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Encyclopedia > Medical Cannabis
A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract.

Medical Cannabis refers to the use of the drug cannabis as a physician-recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... photographer unknown. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ...


There are many studies regarding the use of cannabis in a medicinal context.[1][2][3][4] Cannabis was listed in the United States Pharmacopeia from 1850 until 1942.[5] The United States federal government does not currently recognize any legitimate medical use, although there are currently seven patients receiving cannabis for their various illnesses through the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program that was closed to new patients in 1991 by the George H. W. Bush administration. Francis L. Young, an administrative law judge with the United States Drug Enforcement Agency, in 1988, declared that "in its natural form, [cannabis] is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known."[6] However, smoked cannabis is today not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[7] Twelve state laws currently allow for the medicinal use of cannabis[8] but the United States Supreme Court has later ruled that the federal government has the right to regulate and criminalize marijuana also in these states, even for medical purposes. The United States Pharmacopeia is a compendium of quality control tests for drugs and excipients to be introduced into a medicinal formulation. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


The term medical marijuana post-dates the U.S. Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, the effect of which made cannabis prescriptions illegal in the United States. In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act (strictly the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act) was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of Cannabis. ...


Due to widespread illegality of cannabis as a recreational drug its legal or licensed use in medicine is a controversial issue. Since the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws affecting the legality of cannabis regarding the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...

Contents

History

Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years.[9] Surviving texts from ancient India confirm that its psychoactive properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a variety of illnesses and ailments. These included a whole host of gastrointestinal disorders, insomnia, headaches and as a pain reliever, frequently used in childbirth. The ancient Egyptians even used hemp (cannabis) in suppositories for relieving the pain of hemorrhoids.[10] Image File history File links Marijuana. ... Image File history File links Marijuana. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Ancient India may refer to: The Ancient India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the later Iron... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... A suppository is a medicine that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository) or into the vagina (vaginal suppository) where it melts. ... Hemorrhoids (AmE), haemorrhoids (BrE), emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ...


In the medieval Islamic world, Arabic physicians discovered the diuretic, antiemetic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic properties of cannabis sativa, and used it extensively as medication from the 8th to 18th centuries.[11] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Antipyretics are drugs that prevent or reduce fever by lowering the body temperature from a raised state. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Subspecies L. subsp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cannabis as a medicine became common throughout much of the world by the 19th century. It was used as the primary pain reliever until the invention of aspirin.[9] Modern medical and scientific inquiry began with doctors like O'Shaughnessy and Moreau de Tours, who used it to treat melancholia, migraines, and as a sleeping aid, analgesic and anticonvulsant. This article is about the drug. ... Disambiugation: This article is about the toxicologist and chemist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require a spell check. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ...

Medical Cannabis in two bags
Medical Cannabis in two bags

By the time the United States banned cannabis in a federal law, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, the plant was no longer extremely popular. Skepticism about marijuana arose in response to the bill. This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act (strictly the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act) was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of Cannabis. ...


Later in the century, researchers investigating methods of detecting cannabis intoxication discovered that smoking the drug reduced intraocular pressure.[12] High intraocular pressure causes blindness in glaucoma patients, so many believed that using the drug could prevent blindness in patients. Many Vietnam War veterans also believed that the drug prevented muscle spasms caused by battle-induced spinal injuries. Later medical use has focused primarily on its role in preventing the wasting syndromes and chronic loss of appetite associated with chemotherapy and AIDS, along with a variety of rare muscular and skeletal disorders. Less commonly, cannabis has been used in the treatment of alcoholism and addiction to other drugs such as heroin and the prevention of migraines. In recent years, studies have shown or researchers have speculated that the main chemical in the drug, THC, might help prevent atherosclerosis. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


In 1972 Tod H. Mikuriya, M.D. reignited the debate concerning marijuana as medicine when he published "Marijuana Medical Papers 1839-1972." Tod Hiro Mikuriya (b. ...


Later, in the 1970s, a synthetic version of THC, the primary active ingredient in cannabis, was synthesized to make the drug Marinol. Users reported several problems with Marinol, however, that led many to abandon the pill and resume smoking the plant. Patients complained that the violent nausea associated with chemotherapy made swallowing pills difficult. The effects of smoked cannabis are felt almost immediately, and is therefore easily dosed.[13] Marinol (Jojel), like ingested cannabis, is very psychoactive, and is harder to titrate than smoked cannabis.[14] Marinol has also consistently been more expensive than herbal cannabis.[15] Some studies have indicated that other chemicals in the plant may have a synergistic effect with THC.[16] Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... THC redirects here. ... Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ...


