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Encyclopedia > Media bias

Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" usually refers to a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article.The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed, although its causes are both practical and theoretical. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. ...

Practical limitations to media neutrality include the inability of journalists to report all available stories and facts, and the requirement that selected facts be linked into a coherent narrative (Newton 1989). Since it is impossible to report everything, some bias is inevitable. Government influence, including overt and covert censorship, biases the media in some countries. Market forces that can result in a biased presentation include the ownership of the news source, the selection of staff, the preferences of an intended audience, or pressure from advertisers. Political affiliations arise from ideological positions of media owners and journalists. The space or air time available for reports, as well as deadlines needed to be met, can lead to incomplete and apparently biased stories. For other uses, see Censor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about work. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... For other uses, see Audience (disambiguation). ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ...


Types of bias

  • Corporate bias, including advertising, coverage of political campaigns in such a way as to favor or vilify corporate interests, and the reporting of issues to favor the interests of the owners of the news media or its advertisers.
  • Class bias, including bias favoring one social class and bias ignoring (or exaggerating) social or class divisions.
  • Political bias, including bias in favor of or against a particular political party, candidate, or policy. (Often, people complain of the "liberal media" or "conservative media".) Other complaints are is that the American media has an "either or" view by only focusing on Republicans or Democrats, and ignoring other lines of thought such as libertarianism.
  • Religious bias, including bias in which one religious or nonreligious viewpoint is given preference over others.
  • Sensationalism, which is bias in favor of the exceptional over the ordinary. This includes the practice whereby exceptional news may be overemphasized, distorted or fabricated to boost commercial ratings; entertainment news is often subjected to sensationalism.
  • Exaggerated influence of minority views: Like sensationalism, this is a tendency to emphasize the new and the different over the status quo or existing consensus. This may be done in an attempt to be "fair", or to find something worth reporting.
  • Bias toward ease or expediency: This can be a tendency to present information which is already widely reported in other news media, i.e. "jumping on the bandwagon" or "following the leader", presentation of "fluff pieces" which are of questionable journalistic merit (such as coverage in news media of the personal lives of celebrities, or "news you can use"-style reporting which offers consumer advice which is widely viewed as common sense), and overrepresentation of crime reporting, particularly street crime. This type of bias is largely attributed to the relatively low cost of presenting these stories (compared to investigative journalism which tends to require more time and research, and thus more money, to produce), competition between commercial news media for consumers, ratings and ad revenue, and a 24-hour news cycle which demands constant output.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Sensationalism is a manner of being extremely controversial, loud, attention-grabbing, or otherwise sensationalistic. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ... Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest, often involving crime, political corruption, or some other scandal. ...

Sources of media bias

Whether or not media bias exists is a seemingly endless debate. Yet valid questions remain about media performance and the role of public communications practitioners in shaping perception. There are some researchers who use a “social construction of reality” framework to analyze media and the ways in which information is filtered. According to scholar Richard Alan Nelson's (2003) study Tracking Propaganda to the Source: Tools for Analyzing Media Bias, [1] media effects findings suggest that when bias occurs it stems from combination of 10 factors:

1. The media are neither objective nor completely honest in their portrayal of important issues.

2. Framing devices are employed in stories by featuring some angles and downplaying others.

3. The news is a product not only of deliberate manipulation, but of the ideological and economic conditions under which the media operate.

4. While appearing independent, the news media are institutions that are controlled or heavily influenced by government and business interests experienced with manufacturing of consent/consensus.

5. Reporters’ sources frequently dominate the flow of information as a way of furthering their own overt and hidden agendas. In particular, the heavy reliance on political officials and other-government related experts occurs through a preferential sourcing selection process which excludes dissident voices.

6. Journalists widely accept the faulty premise that the government's collective intentions are benevolent, despite occasional mistakes.

7. The regular use of the word “we” by journalists in referring to their government’s actions implies nationalistic complicity with those policies.

8. There is an absence of historical context and contemporary comparisons in reportage which would make news more meaningful.

9. The failure to provide follow up assessment is further evidence of a pack journalism mentality that at the conclusion of a “feeding frenzy” wants to move on to other stories.

10. Citizens must avoid self-censorship by reading divergent sources and maintaining a critical perspective on the media in order to make informed choices and participate effectively in the public policy process.

