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Encyclopedia > Median nerve
Nerve: Median nerve
Diagram from Gray's anatomy, depicting the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity, amongst others the median nerve
Latin nervus medianus
Gray's subject #210 938
Innervates Anterior compartment of the forearm (with two exceptions), Thenar eminence, Lumbricals
From Lateral cord, Medial cord
MeSH Median+Nerve
Dorlands/Elsevier n_05/12566162

The median nerve is a nerve that runs down the arm and forearm. It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (524x1000, 162 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ulnar nerve Long thoracic nerve Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 17 Musculocutaneous nerve List of images in Grays Anatomy: IX. Neurology ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... In humans, the upper limb is an anatomical term for the limb that is attached to the pectoral girdle. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The anterior compartment of the forearm contains the following muscles: E/I refers to extrinsic or intrinsic. Compartment syndrome      Muscles of upper limbs VERTEBRAL COLUMN: trapezius - latissimus dorsi - rhomboid major - rhomboid minor - levator scapulae ANTERIOR AND LATERAL THORACIC WALLS: pectoralis major - pectoralis minor - subclavius - serratus anterior SHOULDER: deltoid - rotator cuff... The thenar eminence is the body of muscle on the palm of the human hand just beneath the thumb. ... Lumbrical can refer to: Lumbrical muscle (hand) Lumbrical muscle (foot) Category: ... The Lateral cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... The Medial cord is a division of the brachial plexus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ...


The median nerve is formed from parts of the medial and lateral cords of the brachial plexus, and continues down the arm to enter the forearm with the brachial artery. The brachial plexus is an arrangement of nerve fibres (a plexus) running from the spine (vertebrae C5-T1), through the neck, the axilla (armpit region), and into the arm. ... The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm. ...


The median nerve is the only nerve that passes through the carpal tunnel, where it may be compressed to cause carpal tunnel syndrome. This article is about the connective tissue. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...

Contents

Course

Course in the Upper Arm

After receiving inputs from both the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus, the median nerve courses with brachial artery on medial side of arm between biceps brachii and brachialis. At first lateral to the artery, it then crosses anteriorly to run medial to the artery in the distal arm and into the cubital fossa. A person flexing his biceps brachii In human anatomy, the biceps brachii is a muscle on the upper arm that acts to flex the elbow. ... Brachialis is a flexor muscle in the upper arm. ...


The median nerve gives off no branches in the upper arm.


Course and Branches in the forearm

The median nerves arises from the cubital fossa and passes between the two heads of pronator teres. It then travels between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus before emerging between flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis. The Pronator teres muscle is a muscle of the human body, in the forearm. ... Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers. ... The flexor digitorum profundis is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers. ... Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers. ... In anatomy, flexor carpi radialis is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and abduct the hand. ...


The unbranched portion of the median nerve (which arises from the cubital fossa) innervates muscles of superficial and intermediate groups of the anterior compartment except flexor carpi ulnaris


The median nerve does give off two branches as it courses through the forearm:

The palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, which supplies the lateral aspect of the palmar skin arises proximal to the flexor retinaculum and passes superficial to it so does not pass through the carpal tunnel. The anterior interosseous nerve (volar interosseous nerve) is a branch of the median nerve that supplies the deep muscles on the front of the forearm, except the ulnar half of the flexor digitorum profundus. ... The anterior interosseous artery (volar interosseous artery), passes down the forearm on the volar surface of the interosseous membrane. ... The anterior compartment of the forearm contains the following muscles: E/I refers to extrinsic or intrinsic. Compartment syndrome      Muscles of upper limbs VERTEBRAL COLUMN: trapezius - latissimus dorsi - rhomboid major - rhomboid minor - levator scapulae ANTERIOR AND LATERAL THORACIC WALLS: pectoralis major - pectoralis minor - subclavius - serratus anterior SHOULDER: deltoid - rotator cuff... Pronator quadratus is a square shaped muscle on the distal forearm that acts to pronate (turn so the palm faces downwards) the hand. ... The palmar branch of the median nerve arises at the lower part of the forearm. ...


Branches in the hand

The median nerve enters the hand through the carpal tunnel, deep to the flexor retinaculum along with the tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and flexor pollicis longus. A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers. ... The flexor digitorum profundis is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers. ... The Flexor pollicis longus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ...