In addition, during the 1970s and 1980s, six US states' health departments performed studies on the use of medical marijuana. These are widely considered some of the most useful and pioneering studies on the subject,[citation needed]


In May 2001, "The Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis" (Russo, Mathre, Byrne et al) was completed. This three-day examination of major body functions of four of the five living US federal cannabis patients found "mild pulmonary changes" in two patients.[17]


Availability

Potential health benefits aside, marijuana remains a US Federally controlled substance, making possession and distribution illegal. It has been estimated that an average "marijuana clinic" consumes a pound of cannabis per day[citation needed], making acquisition a critical challenge. This acquisition may have to resort to more traditionally crime-associated, black-market sources, contributing to crime in communities. This point was illustrated in early 2007, with the murder of Denver area medical cannabis activist Ken Gorman [18]. A Cannabis sativa plant The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. ... United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ken Gorman (born July 12, 1946) was a marijuana activist who was shot and killed in his home on February 17, 2007 in Colorado. ...


Researchers face similar challenges in obtaining medical cannabis for research trial. Recently, the US FDA has approved a number of cannabis research clinical trials, but the Drug Enforcement Agency has not granted licenses to the researchers in these studies. United States may refer to: Places: United States of America SS United States, the fastest ocean liner ever built. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


Early studies on efficacy

USA

New Mexico

A study included 250 patients and compared smoked cannabis to oral THC, under the auspices of the Food and Drug Administration. All participants were evaluated by a medical doctor and had uncontrolled vomiting using at least three alternative antiemetics. Patients chose smoking cannabis or taking an oral THC pill. Multiple objective and subjective standards were used to determine the effectiveness.[citation needed] “FDA” redirects here. ...

  • Conclusion: Cannabis was far superior to the best available drug at the time of testing, Compazine, and smoked cannabis is clearly superior to oral THC. "More than ninety percent of the patients who received cannabis... reported significant or total relief from nausea and vomiting." No major side effects were reported, though three patients reported adverse reactions that did not involve cannabis alone. The report, dated November 6, 1988, can be read here, though no publication in the peer-reviewed medical literature has been made.

Prochlorperazine is a typical antipsychotic drug sold under the names Compazine and Stemetil. ...

Tennessee

27 patients had failed on other antiemetics therapies, including oral THC. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

  • Conclusion: 90.4% success for smoked cannabis; 66.7% for oral THC. "We found both marijuana smoking and THC capsules to be effective antiemetics. We found an approximate 23% higher success rate among those patients administered smoked marijuana. We found no significant differences in success rates by age group. The major reason for THC capsule failure was nausea and vomiting so severe that the patient could not retain the capsule."[citation needed]

California

A series of studies throughout the 1980s involved 90–100 patients a year. The study was designed to make it easier for patients to enter the oral THC part of the study. Patients who wanted to smoke cannabis had to be over 15 years old (oral THC patients had to be over 5) and use the drug only in the hospital and not at home. Smoked cannabis patients also had to be receiving rare and painful forms of chemotherapy to qualify for this.

  • Conclusion: Despite the bias towards oral THC, the California study concluded that smoked cannabis was more effective and established a safe dosage regimen that minimized adverse side effects. The full text of the study can be seen here.[citation needed]
A Vapor-Bong for use with medicinal herbs prescribed by a physician.
A Vapor-Bong for use with medicinal herbs prescribed by a physician.
  • Sonoma County allows the cultivation of up to 30 female Marijuana plants in a space no larger than 100 square feet.[19]
  • DEA raids in California are typically targeted towards large scale illegal operations growing over 1000 plants.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 260 KB) Summary Vapor-Bong After Use Of Legally Obtained Medicinal Herbs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 260 KB) Summary Vapor-Bong After Use Of Legally Obtained Medicinal Herbs. ...

Georgia

119 patients that had failed using other antiemetics were randomly assigned to oral THC pills and either standardized or patient-controlled smoking of cannabis.

  • Conclusion: All three categories were successful — patient controlled smokers at 72.2%; standardized smokers at 65.4%; oral THC at 76%. Failure of oral THC patients was due to adverse reaction (6 out of 18) or failure to improve (9 out of 18); failure of smoking cannabis was due to intolerance for smoking (6 out of 14) or failure to improve (3 out of 14).[citation needed]

Harm reduction

Many medical cannabis opponents note that smoked cannabis is harmful to the respiratory system. However, this harm can be minimalized or eliminated by the use of a vaporizer or ingesting the drug in an edible form or other non-smoking modes of delivery like tinctures. Vaporizers are devices that vaporize the active constituents (cannabinoids) and the fragrant aromatic substances in the preparation without combusting the plant material and thus preventing the formation of toxic substances. Studies have shown that vaporizers can dramatically reduce[20] or even eliminate[21] the release of irritants and toxic compounds. A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Look up ingestion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In general terms, eating is the process of consuming something edible. ... Tinctures are the colours used to blazon coats of arms in heraldry. ... Cannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds present in Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...


Also note that most medicines have negative side effects. Deciding to use any medicine involves weighing the negative side effects against the benefits.