Studies and theories of media bias

Media bias is studied at schools of journalism, university departments (including Media studies, Cultural studies and Peace studies) and by many independent watchdog groups from various parts of the political spectrum. In the United States, many of these studies focus on issues of a conservative/liberal balance in the media. Other focuses include international differences in reporting, as well as bias in reporting of particular issues such as economic class or environmental interests. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Media Studies is the study of the constitution and effects of media. ... Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ...

A widely-cited public opinion study [2] documents a correlation between news source and certain misperceptions about the Iraq war. Conducted by the Program on International Policy Attitudes in October of 2003, the poll asked Americans whether they believed statements about the Iraq war that were known to be false. Respondents were also asked which was their their primary news source: Fox News, CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, "Print sources," or NPR . By cross referencing the responses according to primary news source, the study showed that higher numbers of Fox News watchers believed certain misperceptions about the Iraq war.

The Glasgow Media Group[1] carried out the Bad News Studies, a series of detailed analyses of television broadcasts (and later newspaper coverage) in the United Kingdom. (Eldridge, 2000). Published between 1976 and 1985, the Bad News Studies used content analysis, interviews and covert participant observation to conclude that news was biased against trade unions, blaming them for breaking wage negotiating guidelines and causing high inflation. Content analysis (also called: textual analysis) is a standard methodology in the social sciences on the subject of communication content. ...

Martin Harrison's TV News: Whose Bias? (1985) criticized the methodology of the Glasgow Media Group, arguing that the GMG identified bias selectively, via their own preconceptions about what phrases qualify as biased descriptions. For example, the GMG sees the word "idle" to describe striking workers as pejorative, despite the word being used by strikers themselves. (Street 2001, p. 31).

Herman and Chomsky (1988) proposed a propaganda model hypothesizing systematic biases of U.S. media from structural economic causes. They hypothesize media ownership by corporations, funding from advertising, the use of official sources, efforts to discredit independent media ("flak"), and "anti-communist" ideology as the filters that bias news in favour of U.S. corporate interests. Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ...

Their propaganda model first and foremost disuses self censorship through the corporate system (see corporate censorship); that reporters and especially editors share and/or acquire values with corporate elites in order to further their careers. Those that don’t are usually weeded out or marginalized. Such examples have been dramatized in fact based movie dramas as “Good Night, and Good Luck” and “The Insider” or demonstrated in the documentary “The Corporation”[2]. George Orwell originally wrote a preface for his book “Animal Farm”, which focuses on British self censorship. "The sinister fact about literary censorship in England is that it is largely voluntary. ... [Things are] kept right out of the British press, not because the Government intervened but because of a general tacit agreement that ‘it wouldn’t do’ to mention that particular fact." As if to prove the point, the preface itself was censored and is not published with most copies of the book. The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Corporate censorship is a term used to denote either censorship through legal challenges, through refusal to sell a product, or refusal to advertise or allow air time. ... Good Night, and Good Luck is a 2005 film by George Clooney about the conflict between journalist Edward R. Murrow and anti-communist Senator Joseph McCarthy and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. ... The Insider is a 1999 film which tells the true story of a 60 Minutes television series exposé of the tobacco industry, as seen through the eyes of a real tobacco executive, Jeffrey Wigand. ... George Orwell is the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950) who was an English writer and journalist well-noted as a novelist, critic, and commentator on politics and culture. ... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ...

The propaganda model posits that advertising dollars are essential for funding most media sources and clearly have a clear effect on the content of the media. For example, according Fair, ‘When Al Gore proposed launching a progressive TV network, a Fox News executive told Advertising Age (10/13/03): "The problem with being associated as liberal is that they wouldn't be going in a direction that advertisers are really interested in.... If you go out and say that you are a liberal network, you are cutting your potential audience, and certainly your potential advertising pool, right off the bat.”[3] Furthermore “an internal memo from ABC Radio Networks to its affiliates reveals scores of powerful sponsors have a standing order that their commercials never be placed on syndicated Air America programming that airs on ABC affiliates…. The list, totaling 90 advertisers, includes some of largest and most well-known corporations advertising in the U.S.: Wal-Mart, GE, Exxon Mobil, Microsoft, Bank of America, Fed-Ex, Visa, Allstate, McDonald's, Sony and Johnson & Johnson. The U.S. Postal Service and the U.S. Navy are also listed as advertisers who don't want their commercials to air on Air America.”[4] This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Former Air America logo, 2004-2007 Air America Radio is a talk radio network and program syndication service in the United States. ...

