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Encyclopedia > Medication

A medication, medicines or drug is any substance or combination of substances which may be used in or administered to human beings or animals with a view to treating or preventing disease or to making a medical diagnosis. Commercial medications are produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented. Copies of former patented drugs are called generic drugs. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... A blockbuster drug is a drug generating more than $1 billion of revenue for its owner each year. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... A generic drug (pl. ...

Contents

Medication guide

Medication guide is given by the pharmacist with every prescription. It generally includes description, clinical pharmacology (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics), clinical trials, indications and usage, contraindications, warnings, precautions, adverse reactions, dosage and administration, overdosage, how supplied, storage, revision date and manufacturer and distributor. The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Look up prescription in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Clinical pharmacology is studying pharmacology in relation to clinical science. ... Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: pharmacon meaning drug, and kinetikos meaning putting in motion) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. ... Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is the application of the scientific method to human health. ... An indication is when something is indicated by methods of a reference. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ... Look up warning in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... In pharmacology an effective dose is the amount of drug that produces a therapeutic response in 50% of the people taking it. ... A drug overdose occurs when a drug is ingested in quantities and/or concentrations large enough to overwhelm the homeostasis of a living organism, causing severe illness or death. ... How supplied is a section in medication guides that refers to the medication form. ... Look up storage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Revision in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... Distributor cap. ...


Classification

Medication can be usually classified in various ways, e.g. by its chemical properties, mode of administration, or biological system affected. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System(ATC system). The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ...


Types of medication

For the gastrointestinal tract or digestive system

Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... A reflux suppressant is any one of a number of drugs used to combat oesophageal reflux. ... An antiflatulent agent is a drug used for the alleviation or prevention of excessive intestinal gas, i. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2-antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... A cytoprotectant is any drug that combats ulcers not by reducing gastric acid but by increasing mucosal protection. ... Synthetic prostaglandin analogues, mainly misoprostol, are used in treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... An antispasmodic is a drug that suppresses smooth muscle contraction, especially in tubular organs. ... An antidiarrhoeal drug is the term used for any drug which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. ... In pharmacology, bile acid sequestrants a group of medication used for binding bile in the gastrointestinal tract. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ...

For the cardiovascular system

The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs with effects on many excitable cells of the body, like the muscle of the heart, smooth muscles of the vessels or neuron cells. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Cardiac glycosides are drugs used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. ... Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. ... Vasoconstriction is the constriction of blood vessels, in other words, when the lumen narrows. ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Losartan, the first ARB Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), AT1-receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block alpha-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... The fibrinolytics are a class of pharmaceuticals that act as thrombolytics by activating plasminogen to form plasmin. ... Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential clotting factor. ... The hypolipidaemic agents are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in treatment of hyperlipidemias. ... Lovastatin, the first statin to be marketed The statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) form a class of hypolipidemic agents, used as pharmaceutical agents to lower cholesterol levels in people with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. ...

For the central nervous system

See also: Psychiatric medication

hypnotic, anaesthetics, antipsychotic, antidepressant (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, lithium salt, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), anti-emetic, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic, anxiolytic, barbiturate, movement disorder drug, stimulant (including amphetamines), benzodiazepine, cyclopyrrolone, dopamine antagonist, antihistamine, cholinergic, anticholinergic, emetic, cannabinoids, 5-HT antagonist A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Psychopharmacology is the study of the effects of any psychoactive drug that acts upon the mind by affecting brain chemistry. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... A recent form of antidepressant medication - Prozac Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, in the most common usage, is a psychiatric medication taken to alleviate clinical depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of antidepressant drugs first used in the 1950s. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood stabilizing drugs. ... Serotonin Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders and some personality disorders. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as, beta-phenyl-isopropylamine, and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered as minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are brought on by slowing down the central nervous system. ... A dopamine antagonist is a drug which blocks dopamine receptors (of which there are five types in the human body; they are found in the brain, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels, and the kidney). ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ...


For pain & consciousness (analgesic drugs)

Further information: Analgesic

The main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs, opioids and various orphans such as paracetamol, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants. An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain and to achieve analgesia. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ...


For musculo-skeletal disorders

NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors), muscle relaxant, neuromuscular drug
anticholinesterase The muscular system is the biological system of an organism that allows it to move. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... An anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ...