Indications

According to a survey on the recommendation of cannabis in California[22], cannabis is indicated for over 250 conditions. Cannabis is most importantly indicated as an antiemetic for the treatment of nausea and anorexia associated with treatments for cancer, AIDS, and hepatitis. Cannabis also acts as an antispasmodic and anticonvulsant and is indicated for neurological conditions such as epilepsy especially complex partial seizures, multiple sclerosis, and spasms. As an analgesic and an immunomodulator it is indicated for conditions such as migraine, arthritis, spinal and skeletal disorders. As a bronchodilator it is beneficial for asthma. It also reduces the intraocular pressure and is indicated for glaucoma. Recent studies have shown the drug to be efficacious in treating mood disorders and mental health issues such as depression, post traumatic stress disorder, clinical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar disorder.[3] It is also indicated for premenstrual syndrome, hypertension, and insomnia. It is also reported to be an effective treatment for constipation and alcohol hangovers. An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... This article is about the symptom of decreased appetite. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ, or a similarly sudden contraction of an orifice. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye. ... A mood disorder is a condition where the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... For other uses, see Depression. ... Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Panic Disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by recurring panic attacks in combination with significant behavioral change or at least a month of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... PMS redirects here. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... A hangover, medically termed veisalgia, is the after-effect following the consumption of large amounts of one drug or another. ...


In the United States, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act makes the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the sole government entity responsible for ensuring the safety and efficacy of new prescription and over-the-counter drugs, overseeing the labeling and marketing of drugs, and regulating the manufacturing and packaging of drugs.[23] The FDA defines a drug as safe and effective for a specific indication if the clinical benefits to the patient are felt to outweigh any health risks the drug might pose. FDA and comparable authorities in Western Europe including the Netherlands, have not approved smoked marijuana for any condition or disease. [24] [25] Cannabis remains illegal throughout the United States and is not approved for prescription as medicine, although 12 states - Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington - approve and regulate its medical use. (The federal government continues to enforce its prohibition in these states.) However, there are also 2 states, Arizona and Maryland, whose drug laws are favourable towards the medicinal use of marijuana, in the later case making it a non-incarcerable offense with a maximum penalty of a $100 fine, [4] but which still explicitly ban it. The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Notable pro- and anti-medical cannabis individuals

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

Proponents

Pro-cannabis demonstrators in Los Angeles, California, August 2007.
Pro-cannabis demonstrators in Los Angeles, California, August 2007.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 800 pixels, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 405 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (540 × 800 pixels, file size: 311 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Ronald Ernest Ron Paul (b. ... Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning Teacher of Medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Ann Druyan (b. ... Cosmos: A Personal Voyage was the name of a thirteen part television series produced by Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan which was first broadcast by the Public Broadcasting Service in 1980. ... Drew Allison Carey (born May 23, 1958) is an American comedian, actor, and game show host. ... The Price Is Rights US 36th season logo. ... Willie Hugh Nelson (born April 29, 1933) is an American singer-songwriter and actor. ... William F. Buckley may refer to: William Francis Buckley, U.S. Army officer and CIA operative William F. Buckley, Jr. ... GOP redirects here. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Dennis Peron is a medical marijuana activist living in San Francisco. ... Lester Grinspoon. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British-American author, journalist and literary critic. ... Ashcroft v. ... Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fred Gardner is a [political organizer] and author best known for his opposition to the Vietnam War and his writings on behalf of legalizing marijuana in the United States. ... Steven Steve Wynn Kubby (born December 28, 1946) is a Libertarian Party activist who played a key role in the drafting and passage of California Proposition 215. ... Proposition 215 was a proposition in the state of California on the November 5, 1996 ballot. ... The American Medical Marijuana Association (AMMA) is an organization formed to promote and protect the legal access to medical marijuana. ... Peter Alexander McWilliams (August 5, 1949 - June 14, 2000) was a writer and cannabis activist. ... Rick Steves (born in Edmonds, Washington in 1955) is an American author on European travel. ... Rob Kampia is the founder of the Marijuana Policy Project. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... Dana Tyron Rohrabacher (born June 21, 1947, in Coronado, California) is an American politician, who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, currently representing Californias 46th congressional district. ... The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ... William Maher, Jr. ... Real Time with Bill Maher is a talk show that airs weekly on HBO, hosted by comedian and political satirist Bill Maher. ... Ethan Nadelmann is the founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance, the leading organization in the United States promoting alternatives to the war on drugs. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... State Senator Bill Mescher William C. Bill Mescher (September 5, 1927- ) is a Republican politician from South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Keith Stroup. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Penn Fraser Jillette (born March 5, 1955 in Greenfield, Massachusetts) is an American comedian, illusionist, juggler and writer known for his work with fellow illusionist Teller in the team known as Penn & Teller. ... Penn (left) & Teller Penn and Teller are a two-man magic and comedy team, comprised of Penn Jillette and Teller. ... Woodrow Woody Tracy Harrelson (born July 23, 1961) is an American Emmy Award winning and Academy Award nominated actor. ... Calvin Cordozar Broadus, Jr. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Montel Brian Anthony Williams (born July 3, 1956 in Baltimore, Maryland) is an American television talk show host. ... Loretta Nall is the founder of the United States Marijuana Party (USMJP) which calls for the legalization of cannabis. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jack Herer is the author of The Emperor Wears No Clothes (ISBN 0-9524560-0-1) (several editions since c. ... Marc Emery wearing his 420 jersey. ... Cannabis Culture Magazine was founded in the summer of 1994 by Marc Emery, BC Marijuana Party President, well-known as Canadas Prince of Pot. It is one of several publications focused on marijuana and hemp around the world. ... Robert Alexander Szatkowski (born December 18, 1970 in Battle Creek, Michigan) better known by his ring name Rob Van Dam, is currently an inactive American professional wrestler. ... For other persons named Jack Black, see Jack Black (disambiguation). ... This article is about the band. ... Kyle Richard Gass (born July 14, 1960)[1] is an American actor and a member of the band Tenacious D (along with Jack Black) and Trainwreck. ... This article is about the band. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ... Medical necessity is generally considered that which is reasonable, necessary, and/or appropriate based on evidence-based clinical standards of care. ...

