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Encyclopedia > Medical research

Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. Medical research can be divided into two general categories; new treatments that are tested in clinical trials, and all other research contributing to the development of new treatments. For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... This article is about the field of medical practice and health care. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ...

Contents


New treatments

These refer to any form of previously untested treatment for a particular pathology. This can take the form of a new surgical procedure, a new drug, or a new treatment regimen. These are extensively tested in clinical trials prior to widespread use. Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... A thoracic surgeon performs a mitral valve replacement at the Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, November 1990. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ...


Other research

New treatments come about as a result of other, earlier discoveries - often unconnected to each other, and in various fields. Sometimes the research is done for non-medical purposes, and only by accident contributes to the field of medicine (see also antibiotic, penicillin). Clinicians use these discoveries to create a treatment regimen, which is then tested in clinical trials. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


If these trials have been well designed and are successfully duplicated by independent laboratories or field trials, then the papers can be reviewed by an independent body such as the Cochrane Collaboration to serve as an authoritative source of clinical guidance. Regrettably the majority [1] of research trails published today are done or sponsored by the very same companies who have developed the drug or medical device. Moreover they are frequently poorly designed and executed and exhibit bias[2] therefore most papers should not be taken too seriously. Although each new publication of a survey is often greeted with a sycophantic fanfare of trumpet blowing, few thoughtful and clued up[3] clinicians would change their treatment protocols solely on the bases of just a few research papers[4]. Thus, doctors have expressed their despair when patients bring in printouts of the latest research downloaded from the internet with the high expectation that it will make a significant difference. The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ...


Funding

Research funding in many countries comes from research bodies which distribute cash for equipment and salaries. In the UK, funding bodies such as the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust derive their assets from UK tax payers, and distribute this to institutions in a competitive manner. Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both hard science and technology, and social science. ... Current MRC logo The Medical Research Council (MRC) is a UK organisation dedicated to promot[ing] the balanced development of medical and related biological research in the UK. Organisation The MRC is one of seven Research Councils and is answerable to, although politically independent from, the Office of Science and... New Wellcome Trust building on Euston Road The Wellcome Trust is a United Kingdom-based charity established in 1936 to administer the fortune of the American-born pharmaceutical magnate Sir Henry Wellcome. ...


In the United States, the most recent data from 2003 [5] suggest that about 94 billion dollars were provided for biomedical research in the United States. The National Institute of Health and pharmaceutical companies collectively contribute 26.4 billion dollars and 27.0 billion dollars, respectively, which constitute 28% and 29% of the total, respectively. Other significant contributors include biotechnology companies (17.9 billion dollars, 19% of total), medical device companies (9.2 billion dollars, 10% of total), other federal sources, and state and local governments. Foundations and charities, led by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, contributed about 3% of the funding. The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ... A pharmaceutical company (or drug company) is a company licensed to discover, develop, market and distribute drugs. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... // European Definition COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 93/42/EEC of 14 June 1993 concerning medical devices defines a ‘medical device’ as: any instrument, apparatus, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software necessary for its proper application intended by the manufacturer to be used for human... The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is the worlds largest charitable foundation. ...


See also

Biomedical Research involves thorough investigation of any matter related to the domain of living or biological Systems. ... A pharmaceutical company (or drug company) is a company licensed to discover, develop, market and distribute drugs. ...

References

  1. ^ Ben Thornley and Clive Adams (1998-10-31). "Content and quality of 2000 controlled trials in schizophrenia over 50 years". British Medical Journal.
  2. ^ The Journal of the American Medical Association. Association of Funding and Conclusions in Randomized Drug Trials. Retrieved on February 4, 2006.
  3. ^ Quackwatch. Why Quackery Persists. Retrieved on February 4, 2006.
  4. ^ Ioannidis,John (2005 August). Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. Public Library of Science. Retrieved on February 4, 2006.
  5. ^ Moses H, Dorsey ER, Matheson DH, Their SO (Sep 2005). "Financial Anatomy of Biomedical Research". JAMA 294 (11): 1333-42. PMID 16174691.

February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ...

Further reading

  • Indrayan A (2004). "Elements of medical research.". Indian J Med Res 119 (3): 93-100. PMID 15115159.
  • Highleyman L (2006). "A guide to clinical trials. Part II: interpreting medical research.". BETA 18 (2): 41-7. PMID 16610119.Full text

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Welcome to the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory (289 words)
Truth be told, medical research saves lives and few missions have such global impact on the improvement of our human condition.
Biomedical research is a key force for change in the world today, with important economic and social implications that will affect our children, grandchildren and future generations.
Today, the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory (MMRL) is rapidly becoming an international center for genetic screening of cardiac diseases.
Medical research - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (519 words)
Medical research (or experimental medicine) is basic research and applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine.
Medical research can be divided into two general categories; new treatments that are tested in clinical trials, and all other research contributing to the development of new treatments.
In the UK, funding bodies such as the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust derive their assets from UK tax payers, and distribute this to institutions in a competitive manner.
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