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Encyclopedia > Medical model

Medical model is the term (cited by psychiatrist Ronald D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays) for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained." This set includes complaint, history, examination, ancillary tests if needed, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis with and without treatment. Sociologist Erving Goffman, in his Asylums, favorably compared the medical model, which was a post-Industrial Revolution occurrence, with the conduct in the tinkering trades (watch, radio, TV repair). Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... R.D.Laing in 1983 Ronald David Laing (October 7, 1927 – August 23, 1989), was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness and particularly the experience of psychosis. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Erving Goffman Erving Goffman (June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982), was a sociologist and writer. ... The term asylum can mean: a psychiatric hospital political asylum a 1985 album named Asylum by KISS a sociology book by Erving Goffman studying total institutions A band from Preston, http://www. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ...

The medical model also describes the approach to illness which is dominant in Western medicine. It aims to find medical treatments for diagnosed symptoms and syndromes and treats the human body as a very complex mechanism (hence, Goffman's tinkering trade analogy). Among critics of medical psychiatry, Laing observed that because the diagnosis of a mental illness was based on conduct or patient behavior and not on evident pathology, it (the "diagnosis") essentially contravened standard medical procedure and hence the medical model: examination and ancillary tests were conducted, if at all, only after the diagnosis was made. medicines, see Medication. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ...

At all events, whereas heart diseases, cancers, and broken bones were diagnosed by evident pathology discovered during examination and ancillary tests, a mental illness was diagnosed by patient's conduct (paranoid delusions, catatonia, hypermania, etc.), with only an implication of a genuine pathology not cited at the time of diagnosis.

The medical model drives research and theorizing about physical or psychological difficulties on a basis of causation and remediation.

It can be contrasted with the holistic model of the alternative health movement and the social model of the Disability rights movement, as well as to biopsychosocial and recovery model's of mental disorder. Holistic health refers to a philosophy of medical care that views physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of life as closely interconnected and equally important approaches to treatment. ... Alternative medicine is defined as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Complementary medicine is defined as any of the practices (as acupuncture) of alternative medicine accepted... The Social Model of Disability proposes that barriers and prejudice and exclusion by society (purposely or inadvertently) are the ultimate factors defining who is disabled and who is not in a particular society. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... The biopsychosocial model of medicine, is a way of looking at the mind and body of a patient as two important systems that are interlinked. ... Psychosocial recovery, or the Recovery Model, refers to the process of recovery from mental disorder or substance dependence, and/or from being labeled in those terms. ...

See also

According to the classic medical notion of disability: Disability is the result of a sexual condition It is intrinsic to the individual (it is part of that individual’s own body) It may reduce the individuals quality of life and causes clear disadvantages A compassionate or just society will...


  • 'Medical model' vs 'social model' British Film Institute Education.
  • Disability Awareness at the University of Sheffield , UK
  • Medical model Open university UK

  Results from FactBites:
Medical model of disability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (320 words)
The medical model of disability is a model by which illness or disability is the result of a physical condition, is intrinsic to the individual (it is part of that individual’s own body), may reduce the individual's quality of life, and causes clear disadvantages to the individual.
The medical model of disability is often cited by disability rights groups when evaluating the costs and benefits of various interventions, be they medical, surgical, social or occupational: from prosthetics, "cures", and medical tests such as genetic screening or preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Some disability rights groups see the medical model of disability as a civil rights issue, and criticise charitable or medical initiatives that use it in their portrayal of disabled people, because it promotes a negative, disempowered image of people with disabilities, rather than casting disability as a political, social and environmental problem.
The Medical Model (1766 words)
Medical practices, organized around the medical model, presume that the physician's task is to diagnose diseases, to discover their causes and symptoms, and design treatments.
You have read the person's medical file to find out the physical nature of her injury, look at her psychological test results to learn how she performs in various areas of psychological processing such as short and long term memory and feel prepared to select clinical goals for her.
I concluded that the participation model requires that we set aside the knowledge about biological and psychological deficits of people when we interact with them and concentrate on who they are, how they experience their lives, and their life goals.
  More results at FactBites »



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