Emerging medical consensus

Dozens of medical organizations have endorsed allowing patients access to medical marijuana with their physicians' approval. These include, but are not limited to, the following:

The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (www. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine. ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The American Nurses Association (ANA) is a professional organization to advance and protect the profession of nursing. ... // The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. ... sex Canada (French: Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health. ...

Opponents

Hamid Ghodse has been President of the International Narcotics Control Board since 2004. ... Mr. ... Harold Lee Hal Lindsey (born November 23, 1929) is an American evangelist and Christian writer. ... John Walters John P. Walters was sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) on December 7, 2001. ... Mark Edward Souder (born July 18, 1950) is an American politician who is serving his sixth term in the United States House of Representatives for Indianas 3rd congressional district (map). ... Definition and Explanation: Amicus curiæ (Latin for friend of the court; plural amici curiæ) briefs are legal documents filed by non-litigants in appellate court cases, which include additional information or arguments that those outside parties wish to have considered in that particular case. ... Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ... Andrea Grubb Barthwell worked in the White House under President of the United States George W. Bush as Deputy Director for Demand Reduction at the Office of National Drug Control Policy. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual tasked with arguing for the United States Government in front of the U.S. Supreme Court, when the government is party to a case. ... Dan Lungren Daniel Edward Lungren (born September 22, 1946), a Republican from California, was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2004, representing the states 3rd Congressional district (map). ... For other uses, see Limbaugh. ... Asa Hutchinson Asa Hutchinson (born December 3, 1950) is a former U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas, U.S. Congressman from the Third District of Arkansas, Director of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and the first-ever Under Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland... Dr. Richard Carmona Richard Henry Carmona, (born November 22, 1949) was the 17th Surgeon General of the United States. ... For other persons named William Bennett, see William Bennett (disambiguation). ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959 ) is an American lawyer, politician and the current Governor of New York. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Gen. ... The Director of the National Drug Control Policy (ubiquitously nicknamed the Drug czar) is the head of the United States Office of National Drug Control Policy. ... Carol Chien-Hua Lam (born June 26, 1959), a former U.S. Attorney (interim) for the Southern District of California. ... United States Attorneys (also known as federal prosecutors) represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. ... Bonnie M. Dumanis (born December 16, 1951 in Brockton, Massachusetts) is currently the District Attorney of San Diego County. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Janet Reno (born July 21, 1938) was the first and to date only female Attorney General of the United States (1993–2001). ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Donna Edna Shalala (surname pronounced IPA: ; born February 14, 1941) has served as president of the University of Miami, a private university in Coral Gables, Florida, since 2001. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ...

Pharmacologic THC and THC derivatives

In the USA, the FDA has approved two cannabinoids for use as medical therapies: dronabinol and nabilone. It is important to note that these medicines are not smoked. Dronabinol is a synthetic THC medication[40], while nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid marketed under the brand name Cesamet. Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ... Nabilone is a cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic. ...

Medication Year approved Licensed indications
Nabilone 1985 Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics
Marinol 1992 Nausea of cancer chemotherapy that has failed to respond adequately to other antiemetics, AIDS wasting

These medications are usually used when first line treatments for nausea fail to work. In extremely high doses and in rare cases there is a possibility of "psychotomimetic" side effects. The other commonly-used antiemetic drugs are not associated with these side effects. For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Describes the actions of a drug in producing symptoms of psychosis including delusions and/or hallucinations. ...


The prescription drug Sativex, an extract of cannabis administered as a sublingual spray, has been approved in Canada for the treatment of multiple sclerosis;[41] this medication may now be legally imported into the United Kingdom and Spain on prescription.[42] Dr. William Notcutt is one of the chief researchers that has developed Sativex, he has been working with GW and founder Geoffrey Guy since the company's inception in 1998. Notcutt states that the use of MS as the disease to study "had everything to do with politics."[43] Sativex is an oromucosal (mouth) spray developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. ...