For the eye

A human eye Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. ... i suck A bottle of tannic acid, an astringent Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. ... A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Parasympathetic nervous system. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Sign (medicine) ... Cycloplegia is the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a loss of accommodation. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Imidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Polyenes are poly-unsaturated organic compounds that contain one or more sequences of alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Beta blockers (sometimes written as β-blockers) are a class of drugs used for various indications, but particularly for the management of cardiac arrhythmias and cardioprotection after myocardial infarction. ... Hyperosmotic ...a term describing organisms with body fluids with a lower concentration of water and higher solute concentration than the external environment. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... A miotic substances causes the constriction of the pupil of the eye ... A parasympathomimetic is a drug or poison that acts by stimulating or mimicking the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ...

For the ear, nose and oropharynx

sympathomimetic, antihistamine, anticholinergic, NSAIDs, steroid, antiseptic, local anesthetic, antifungal, cerumenolyti The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ...


For the respiratory system

bronchodilator, NSAIDs, anti-allergic, antitussive, mucolytic, decongestant
corticosteroid, beta-receptor antagonist, anticholinergic, steroid The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... A cough medicine is a drug used to treat coughing and related conditions. ... Any agent which dissolves thick mucus to help relieve respiratory difficulties. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ...


For endocrine problems

androgen, antiandrogen, gonadotropin, corticosteroid, growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetic (sulfonylurea, biguanide/metformin, thiazolidinedione, insulin), thyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs, calcitonin, diphosponate, vasopressin analogues The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... An antiandrogen, or androgen antagonist, is any of a group of hormone antagonist compounds that are capable of preventing or inhibiting the biologic effects of androgens, male sex hormones, on normally responsive tissues in the body (see androgen insensitivity syndrome). ... Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... An anti-diabetic drug is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... Sulfonylurea derivatives are a class of antidiabetic drugs that are used in the management of diabetes mellitus type 2 (adult-onset). They act by increasing insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas. ... Biguanides (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... Metformin (INN; trade names Glucophage, Diabex, Diaformin, Fortamet, Riomet, Glumetza and others) is an anti-diabetic drug from the biguanide class of oral hypoglycemic agents. ... The medication class of thiazolidinedione was introduced in the late 1990s as an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus (type II) and related diseases. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body. ... In pharmacology, bisphosphonates (also called: diphosphonates) is a class of drugs that inhibits the resorption of bone. ... Vasopressin analogues are chemicals similar in function but not necessarily similar in structure to vasopressin (ADH), such as desmopressin. ...


For the reproductive system or urinary system

antifungal, alkalising agent, quinolones, antibiotic, cholinergic, anticholinergic, anticholinesterase, antispasmodic, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, selective alpha-1 blocker, sildenafil The reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Excretory system. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... An anticholinesterase is a chemical that inhibits a cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... An antispasmodic is a drug that suppresses smooth muscle contraction, especially in tubular organs. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ...


For contraception

Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Spermicide is a substance that kills sperm, inserted vaginally prior to intercourse to prevent pregnancy. ...

For obstetrics and gynecology

NSAIDs, anticholinergic, haemostatic drug, antifibrinolytic, Hormone Replacement Therapy, bone regulator, beta-receptor agonist, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH
gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine agonist, oestrogen, prostaglandin, gonadorelin, clomiphene, tamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol Obstetrics and gynaecology (often abbreviated Ob-Gyn in the US and O&G elsewhere) form a single medical specialty and have a combined postgraduate training program. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a system of medical treatment for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, based on the assumption that it may prevent discomfort and health problems caused by diminished circulating estrogen hormones. ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone released by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and that influences the release of luteinizing hormone in the pituitary gland. ... Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 fatty acid that exists primarily in plant fats. ... Progestagens (also spelled progestogens or gestagens) are hormones similar in effect to progesterone, the only natural progestagen. ... Dopamine agonist is a synthetic drug that mimics the effect of the neurotransmitter dopamine. ... Estriol. ... Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. ... Categories: Stub | Selective estrogen receptor modulators ... Tamoxifen is an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator which is used in breast cancer treatment, and is currently the worlds largest selling breast cancer treatment. ... Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a drug, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen that was first synthesized in 1938. ...


