Medici 1434-1464 Piero I de Medici 1464-1469 (The Gouty) Lorenzo I de Medici 1469-1492 (The Magnificent) Giuliano de Medici 1469-1478 Piero II de Medici 1492-1494 Republic restored 1494-1512 Cardinal Giovanni de Medici 1512-1513 Lorenzo... Ya ... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519 – April 21, 1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ... Benedetto Dei (1417-1492) was an Italian poet and historian. ...


Cosimo and his father started the Medici foundations in banking, manufacturing - including a form of franchises - wealth, art, cultural patronage, and in the Papacy that ensured their success for generations. At least half, probably more, of Florence’s people were employed by them and their foundational branches in business.


15th century

Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.
Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

Piero de' Medici (1416-1469), Cosimo’s son, stayed in power for only five years (1464-1469). He was called Piero the Gouty because of the gout that infected his foot, and it eventually led to his death. He had little interest for the arts as his father had. Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore had done little to further the Medici control of Florence while in power. As such, Medici rule stagnated until his grandson Lorenzo took over. Lorenzo de' Medici “the Magnificent” (1449-1492), was more capable of leading and ruling a city. However, “Magnificent” was a common title and essentially does not mean anything special in itself. He showed his children great love and affection, too. To ensure the continuance of his success, Lorenzo perceived his children’s abilities and planned their futures and careers for them. He predicted, or rather forced, Piero II to be headstrong, Giovanni a scholar, and Giuliano--not to be confused with Lorenzo’s brother who had the same first name--good. Giuliano, Lorenzo’s brother, was assassinated in church on Easter Sunday (1478). Lorenzo adopted Giuliano’s illegitimate son, Giulio de' Medici (1478-1535), the future Clement VII. The incompetent Piero II took over as the head of Florence after his father’s, Lorenzos', death. Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from 1494-1512. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x629, 144 KB) Benozzo Gozzolis Journey of the Magi, in the Medici-Ricardo Palace, Florence (1459–61) Source: http://paradoxplace. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x629, 144 KB) Benozzo Gozzolis Journey of the Magi, in the Medici-Ricardo Palace, Florence (1459–61) Source: http://paradoxplace. ... Three Kings, or Three Wise Men redirects here. ... Benozzo Gozzoli: a self-portrait which appears in his fresco of the Procession of the Magi. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Piero de Medici by Agnolo Bronzino. ...


The Medici remained masters of Italy through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII, who were de facto rulers of both Rome and Florence. They were both patrons of the arts, but in the religious field they proved unable to stem the advance of Martin Luther's ideas. Another Medici became Pope: Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (Leo XI). Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (2 June 1535—27 April 1605), was pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ...


The most outstanding figure of the 16th century Medici was Cosimo I, who, coming from a retire in the Mugello, rose to supremacy in the whole of Tuscany, conquering the Florentines' most hated rival Siena and founding the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519 – April 21, 1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ... The mugello is a landscape north of Florence. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ...


Art and architecture

The most significant accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture. The Medici were responsible for the majority of Florentine art during their reign. Their money was significant because during this period, artists generally only made their works when they received commissions and advance payments. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence in 1419. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico. The most significant addition to the list over the years was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564), who produced work for a number of Medici, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent. Lorenzo commissioned him often, even as a child, and was extremely fond of him. Lorenzo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) for seven years. Lorenzo also was an artist of poetry and song. Later, Pope Leo X would chiefly commission Raphael (1483-1520) — "the Prince of Painters." Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel; the de' Medici family oversaw the construction of the Sistine Chapel as well. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Masaccio (born Tommaso Cassai or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone; December 21, 1401 – autumn 1428), was the first great painter of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance. ... Sculpture of Brunelleschi looking at the dome in Florence Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – April 15, 1446) was one of the foremost architects of the Italian Renaissance. ... Exterior from the Piazza San Lorenzo. ... Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... Statue of Habacuc (popularly known as Zuccone) for the Giottos Bell Tower. ... The Virgin of the Annunciation Fra Angelico (c. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... -1...


Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities (February 7, 1497). The following year, on May 23, 1498, Savonarola and his two young supporters were hanged in the public square, the same location as his bonfire. Girolamo Savonarola by Fra Bartolomeo, c. ... Bonfire of the Vanities refers to an event on 7 February 1497 when followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence. The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ...