Criticism

See also: Health issues and the effects of cannabis

On 20 April 2006, The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory against medical marijuana stating that, "marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision. Furthermore, there is currently sound evidence that smoked marijuana is harmful." [5]. Some prominent American societies have been reluctant to endorse medicinal cannabis. For example: [6], the National Multiple Sclerosis Society [7] , the American Academy of Ophthalmology [8] and the American Cancer Society [9]. (Federal Register, 1992). This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


On June 6, 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a decision which approved the Federal Government's position that federal law permits the prosecution of persons possessing cannabis regardless of the defense that they are medicinal cannabis patients, even in states that exempt its prohibition for medicinal purposes.. [10] is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Institute of Medicine, run by the United States National Academy of Sciences, conducted a comprehensive study in 1999 to assess the potential health benefits of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids. The study concluded that smoking cannabis is not recommended for the treatment of any disease condition, but did conclude that nausea, appetite loss, pain and anxiety can all be mitigated by marijuana. While the study expressed reservations about smoked marijuana due to the health risks associated with smoking, the study team concluded that until another mode of ingestion was perfected that could provide the same relief as smoked marijuana, there was no alternative. In addition, the study pointed out the inherent difficulty in marketing a non patentable herb. Pharmaceutical companies will not substantially profit unless there is a patent. For those reasons, the Institute of Medicine concluded that there is little future in smoked cannabis as a medically approved medication. The report also concluded for certain patients, such as the terminally ill or those with debilitating symptoms, the long-term risks are not of great concern.[44] The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


In an unpublished 2001 study by the Mayo Clinic, Marinol was shown to be less effective than megestrol acetate in helping cancer patients regain lost appetites.[45] Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ... Megestrol is a progesterone derivative with antineoplastic properties used in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the breast and endometrium. ...


In 2003, the American Academy of Ophthalmology released a position statement asserting that "no scientific evidence has been found that demonstrates increased benefits and/or diminished risks of marijuana use to treat glaucoma compared with the wide variety of pharmaceutical agents now available." [46] The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) is a medical association of ophthalmologists–medical doctors (MDs) specializing in eye care and surgery). ...


Legal and medical status of cannabis

European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data are from multiple sources detailed on the full source list
European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). Data are from multiple sources detailed on the full source list

Cannabis is in Schedule IV of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, making it subject to special restrictions. Article 2 provides for the following, in reference to Schedule IV drugs: World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 69 KB) European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1236x1245, 69 KB) European laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs Opened for signature March 30, 1961 at New York Entered into force December 13, 1964[1] Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 180[2] The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is the international treaty against illicit drug manufacture and trafficking that forms the...

A Party shall, if in its opinion the prevailing conditions in its country render it the most appropriate means of protecting the public health and welfare, prohibit the production, manufacture, export and import of, trade in, possession or use of any such drug except for amounts which may be necessary for medical and scientific research only, including clinical trials therewith to be conducted under or subject to the direct supervision and control of the Party.

This provision, while apparently providing for the limitation of cannabis to research purposes only, also seems to allow some latitude for nations to make their own judgments. The official Commentary on the Single Convention indicates that Parties are expected to make that judgment in good faith.


Further reading

  • Official FDA Statement Regarding Claims of Smoked Marijuana as medicine
  • Report on and index of marijuana medical studies by Todd Mikuriya, M.D.]
  • Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group; Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T: Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jul 20;24(21):3394-400.
    • Synthetic THC or low doses of cannabis extract administered orally for cancer-related cachexia (anorexia, weight-loss, emaciation) not better than placebo.
  • Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr., "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base", Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999).
    • "The accumulated data indicate a potential therapeutic value for cannabinoid drugs, particularly for symptoms such as pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, and appetite stimulation." and "At this point there are no convincing data to support (the concern that medical marijuana would lead to an increase in recreational use). The existing data are consistent with the idea that this would not be a problem if the medical use of marijuana were as closely regulated as other medications with abuse potential."
  • Index of studies involving marijuana and multiple sclerosis
  • Doblin et al., Marijuana as Antiemetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Experiences and Attitudes," Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 1991.
  • Khamsi, R: Cannabis compound benefits blood vessels. Nature, 4 Apr 2005 (premium content).
    • THC has been found to combat formation of arterial blockages. A random survey of oncologists found that 44% had illegally recommended marijuana for the control of vomiting and that 48% would do so if it were legal; 54% thought it should be available by prescription.
  • Vinciguerra et al., Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy," The New York State Journal of Medicine, pgs., 525-527, October 1988
    • 56 Patients who had achieved no success with other antiemetics; 72% found success — the study also concluded that smoked marijuana was more effective than oral THC pills.
  • Chang et al., Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High Dose Methotrexate; Annals of Internal Medicine, Volume 91, Number 6, pg. 819-824, December 1979
    • A double-blind controlled study found a 72% reduction in nausea and vomiting; the study also concluded that smoked marijuana was more effective than oral THC
  • Foltin RW, Brady JV, Fischman MW: Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Sep;25(3):577-82.; RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF: Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite. 1988 Aug;11(1):1-14.; and Greenberg I, Kuehnle J, Mendelson JH, Bernstein JG: Effects of marihuana use on body weight and caloric intake in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1976 Aug 26;49(1):79-84.
    • These three studies concluded that marijuana increases appetite.
  • Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E 3rd: Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. N Engl J Med. 1975 Oct 16;293(16):795-7.
    • Study concluded that smoked marijuana was more beneficial than synthetic THC for some patients.
  • Donald P. Tashkin, MD, "Effects of Smoked Marijuana on the Lung and Its Immune Defenses: Implications for Medicinal Use in HIV-Infected Patients"; Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 87-102
    • "Frequent marijuana use can cause airway injury, lung inflammation and impaired pulmonary defense against infection. The major potential pulmonary consequences of habitual marijuana use of particular relevance to patients with AIDS is superimposed pulmonary infection, which could be life threatening in the seriously immonocompromised patient. In view of the immonosuppressive effect of THC, the possibility that regular marijuana use could enhance progression of HIV infection itself needs to be considered, although this possibility remains unexplored to date."
  • Guy A. Cabral, PhD, "Marijuana and Cannabinoids: Effects on Infections, Immunity, and AIDS"; Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 1, No. 3/4, 2001, pp. 61-85
    • "However, few controlled longitudinal epidemiological and immunological studies have been undertaken to correlate the immunosuppressive effects of marijuana smoke or cannabinoids on the incidence of infections or viral disease in humans. Clearly, additional investigation to resolve the long-term immunological consequences of cannabinoid and marijuana use as they relate to resistance to infections in humans is warranted."
  • Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk IH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P: Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Med J Aust. 1979 Dec 15;2(12):657-9.
    • In children receiving cancer chemotherapy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has an antinausea and antivomiting effect.
  • Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE: Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer: a randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. N Engl J Med. 1980 Jan 17;302(3):135-8.
    • THC seems to be an effective antiemetic in many patients who receive chemotherapy for cancer and for whom other antiemetics are ineffective.
  • New Studies Destroy the Last Objection to Medical Marijuana