For the skin

emollient, anti-pruritic, antifungal, disinfectant, scabicide, pediculicide, tar products, vitamin A derivatives, vitamin D analogue, keratolytic, abrasive, systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic, hormones, desloughing agent, exudate absorbent, fibrinolytic, proteolytic, sunscreen, antiperspirant, corticosteroid Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... Emollients soften skin (and moisturisers add moisture). ... Antipruritic is a drug which reduces pruritis, or itching. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Keratolytic (ker-uh-toe-lih-tik) therapy is treatment to remove warts. ... An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish (see metal polishing and wood finishing) a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Norepinephrine A hormone (from Greek όρμή - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... The fibrinolytics are a class of pharmaceuticals that act as thrombolytics by activating plasminogen to form plasmin. ... Proteolysis is the directed degradation (digestion) of proteins by cellular enzymes called proteases or by intramolecular digestion. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, with the goal lowering your risk of skin cancer. ... Deodorants are cosmetic substances applied to the body, most frequently the armpits, to reduce the odor of perspiration. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...


For infections and infestations

antibiotic, antifungal, antileprotic, antituberculous drug, antimalarial, anthelmintic, amoebicide, antiviral, antiprotozoal Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Something antifungal kills or inhibits the growth of fungus. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ...


For immunology

vaccine, immunoglobulin, immunosuppressant, interferon, monoclonal antibody Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ...


For allergic disorders

anti-allergic, antihistamine, NSAIDs An allergy is an abnormal, acquired sensitivity to a given substance, including pollen, drugs, or numerous environmental triggers. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...


For nutrition

tonic, iron preparation, electrolyte, parenteral nutritional supplement, vitamins, anti-obesity drug, anabolic drug, haematopoietic drug, food product drug An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Anti-obesity drugs include all pharmacological treatments intended to reduce or control weight. ...


For neoplastic disorders

cytotoxic drug, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitor, somatostatin inhibitor, recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin Neoplasia (new growth in Greek) is abnormal proliferation of cells in a tissue or organ. ... Chemotherapy (pronounced keem-o-therapy) is the use of certain drugs to treat disease, as distinct from other forms of treatment, such as surgery. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer in post- menopausal women. ... Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes, hence the -leukin) as a means of communication (inter-). The name is sort of a relic though; it has since been found that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of bodily... Insert non-formatted text hereGranulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ...


For diagnostics

contrast media Radiocontrast agents (or simply contrast agents) are compounds used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in an X-ray image. ...


For euthanasia

A euthanaticum is used for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, see also barbiturates. Euthanasia (from Ancient Greek: ευθανασία, good death) is the practice of ending the life of a terminally ill person in a painless or minimally painful way, for the purpose of limiting suffering. ... Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ...


Euthanasia is not permitted by law in many countries, and consequently medicines will not be licenesed for this use in those countries.


Legal Considerations

Medications may be divided into over-the-counter drugs (OTC) which may be available without special restrictions, and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The precise distinction between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... A prescription drug (or POM Prescription Only Medicine, in UK) is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations imposes a world law of prohibition of certain medications. They publish a lengthy list of chemicals and plants whose trade and consumption (where applicable) is forbidden. OTC medications are sold without restriction as they are considered safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves accidentally by taking it as instructed. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom have a third category of pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. Mr. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ...


Other/related topics

Polypharmacy: suggests that multiple use of prescribed and non-prescribed medications, (use of 5 or more), can have adverse effects on the recipient. The term polypharmacy generally refers to the use of multiple-medications by a patient. ...


Zoopharmacognosy: Animal usage of drugs and non-foods. Zoopharmacognosy is the use of drugs by animals. ...


See also

Compliance (or Adherence) in a medical context refers to a patient both agreeing to and then undergoing some part of their treatment program as advised by their doctor or other healthcare worker. ... Dioscorides’ Materia Medica, c. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... // In its original application, nocebo had a very specific meaning in the medical domains of pharmacology, and nosology, and aetiology. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... “Placebo effect” redirects here. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Escherichia coli bacteria, which are often utilized in production of pharmaceutical products. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... This multi-page article lists drugs alphabetically by name. ...

External links

  • WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
  • Database of registered pharmaceuticals in Hong Kong
  • Consumer drug information from the FDA
  • Innovation's list of important pharmaceutical discoverers since 1987
  • Medicine at the Open Directory Project
  • IPHA Medicines Compendium
  • The Pharma Guide of Pakistan
  • Medicines: Do's and Don'ts
  • Medicines: What you should know about them

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