The academic study cited most frequently by critics of a "liberal media bias" in American journalism is The Media Elite,* a 1986 book co-authored by political scientists Robert Lichter, Stanley Rothman, and Linda Lichter. They surveyed journalists at national media outlets such as the New York Times, Washington Post, and the broadcast networks. The survey which found that most of these journalists were Democratic voters whose attitudes were well to the left of the general public on a variety of topics, including such hot-button social issues such as abortion, affirmative action, and gay rights. Then they compared journalists' attitudes to their coverage of controversial issues such as the safety of nuclear power, school busing to promote racial integration, and the energy crisis of the 1970s. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ...

The book's most thorough case study involved nuclear energy. The survey of journalists showed that most were highly skeptical about nuclear safety. However, the authors conducted a separate survey of scientists in energy related fields, who were much more sanguine about nuclear safety issues. They then conducted a content analysis of nuclear energy coverage in the media outlets they had surveyed. They found that the opinions of sources who were cited as scientific experts reflected the antinuclear sentiments of journalists, rather than the more pro-nuclear perspectives held by most energy scientists.

The authors concluded that journalists' coverage of controversial issues reflected their own attitudes, and the predominance of political liberals in newsrooms therefore pushed news coverage in a liberal direction. They presented this tilt as a mostly unconscious process of like-minded individuals projecting their shared assumptions onto their interpretations of reality. At the time the study was embraced mainly by conservative columnists and politicians, who adopted the findings as "scientific proof" of liberal media bias.

Many of the positions in the preceding study are supported by a 2002 study by Jim A. Kuypers: Press Bias and Politics: How the Media Frame Controversial Issues. In this study of 116 mainstream US papers (including The New York Times, the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, and the San Francisco Chronicle), Kuypers found that the mainstream print press in America operate within a narrow range of liberal beliefs. Those who expressed points of view further to the left were generally ignored, whereas those who expressed moderate or conservative points of view were often actively denigrated or labeled as holding a minority point of view. In short, if a political leader, regardless of party, spoke within the press-supported range of acceptable discourse, he or she would receive positive press coverage. If a politician, again regardless of party, were to speak outside of this range, he or she would receive negative press or be ignored. Kuypers also found that the liberal points of view expressed in editorial and opinion pages were found in hard news coverage of the same issues. Although focusing primarily on the issues of race and homosexuality, Kuypers found that the press injected opinion into its news coverage of other issues such as welfare reform, environmental protection, and gun control; in all cases favoring a liberal point of view. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Jim A. Kuypers is an American Academic specializing in communication studies at Virginia Tech. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Welfare reform is the name for a policy change in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to reduce dependence on welfare, as demanded by political conservatives. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ...

There is also a growing economics literature on mass media bias, both on the theoretical and the empirical side. On the theoretical side the focus is on understanding to what extent the political positioning of mass media outlets is mainly driven by demand or supply factors. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...

According to Dan Sutter of the University of Oklahoma, a systematic liberal bias in the U.S. media could depend on the fact that owners and/or journalists typically lean to the left.[5]

Along the same lines, David Baron of Stanford GSB presents a game-theoretic model of mass media behaviour in which, given that the pool of journalists systematically leans towards the left or the right, mass media outlets maximise their profits by providing content that is biased in the same direction.[6] They can do so, because it is cheaper to hire journalists that write stories which are consistent with their political position. A concurrent theory would be that supply and demand would cause media to attain a neutral balance because consumers would of course gravitate towards the media they agreed with. This argument fails in considering the imbalance in self-reported political allegiances by journalists themselves, that distort any market analogy as regards offer: (...) Indeed, in 1982, 85 percent of Columbia Graduate School of Journalism students identified themselves as liberal, versus 11 percent conservative" (Lichter, Rothman, and Lichter 1986: 48), quoted in Sutter, 2001.[7] Lichter (German: Lights; English title Distant Lights) is a German film, released in 2003. ...

This same argument would have news outlets in equal numbers increasing profits of a more balanced media far more than the slight increase in costs to hire unbiased journalists, notwithstanding the extreme rarity of self-reported conservative journalists (Sutton, 2001).

As mentioned above, Tim Groseclose of UCLA and Jeff Milyo of the University of Missouri at Columbia[8] use think tank quotes, in order to estimate the relative position of mass media outlets in the political spectrum. The idea is to trace out which think tanks are quoted by various mass media outlets within news stories, and to match these think tanks with the political position of members of the U.S. Congress who quote them in a non-negative way. Using this procedure, Groseclose and Milyo obtain the stark result that all sampled news providers -except Fox News' Special Report and the Washington Times- are located to the left of the average Congress member, i.e. there are signs of a liberal bias in the US news media. However, the news media also show a remarkable degree of centrism, just because all outlets but one are located –from an ideological point of view- between the average Democrat and average Republican in Congress.