The acronym THC has several possible meanings: Teens Hate Chains, a Japanese singing group Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active ingredient in Cannabis Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, extracted from Turmeric as an active ingredient in cosmetics Texas Historical Commission Therapeutic Humane Cannabis Act Thermohaline circulation The History Channel Terminal Handling Charges This page concerning a... THC redirects here. ...

See also

Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tildens Extract was a 19th century medicinal cannabis extract that the Laboratory of Tilden & Co. ... Sativex is an oromucosal (mouth) spray developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. ... Victor Robinson (1886–1947) was a physician and medical journalist. ... Steven Steve Wynn Kubby (born December 28, 1946) is a Libertarian Party activist who played a key role in the drafting and passage of California Proposition 215. ... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation founded in 1970 to, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... Proposition 215 was a proposition in the state of California on the November 5, 1996 ballot. ... This is a list of the legality of cannabis by country. ... Holding There is no medical necessity defense to a charge under the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. § 841 et seq. ...

References

  • Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961, International Narcotics Control Board.
  • Dominik Wujastyk, "Cannabis in Traditional Indian Herbal Medicine" in Ana Salema (ed.), Ayurveda at the Crossroads of Care and Cure, Lisbon, Centro de História del Além-Mar, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2002, pp.45--73. ISBN 972-98672-5-9. Early pre-publication draft.

