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Encyclopedia > Mediana

Median is an important archeological site from late Roman period located in the eastern suburb of Serbian city of Niš. It represents a luxurious residence with highly organized economy. Excavated objects include a villa with peristyle, thermae, granary and water tower. The residence dates back to the reign of Constantine the Great 306 to 337. Although Roman artefacts can be found scattered all over the area of present day Niš Mediana represents the best preserved part of the ancient Naissus. Ancient Rome was a civilization that existed in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East between 753 BC and its downfall in AD 476. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  – Total  – % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  – Density  7. ... For other meanings of NIS try here. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... A barn in southern Ontario, Canada A barn in Wisconsin A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace. ... Kartuzy A water tower is a very large tank constructed for the purpose of holding a supply of water at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system. ... Constantine. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... For other meanings of NIS try here. ... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ...

Contents

History

Constantine the Great (280 - 337) the last emperor of unified Roman Empire was born and raised in Naissus. He erected a majestic residence in one of the luxurious suburbs of ancient Naissus, where he often resided and attended to state affairs. Historical records testify it was in Naissus that he passed several laws - in 315, 319, 324, and 334. Constantine. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... An emperor is a monarch and sovereign ruler of an empire or any other imperial realm. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Caesar Augustus. ... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... For the novel by Thomas M. Disch see 334 (novel). ...


After Constantine's death in 337, the imperial residence in Mediana was used by several other emperors, either as place of rest on their long journeys or during preparations for war. Thus, Constantine's sons, Constantius and Constans, stayed in Naissus in the winter of 340 and signed an edict there. Later on, Constans used it as a temporary residence. According to the Hieronimus' Chronicles, in 350 Vetranio, commander of the Danubian army, was proclaimed emperor in Sirmium; in the same year he surrendered the insignia of imperial power to Constantius II in Naissus Events February 6 - Julius is elected pope. ... Constantius can refer to a number of Roman emperors: Constantius Chlorus - emperor 305-306 Constantius II - emperor 337-361 Constantius III - co-emperor in 421 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Constans Flavius Julius Constans (AD 320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Events Constantine II attacks his brother Constans near Aquileia, aiming for sole control of the western half of the Roman Empire. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Constans Flavius Julius Constans (AD 320 - January 18, 350), was a Roman emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor ( 7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ...


Julian the Apostate unexpectedly spent some time in Naissus on his expedition against Constantius II, at the end of year 361. During his two-month stay, Julian wrote from Naissus long epistles to the Senate, to Athens, Corinth and other Greek towns, explaining his policy and seeking support. Valentinian's stay in Naissus in 364 is attested by several imperial edicts. It should be added that Naissus was the native town of another Roman emperor - Constantius III (year 425), husband of Galla Placidia, father of Valentinian III (according to Olympidoros). Flavius Claudius Julianus (331/332–June 26, 363), known to Christians as Julian the Apostate, was a Roman emperor who ruled from 361 to 363. ... emperor Constantius II Constantius II, Roman Emperor ( 7 August 317 - 3 November 361, reigned 337 - 361), was the middle of the three sons of Constantine I the Great and Fausta. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Valentinian was the name of several Roman emperors: Valentinian I Valentinian II Valentinian III This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Constantius III was a late Roman Emperor. ... Events October 23 -Valentinian III becomes western Roman emperor. ... Galla Placidia on a coin struck by her son Valentinian III. On the reverse, a cross (typical of all the coinage referring to Galla Placidia) stands for her Christian faith. ... Valentinian III (July 2, 419, Ravenna - March 16, 455, Rome), Western Roman Emperor (424 to 455). ...


The residence was abandoned after the city of Naissus was devastated by Attila's hordes in 442. For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Events The Romans conclude a treaty with Geiseric, acknowledging the conquests of the Vandal nation in North Africa. ...


Site

The residence was erected on flat terrain, on an area which covers over 40 hectares, on a high bank, some distance from the river, at the foot of the hills which frame the Nišava river valley, near a thermal water source. There was a street in the east-west direction which passed on the south side of the villa with peristyle and the granary located 150 meters from it. From this street it was possible to approach these buildings. The central area was occupied by the villa with peristyle, nymphaeum and thermae; to the west of the villa was the granary, and somewhat to the north a spacious building with octagonal and circular rooms. To the south of the villa are the remains of several villas and economic buildings. What strikes the eye is that the luxurious buildings of solid material with columns, decorated with marble facing, mosaics and frescoes, are concentrated mainly around the central villa with peristyle, while the economic buildings are located to the west of the granary towards Naissus. A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... A barn in southern Ontario, Canada A barn in Wisconsin A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... A Nymphaeum, in Greek and Roman antiquities, is a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... A barn in southern Ontario, Canada A barn in Wisconsin A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... For other meanings of the term, see column (disambiguation). ... This article is about a decorative art. ... A XIV Century fresco featuring Saint Sebastian Note: Fresco is the NATO reporting name of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... Niš (Ниш, the Roman Naissus; see below) is a city in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), 43. ...