The methods Groseclose and Milyo used to calculate this bias have been criticized by Mark Lieberman, a professor of Computer Science at the University of Pennsylvania.[9][10] Lieberman concludes by saying he thinks "that many if not most of the complaints directed against G&M are motivated in part by ideological disagreement -- just as much of the praise for their work is motivated by ideological agreement. It would be nice if there were a less politically fraught body of data on which such modeling exercises could be explored."[9]

Sendhil Mullainathan and Andrei Shleifer of Harvard University construct a behavioural model[11], which is built around the assumption that readers and viewers hold beliefs that they would like to see confirmed by news providers. When news customers share common beliefs, profit-maximizing media outlets find it optimal to select and/or frame stories in order to pander to those beliefs. On the other hand, when beliefs are heterogeneous, news providers differentiate their offer and segment the market, by providing news stories that are slanted towards the two extreme positions in the spectrum of beliefs. Harvard redirects here. ...

Matthew Gentzkow and Jesse Shapiro of Chicago GSB present another demand-driven theory of mass media bias.[12] If readers and viewers have a priori views on the current state of affairs and are uncertain about the quality of the information about it being provided by media outlets, then the latter have an incentive to slant stories towards their customers' prior beliefs, in order to build and keep a reputation for high-quality journalism. The reason for this is that rational agents would tend to believe that pieces of information that go against their prior beliefs in fact originate from low-quality news providers.

The economics empirical literature on mass media bias mainly focuses on the United States. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...

Steve Ansolabehere, Rebecca Lessem and Jim Snyder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology analyze the political orientation of endorsements by U.S. newspapers.[13] They find an upward trend in the average propensity to endorse a candidate, and in particular an incumbent one. There are also some changes in the average ideological slant of endorsements: while in the 40s and in the 50s there was a clear advantage to Republican candidates, this advantage continuously eroded in subsequent decades, to the extent that in the 90s the authors find a slight Democratic lead in the average endorsement choice. “MIT” redirects here. ...

John Lott and Kevin Hassett of the American Enterprise Institute study the coverage of economic news by looking at a panel of 389 U.S. newspapers from 1991 to 2004, and from 1985 to 2004 for a subsample comprising the top 10 newspapers and the Associated Press.[14] For each release of official data about a set of economic indicators, the authors analyze how newspapers decide to report on them, as reflected by the tone of the related headlines. The idea is to check whether newspapers display some kind of partisan bias, by giving more positive or negative coverage to the same economic figure, as a function of the political affiliation of the incumbent President. Controlling for the economic data being released, the authors find that there are between 9.6 and 14.7 percent fewer positive stories when the incumbent President is a Republican. The American Enterprise Institutes Logo The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI) is a neoconservative think tank, founded in 1943. ...

Riccardo Puglisi of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology looks at the editorial choices of the New York Times from 1946 to 1997.[15] He finds that the Times displays Democratic partisanship, with some watchdog aspects. This is the case, because during presidential campaigns the Times systematically gives more coverage to Democratic topics of civil rights, health care, labor and social welfare, but only when the incumbent president is a Republican. These topics are classified as Democratic ones, because Gallup polls show that on average U.S. citizens think that Democratic candidates would be better at handling problems related to them. According to Puglisi, in the post-1960 period the Times displays a more symmetric type of watchdog behaviour, just because during presidential campaigns it also gives more coverage to the typically Republican issue of Defense when the incumbent President is a Democrat, and less so when the incumbent is a Republican. “MIT” redirects here. ... A watchdog originally referred to a dogs job, but now has been used in additional contexts with the same implication of watching or safeguarding: For the dogs job, see guard dog. ... Open seat redirects here. ...

Alan Gerber and Dean Karlan of Yale University use an experimental approach to examine not whether the media is biased,[16] but whether the media influence political decisions and attitudes. They conduct a randomized control trial just prior to the November 2005 gubernatorial election in Virginia and randomly assign individuals in Northern Virginia to (a) a treatment group that receives a free subscription to the Washington Post, (b) a treatment group that receives a free subscription to the Washington Times, or (c) a control group. They find that those who are assigned to the Washington Post treatment group are eight percentage points more likely to vote for the Democrat in the elections. The report also found that "exposure to either newspaper was weakly linked to a movement away from the Bush administration and Republicans."[16] Yale redirects here. ... ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ...