Notes

  1. ^ Peer-Reviewed Medical Studies Involving Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts (1990 - 2008). Medical Marijuana ProCon.org. ProCon.org.
  2. ^ Medical Use. National Organization for the Reform of Marajuana Laws (2007-11-20).
  3. ^ Medical Marijuana Science and Studies. Marajuana Policy Project.
  4. ^ Paul Armentano (2007-07-13). New Studies Expose Government Lies About Medical Pot. National Organization to Reform Marijuana Laws Foundation. AlterNet, Independent Media Institute.
  5. ^ History of Marijuana. Narconon International. Association of Better Living and Education International. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  6. ^ In The Matter Of Marihuana Rescheduling Petition, Docket No. 86-22, Opinion and Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Decision of Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young. United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. Carl E. Olsen (1998-09-06).
  7. ^ Testimony by Robert J. Meyer, M.D., Director, Office of Drug Evaluation II, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. United States Food and Drug Administration, Office of Legislation.
  8. ^ State By State Medical Marijuana Laws. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org. ProCon.org.
  9. ^ a b "History of Cannabis", BBC News. 
  10. ^ Pain, Stephanie. "The Pharaoh's pharmacists", New Scientist, Reed Business Information Ltd., 2007-12-15. 
  11. ^ Lozano, Indalecio (2001). "The Therapeutic Use of Cannabis sativa (L.) in Arabic Medicine". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 1 (1): 63-70. 
  12. ^ Golden Guide. www.zauberpilz.com.
  13. ^ Cannabis: Effects. Lycos Retriever. Lycos, Inc..
  14. ^ Synthetic THC / Marinol. The Alliance for Reform of Drug Policy in Arkansas, Inc..
  15. ^ Marijuana vs. Marinol: Estimated Average Patient Costs. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org. ProCon.org.
  16. ^ McPartland, John M.; Russo, Ethan B.. Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.
  17. ^ Russo, Ethan; Mathre, Mary Lynn; Byrne, Al; Velin, Robert; Bach, Paul J.; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Kirlin, Kristin A (2002). "Chronic Cannabis Use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An Examination of Benefits and Adverse Effects of Legal Clinical Cannabis" (PDF). Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 2 (1). The Haworth Press, Inc.. 
  18. ^ Pot activist's death probed - The Denver Post
  19. ^ CaNORML Prop215 Guidelines as of Sept 2006
  20. ^ Cannabis Vaporizer Combines Efficient Delivery of THC with Effective Suppression of Pyrolytic Compounds By D. Gieringer et.al. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 4(1) 2004, [1]
  21. ^ Evaluation of a Vaporizing Device (Volcano) for the Pulmonary Administration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. By A. HAZEKAMP, R. RUHAAK, et.al. JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, VOL. 95, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 abstract
  22. ^ Dale Gieringer, "Medical Use of Cannabis in California," in Franjo Grotenhermen, M.D. & Ethan Russo, M.D., ed., Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Potential, Haworth Press, 2002 [2]
  23. ^ Drug Approval Application Process
  24. ^ Meyer, Robert J.. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  25. ^ Inter-Agency Advisory Regarding Claims That Smoked Marijuana Is a Medicine
  26. ^ Ron Paul. Medical Marijuana Pro Con. ProCon.org.
  27. ^ In Pot We Trust (2007) (TV). The Internet Movie Database. IMDb.com, Inc..
  28. ^ Taking Action: Montel Williams on medical marijuana. The Montel Williams MS Foundation (2006). Retrieved on 2007-10-31.
  29. ^ In Memory: Robert Randall, Father of the Medical Marijuana Movement (2001). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The American College of Physicians Position Paper. The American College of Physicians (2008). Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  31. ^ Rush Limbaugh. Biography of Rush Limbaugh. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  32. ^ Asa Hutchinson. Biography of Asa Hutchinson. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  33. ^ Richard Carmona. Biography of Richard Carmona. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  34. ^ William J. Bennett. Biography of William J. Bennett. Medical Marijuana ProCon.org (2007-10-28). Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  35. ^ Romney Confronted. CNN Video - Breaking News. CNN (2007-10-08). Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  36. ^ Medical Marijuana: A Dream Up In Smoke? - Human Rights Magazine Fall 1997
  37. ^ Opposition set to snuff out medical marijuana bill | Daily Record, The (Baltimore) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  38. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Politics - Medical marijuana remains in legal limbo
  39. ^ RW ONLINE:Rx Blunt: The Fight Over Medical Marijuana
  40. ^ FDA Press Release
  41. ^ Koch, W. 23 Jun 2005. Spray alternative to pot on the market in Canada. USA Today (online). Retrieved on 27 Feb 2007
  42. ^ Europe: Sativex Coming to England, Spain. Retrieved on 2006-03-25.
  43. ^ Greenberg, Gary. "Respectable Reefer", Mother Jones, 2005-11-01. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. 
  44. ^ Cannabis and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base," Institute of Medicine, 1999.
  45. ^ Cannabis Appetite Boost Lacking in Cancer Study" The New York Times, May 13, 2001.
  46. ^ American Academy of Ophthalmology. Complementary Therapy Assessment: Marijuana in the Treatment of Glaucoma. Retrieved August 2, 2006.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Medical cannabis
  • Medical cannabis at the Open Directory Project; links to pro-legalization sites
  • Medical cannabis at the Open Directory Project; links to medical sites
  • Bibliography: Cannabis canadensis. Advances in the History of Psychology, York University
  • Debate On California's Pot Shops from CBS news show 60 Minutes
  • Waiting to Inhale - The first documentary to examine the movement to legalize cannabis for medical use