From there it sends off several branches:

  • 1. Recurrent branch to muscles of the thenar compartment
  • 2. Digital cutaneous branches to common palmar digital branch and proper palmar digital branch of the median nerve which supply the:
    • a) lateral (radial) three and a half digits on the palmar side
    • b) index, middle and ring finger on dorsum of the hand

The median nerve supplies motor innervation to the first and second lumbricals. In the palm of the hand the median nerve is covered by the skin and the palmar aponeurosis, and rests on the tendons of the Flexor muscles. ... In the palm of the hand the median nerve is covered by the skin and the palmar aponeurosis, and rests on the tendons of the Flexor muscles. ...


Innervation

Upper Arm

No motor innervation.


Forearm

It innervates most of the flexors in the forearm except flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial two digits of flexor digitorum profundus, which are supplied by the ulnar nerve. The anterior compartment of the forearm contains the following muscles: E/I refers to extrinsic or intrinsic. The muscles are largely involved with flexion and pronation. ... In anatomy, flexor carpi ulnaris muscle is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and adduct the hand. ... The flexor digitorum profundis is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers. ... In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs from the shoulder to the hand, at one part running near the ulna bone. ...


Unbranched, the median nerves supplies the following muscles.


Superior Group:

Intermediate Group: The Pronator teres muscle is a muscle of the human body, in the forearm. ... In anatomy, flexor carpi radialis is a muscle of the human forearm that acts to flex and abduct the hand. ... OriginMedial epicondyle of humerus InsertionDistal half of the flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis Innervation Median nerve(C7 and C8) Action Flexes hand(at wrist)and tightens palmar aponeurosis. ...

The anterior interosseus branch supplies the following muscles... Flexor digitorum superficialis is an extrinsic flexor muscle of the fingers. ...


Deep group:

The flexor digitorum profundis is a muscle in the forearm that flexes the fingers. ... The Flexor pollicis longus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... Pronator quadratus is a square shaped muscle on the distal forearm that acts to pronate (turn so the palm faces downwards) the hand. ...

Hand

In the hand, the median nerve supplies motor innervation to the 1st and 2nd lumbricals and the muscles of the thenar eminence of the hand by a recurrent thenar branch. The rest of the intrinsic muscles of the hand are supplied by the ulnar nerve. Lumbrical can refer to: Lumbrical muscle (hand) Lumbrical muscle (foot) Category: ... The thenar eminence is the body of muscle on the palm of the human hand just beneath the thumb. ...


The median nerve innervates the skin of the palmar side of the thumb, the index and middle finger, half the ring finger, and the nail bed of these fingers. The lateral part of the palm is supplied by the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve which leaves the nerve proximal to the wrist creases. This palmar cutaneous branch travels in a separate fascial groove adjacent to the flexor carpi radialis. The thumb is one of the five fingers. ... The Index finger The index finger, pointer finger or forefinger is the second digit of a human hand, located between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger on this hand is extended. ... Nails: left hand, adult human male Anatomy In anatomy, a nail is a horn-like piece at the end of an animal finger or toe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In human anatomy, the wrist is the flexible and narrower connection between the forearm and the palm. ...


Injury

Injury of median nerve at different levels cause different syndromes. Injury of this nerve at a level above elbow joint results in loss of pronation and a decrease in flexion of the hand at the wrist joint. In the hand, thenar muscles are paralysed and atrophy in time. Opposition and flexion movements of thumb are lost, and thumb and index finger are arrested in adduction and hyperextension position. This appearance of the hand is collectively referred as ape hand deformity. In addition, in palmar side of the hand sensation of lateral part of hand, first three fingers and lateral half of the fourth finger and in dorsal side sensation of distal ⅓ portions of first three fingers and lateral half of distal ⅓ portion of fourth finger is lost. In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The thenar eminence is the body of muscle on the palm of the human hand just beneath the thumb. ...


Additional images

External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Median nerve (193 words)
It is one of the five main nerves originating from the brachial plexus.
The median nerve is formed from parts of the medial and lateral cords, and continues down the arm.
The median nerve is the only nerve that passes through the carpal tunnel[?], so it plays a large part in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Median nerve - encyclopedia article about Median nerve. (1489 words)
The median nerve is a nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin.
This part of the ulnar nerve is known as the funny bone for two reasons: because of its proximity to the humerus (and the similar word "humorous"), and because of the mild pain and tingling throughout the forearm associated with sudden compression of the nerve at this point.
The median nerve runs through the carpal tunnel, a canal in the wrist that is surrounded by bone on three sides, and a fibrous sheath (the flexor retinaculum) on the other.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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