Another unaffiliated group Media Study Group, established seven a priori categories of poor journalistic practice, for example, the journalist stating personal opinion in a report, asserting incorrect facts, applying unequal space or treatment to two sides of a controversial issue, then analysed The Age Newspaper (Melbourne Australia) for the frequency of infraction of this code of practice. The resultant instances were then analysed statistically with respect to the frequency they supported one or other side of the two-sided controversial issue under consideration. This study was published http://www.honestreporting.com/a/specialReports.asp?p=4. The goal of this group was to establish a quantitative methodology for the study of bias.

A self-described progressive media watchdog group, Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, in consultation with the Survey and Evaluation Research Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University, sponsored a rigorous academic study in which journalists were asked a range of questions about how they did their work and about how they viewed the quality of media coverage in the broad area of politics and economic policy. “They were asked for their opinions and views about a range of recent policy issues and debates. Finally, they were asked for demographic and identifying information, including their political orientation”. They then compared to the say or similar questions posed with “the public” based on Gallop, and Pew Trust polls.[17] Their study concluded that a majority of journalists, although relatively liberal on social policies, were significantly to the right of the public on economic, labor, health care and foreign policy issues. Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), is a media criticism organization based in New York, New York, founded in 1986. ...

This study continues: “we learn much more about the political orientation of news content by looking at sourcing patterns rather than journalists' personal views. As this survey shows, it is government officials and business representatives to whom journalists "nearly always" turn when covering economic policy. Labor representatives and consumer advocates were at the bottom of the list. This is consistent with earlier research on sources. For example, analysts from the centrist Brookings Institution and conservative think thanks such as the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute are those most quoted in mainstream news accounts; liberal think tanks are often invisible. When it comes to sources, ‘liberal bias’ is nowhere to be found.”

The accuracy of this study is doubtful, though, because Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting has throughout its history demonstrated a liberal bias. [18] Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), is a media criticism organization based in New York, New York, founded in 1986. ...

Experimenter bias

A major problem in studies is experimenter bias. Research into studies of media bias in the United States shows that Liberal experimenters tend to get results that say the media has a conservative bias, while conservatives experimenters tend to get results that say the media has a liberal bias, and those who do not identify themselves as either liberal or conservative get results indicating little bias, or mixed bias. This same problem with experimenter bias extends to the studies of experimenter bias, of course. [3] [4] [5] Whether bias is toward the left or the right depends on where you stand.

The study "A Measure of Media Bias" (pdf) by political scientist Timothy J. Groseclose of UCLA and economist Jeffrey D. Milyo of the University of Missouri-Columbia, purport to demonstrate that America's news content has "a strong liberal bias," but defined "liberal" in terms of their reference think tanks and policy groups were. They used the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) scores as a quantitative proxy for political leanings of the referential organizations. Thus their definition of "liberal" includes the RAND Corporation, a nonprofit research organization with strong ties to the Defense Department. According to Media Matters for America, “the study employed a measure of "bias" so problematic that its findings are next to useless”. (Media Matters for America - Former fellows at conservative think tanks issued flawed UCLA-led study on media's "liberal bias 21/12/05) What is "liberal" in the United States may not be "liberal" by world standards. FAIR suggests that a benchmark for each country be set by scientific polling of a cross-section of the citizens. (FAIR - Maybe the Public - not the Press - Has a Leftist Bias by Jeff Cohen 05/07/98.) Americans For Democratic Action (ADA) was formed in January 1947, when Eleanor Roosevelt, John Kenneth Galbraith, Reinhold Niebuhr, Hubert Humphrey and 200 other activists. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...

Another source of bias is the fact that some studies are reported by the media, and other stories are not. The case study "A Measure of Media Bias" discussed above was widely reported in the United States. George Orwell pointed out that in the UK during the last century businesses did not undermine their own interests by reporting leftist (anti business or pro-labor) information. In the United States Ben Bagdikian (Ben Bagdikian - The New Media Monopoly.) documents a long history of advertisers pulling out support when media content becomes too controversial.

Tools for measuring and evaluating media bias

Richard Alan Nelson's (2003) study cited above on Tracking Propaganda to the Source: Tools for Analyzing Media Bias [6] reports there are at least 12 methods used to analyze the existence of and quantify bias:

1. Surveys of the political/cultural attitudes of journalists, particularly members of the media elite, and of journalism students.