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... York University (French: Université York), located in Toronto, Ontario, is Canadas third-largest university and has produced several of the countrys top leaders in the fields of law, politics, literature, philosophy, journalism, management, meteorological, chemical, and space sciences, and fine arts including film, theatre, jazz and experimental music... This article is about the broadcast network. ... This article is about the CBS news magazine. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Aerial view of illegal marijuana cultivation plot. ... There are many alternative cannabis cultivation techniques. ... Santa Cruz 4/20 celebration at Porter Meadow on UCSC campus in 2007 On April 20th 2007, at 4:20pm PST more than 700 people gathered at City Hall in Victoria, BC to celebrate Victorias 10th annual 4/20 celebration. ... A stoner film (or stoner movie) is colloquial term referring to a subgenre of movies depicting the use and/or the users of marijuana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about health issues and the effects of cannabis. ... World laws on cannabis possession (small amount). ... Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual usage as a trance inducing drug and is found in pharmacological cults around the world. ... A bhang shop in India. ... Hashish Hashish (from Arabic: , lit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cannabis resin. ... A: A cigarette rolling machine. ... A Dutch Master blunt A blunt is a cigar or (L) which is wider than a cigarillo and not quite as wide as a traditional cigar. ... A bong, also commonly known as a water pipe, is a smoking device, generally used to smoke cannabis or tobacco, but also other substances. ... Bowl used for smoking marijuana A bowl is a smoking apparatus, similar to a pipe, intended for inhalation of herbal and tobacco smokes, but much more commonly used for marijuana smoking. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, chillum, Straight-shooter, Bomber, bat, batty a oney (pronounced one-knee), a pinchey, or a tote a smoke, pinger(because it makes a ping when you open it), is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ... In cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to either of two devices used for smoking cannabis that use water to create a vacuum whereby the suction created draws air through a bowl to fill the container with smoke. ... Egyptian hookah Hookah (Hindi: , Urdu: hukka) or shisha (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: נרגילה) or (Turkish:nargile) is a single or multi-stemmed (often glass-based) water pipe device for smoking. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A variety of metal pipes. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A conduction-style vaporizer from the 1970s. ... Acapulco Gold is the traditional name of a legendary potent strain of marijuana () originating in Mexico. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Panama Red is a legendary cannabis sativa cultivar of the 1960s and 1970s, popular amongst cannabis afficiandos. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Northern Lights is one of the most famous strains of Cannabis indica ever to have been bred. ... Purple Haze is a common street name for marijuana that has predominately purple (as opposed to green) calyxes or flowers. ... White Widow, a week from harvest. ... Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea or pot tea) is an infusion of cannabis--usually the leaves of the plant, in hot water. ... This article is about the drink. ... The American Alliance for Medical Cannabis, or AAMC, is a pro-medical cannabis organization whose goals include patient advocacy, patient rights, and support. ... The British Legalise Cannabis Campaigns originated in the 1970s. ... The Cannabis Buyers Club was the first public medical marijuana dispensary. ... The California Cannabis Research Medical Group is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating physicians about the medical use of cannabis. ... The Drug Policy Alliance is a New York City-based non-profit organization with the principal goal of ending the American War on Drugs. Its publicly-stated goals include nationwide availability of medicinal marijuana, the creation of drug-related public health measures, ending abuses of asset forfeiture, repealing non-violent... SKY - Suomen Kannabis Yhdistys or The Finnish Cannabis Association (FCA) eller Finlands Cannabisförening (FCF) oder Finnische Cannabis Vereinigung (FCV). ... Madrid, Spain. ... Cannabis leaves The Legalise Cannabis Alliance (LCA) is a political party registered in the United Kingdom with the cannabis leaf image as its emblem. ... Law Enforcement Against Prohibition, or LEAP, is a non-profit, international, educational organization comprised of former and current police officers, government agents and other law enforcement agents who oppose the current War on Drugs. ... The Marijuana Policy Project, or MPP, is an organization in the United States working to minimize the harm associated with the drug cannabis[1]. MPP advocates taxing and regulating the possession and sale of cannabis, arguing that a regulated cannabis industry would separate purchasers from the street market for cocaine... The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults... Cannabis political parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Patients Out of Time, or POT, is a patient advocacy organization dedicated to educating public health professionals and the public about medical marijuana. ... Promena (Bulgarian: Промена) is an organisation in Bulgaria campaigning for reform of drug laws and freedom for marijuana users. ... The Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis is a U.S. organization founded circa 2002 to support removal of marijuana from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. ... Americans for Safe Access bills itself as the largest national grassroots coalition working to protect the rights of patients and doctors to legally use marijuana for medical purposes. ... SAFER Logo Safer Alternative For Enjoyable Recreation (SAFER) is a non-profit organization based in Denver, Colorado. ... Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP) is a Washington, DC-based non-profit advocacy organization founded in 1998 by a small group of students, including Shawn Heller of George Washington University, David Epstein of American University, and Kris Lotlikar. ... The THC Ministry, founded by Roger Christie from the Religion of Jesus Church, is a religion which considers cannabis to be a sacrament. ... The Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics is an organization supporting medical marijuana that was founded in 1981 by Robert Randall and Alice OLeary. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
medical cannabis: Information from Answers.com (5918 words)
Marijuana and its medically active components, called cannabinoids, are used in cancer therapy to reduce nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapeutic medications.
Medical cannabis refers to the use of Cannabis as a physician recommended herbal therapy, most notably as an antiemetic.
Cannabis as a medicine was common throughout most of the world in the 1800s.
Medical Cannabis Potency Testing Project - Autumn 1999 (1662 words)
Given the rapidly growing use of medical cannabis for a wide variety of indications and the manifold different underground sources currently supplying patients, there is a natural interest in investigating the potency, purity, and chemical content of the available supplies of medical cannabis.
While the availability of medical cannabis has increased in the wake of the passage of California's Proposition 215 and other state medical marijuana initiatives, scientific research on its content remains frustrated by the continued federal ban on medical cannabis research.
A total of 47 different samples of medical cannabis were submitted by over a half dozen different providers and patients' cooperatives ranging from California to the East Coast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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