Villa

Floor plan of the villa
Floor plan of the villa

The villa with peristyle occupies central position in Mediana. The villa comprises an area of about 6.000m2 (98,6 x 63 m) and included thermae on the west side and a smaller nymphaeum on the east side. The longitudinal axis of the villa is in the north-south direction. The whole northern part was heated. The villa was luxuriously decorated, to which testify the marble columns, basis and capitals of different sizes, reliefs on pilaster capitals and parapet slabs, the remains of wall covering of expensive, multicoloured marble, frescoes, etc. The mosaic floors that covered the whole of the peristyle porch (450m2) and the audience room have been well preserved. The porch mosaics are geometrical. Figural mosaics are at the entrance of the audience room. The middle part of the audience hall is covered with a broad rectangular field with a geometric pattern, done in the manner of the finest artist. The central part of this structure is a hexagon (3,2m on the side) with a fountain in the middle, also in the form of hexagon. The lead pipe, used to supply water, can be seen in the middle of the fountain. Smaller spaces surround the hexagon; one of their sides is the polygon of the hexagon. The floor of the nymphaeum is covered with mosaic. The wider outer frame of the hexagon is covered with alternating stylized lotus flowers, and is underlined on the inner side, by a triple border. The lateral spaces about the hexagon are also decorated by mosaic. Floor plan of the main villa in Mediana, archeological site from roman times near the present day Serbian city of Nis. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... A Nymphaeum, in Greek and Roman antiquities, is a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. ... For other meanings, see Relief (disambiguation) In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... In architecture, pilasters comprise slightly-projecting pseudo-columns built into or onto a wall, with capitals and bases. ... A parapet (from the Italian parapetto and/or the French parapet, from Italian para, imperative of Italian parare (to cover, defend) and petto (breast), ultimately from the Latin pectus (breast); the Germans use the term Brustwehr (breast-defence)) consists of a dwarf wall along the edge of a roof, or... A XIV Century fresco featuring Saint Sebastian Note: Fresco is the NATO reporting name of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... An ornamental lit fountain photographed at night for about 6 seconds. ... A Nymphaeum, in Greek and Roman antiquities, is a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. ...


Thermae

Thermae are situated northwest of the villa with peristyle and were probably connected to it. The entrance to the bath is from the south side. The thermae of Mediana were probably used by the owners of the villa, who could reach them directly from their rooms. The corridor on the way to the thermae is decorated by floor mosaics, with geometric patterns of the same quality as the mosaics in the peristyle. The vestibule and apodyterium are covered by brick and the middle room is partly covered with brick and partly with mosaic made here of larger white marble tessarae. The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... In Roman architecture a peristyle is a columned porch or open colonnade in a building that surrounds a court that may contain an internal garden. ... Vestibule can have the following meanings: A large entrance, reception area, antechamber, or room A small room or passage that connects the outer door of a building to the interior of the building An area in a train where people get on and off. ...


Granary

Granary - horreum is located about 150 metres west of the villa. This is a spacious rectangular building (91 x 27 m), with the longitudinal axis oriented east-west. Along the west wall there were basins 1.40m deep, which served for storing liquids (oil, wine). A villa was originally a Roman country house built for the upper class. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the beverage. ...


Water Tower

Water tower - castellum aquae, was regularly found at the end of each Roman aqueduct. Water was supplied from this reservoir to the wells and fountains, basins, thermae and maybe the irrigation canals. Its longitudinal axis is oriented north-south. There is a 10m-height differential between the water tower site and the valley in which the Mediana buildings are located. Kartuzy A water tower is a very large tank constructed for the purpose of holding a supply of water at a height sufficient to pressurize a water supply system. ... Map sources for Wells at grid reference ST5445 The west front of Wells Cathedral Wells is a small city in the Mendip district of Somerset. ... Fountain is also the name of an artwork by Marcel Duchamp An ornamental lit fountain photographed at night for about 6 seconds. ... A watershed or catchment basin is the region of land whose water drains into a specified body of water, such as a river, lake, sea, or ocean. ... The term thermae was the word the Ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mediana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (928 words)
Mediana (modern Median) is an important archeological site from the late Roman period located in the eastern suburb of the Serbian city of Niลก.
After Constantine's death in 337, the imperial residence in Mediana was used by several other emperors, either as place of rest on their long journeys or during preparations for war.
What strikes the eye is that the luxurious buildings of solid material with columns, decorated with marble facing, mosaics and frescoes, are concentrated mainly around the central villa and its peristyle, while the economic buildings are located to the west of the granary towards Naissus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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