In architecture, the Medici are responsible for some notable features of Florence; including the Uffizi Gallery, the Pitti Palace, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, and the Palazzo Medici. The narrow courtyard between the Uffizis two wings creates the effect of a short, idealized street. ... Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... The Boboli Gardens is a famous park in Florence, Italy that is home to a small but distinguished collection of sculptures. ... Fort Belvedere (often called simply the Belvedere) was built by Grand Duke Ferdinando I de Medici during the period 1590-1595, with Bernardo Buontalenti as the designer, to protect Florence and the Medici rule thereover. ... Courtyard of Palazzo Medici Riccardi. ...


Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici children, and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored. Galileo redirects here. ... Ferdinando II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. ... The Roman Inquisition began in 1542 when Pope Paul III established the Holy Office as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...

Buonaccorso Pitti was a prominent Florentine merchant in the 14th century. ... Giorgio Vasari (30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, who is today famous for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. ... Michelangelos David in the Tribuna that was built especially to house it. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Marie de Medici Cycle is a series of twenty-four paintings by Peter Paul Rubens commissioned by the wife of King Henri IV of France, Queen Marie de Medici, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. ... Luxembourg Palace The Luxembourg Palace in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Luxembourg Garden, is where the French Senate meets. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ...

Notable members

Salvestro Alammano de Medici (1331-1388) was a former Gonfaloniere and Provost of the city of Florence. ... In late medieval Florence, the disenfranchised ciompi (wool carders) were a class of labourers in the textile industry who were not represented by any guild. ... Giovanni di Bicci de Medici (1360 – February 20 or February 28, 1429) was the founder of the famous and powerful Medici dynasty of Florence and the Medici bank; father of Cosimo de Medici (Pater Patriae), and great-grandfather of Lorenzo de Medici (the Magnificent). ... Jacopo Pontormo: posthumous portrait of Cosimo de Medici, 1518-1519: the laurel branch, il Broncone, was an impresa used also by his heirs. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Cosimo I de Medici in Armour by Agnolo Bronzino Cosimo I de Medici (June 12, 1519 – April 21, 1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days of the Renaissance. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519 – January 5, 1589) was born in Florence, Italy, as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici. ... Leo XI, né Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (June 2, 1535, Florence – April 27, 1605, Rome), was Pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Anna Maria Luisa de Medici, (1667-1743), was the last of the Medicis. ...

See also

The Albizzi family was a Florentine family based in Arezzo and rivals of the Medici and Alberti families. ...

References

  1. ^ Bradley, Richard (executive producer). (2003). The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (Part I) [DVD]. PBS Home Video.

DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...

Text

  • Miles J. Unger, "Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo de Medici" (Simon and Schuster 2008) is a vividly colorful new biography of this true "renaissance man", the uncrowned ruler of Florence during its golden age
  • Christopher Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (Morrow, 1975) is a highly readable, non-scholarly general history of the family
  • Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (Frederick Ungar, 1936) is the standard overall history of Florence
  • Paul Strathern, The Medici - Godfathers of the Renaissance (Pimlico, 2005) is an informative and lively account of the Medici family, their finesse and foibles - extremely readable, though very homophobic and full of typographical errors.
  • Lauro Martines, "April Blood - Florence and the Plot Against the Medici" (Oxford University Press 2003) a detailed account of the Pazzi Conspiracy, the players, the politics of the day, and the fallout of the assassination plot . Though accurate in historic details, Martines writes with a definite 'anti-Medici' tone.
  • Accounting in Italy
  • Herbert Millingchamp Vaughan, The Medici Popes. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1908.
  • Jonathan Zophy, A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation Europe, Dances over Fire and Water. 1996. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003.

Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ... Paul Strathern (1940-) is a British writer and academic. ...

Documentaries

  • TLC/Peter Spry-Leverton.PSL, The Mummy Detectives: The Crypt Of The Medici One-hour documentary. Italian specialists, joined by mummy expert and TLC presenter Dr. Bob Brier exhume the bodies of Italy's ancient first family and use the latest forensic tools to investigate how they lived and died. Airs on Discovery Channel.
  • "Among the Medici" (3-part radio series). BBC Radio 4 (2006).

old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
House of Medici
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

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