2. Studies of journalists' previous professional connections.

3. Collections of quotations in which prominent journalists reveal their beliefs about politics and/or the proper role of their profession.

4. Computer word-use and topic analysis searches to determine content and labeling.

5. Studies of policies recommended in news stories.

6. Comparisons of the agenda of the news and entertainment media with agendas of political candidates or other activists.

7. Positive/negative coverage analysis.

8. Reviews of the personal demographics of media decision makers.

9. Comparisons of advertising sources/content which influence information/entertainment content.

10. Analyses of the extent of government propaganda and public relations (PR) industry impact on media.

11. Studies of the use of experts and spokespersons etc. by media vs. those not selected to determine the interest groups and ideologies represented vs. those excluded.

12. Research into payments of journalists by corporations and trade associations to speak before their groups and the impact that may have on coverage.

Efforts to correct bias

One technique used to avoid bias is the "point/counterpoint" or "round table," an adversarial format in which representatives of opposing views comment on an issue. This approach theoretically allows diverse views to appear in the media. However, the person organizing the report still has the responsibility to choose people who really represent the breadth of opinion, to ask them non-prejudicial questions, and to edit or arbitrate their comments fairly. When done carelessly, a point/counterpoint can be as unfair as a simple biased report, by suggesting that the "losing" side lost on its merits. In Japanese pop music, Round Table (officially ROUND TABLE) is a band that produces music mostly for Anime soundtracks. ... The adversarial system (or adversary system) of law is the system of law, generally adopted in common law countries, that relies on the skill of the different advocates representing their partys positions and not on some neutral party, usually the judge, trying to ascertain the truth of the case. ...

The Skeptics Society has accused reporters of misusing the point/counterpoint format by giving more time to superstitions than to their scientific rebuttals. The Skeptics Society is a nonprofit organization devoted to promoting scientific skepticism and resisting the spread of pseudoscience, superstition, and irrational beliefs. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...

Using this format can also lead to accusations that the reporter has created a misleading appearance that viewpoints have equal validity (sometimes called "false balance" [7]). This may happen when a taboo exists around one of the viewpoints, or when one of the representatives habitually makes claims that are easily shown to be inaccurate. False balance is a term used to describe a perceived or real media bias, where journalists present an issue as being more balanced between opposing viewpoints than the evidence actually supports. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...

One such allegation of misleading balance came from Mark Halperin, political director of ABC News. He stated in an internal e-mail message that reporters should not "artificially hold [George W. Bush and John Kerry] 'equally' accountable" to the public interest, and that complaints from Bush supporters were an attempt to "get away with ... renewed efforts to win the election by destroying Senator Kerry." Mark Halperin (born 1965) is the ABC News Political Director. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ...

When the Drudge Report published this message [8], many Bush supporters viewed it as "smoking gun" evidence that Halperin was using ABC to propagandize against Bush to Kerry's benefit, by interfering with reporters' attempts to avoid bias. An academic content analysis of election news later found that coverage at ABC, CBS, and NBC was more favorable toward Kerry than Bush, while coverage at Fox News Channel was more favorable toward Bush.[19] The Drudge Report is a U.S.-based news website run by Matt Drudge. ...

Another technique used to avoid bias is disclosure of affiliations that may be considered a possible conflict of interest. This is especially apparent when a news organization is reporting a story with some relevancy to the news organization itself or to its ownership individuals or conglomerate. Often this disclosure is mandated by the laws or regulations pertaining to stocks and securities. Commentators on news stories involving stocks are often required to disclose any ownership interest in those corporations or in its competitors.

In rare cases, a news organization may dismiss or reassign staff members who appear biased. This approach was used in the Killian documents affair and after Peter Arnett's interview with the Iraqi press. One of the Killian documents. ... Peter Arnett (born November 13, 1934 in Riverton, New Zealand) is a New Zealand-American journalist. ...

Finally, some countries have laws enforcing balance in state-owned media. Since 1991, the CBC and Radio Canada, its Francophone counterpart, are governed by the Broadcasting Act. This act states, amongst other things: Radio-Canada redirects here. ... CBC redirects here, as this is the most common use of the abbreviation. ...

the programming provided by the Canadian broadcasting system should (i) be varied and comprehensive, providing a balance of information, enlightenment and entertainment for men, women and children of all ages, interests and tastes, (...) (iv) provide a reasonable opportunity for the public to be exposed to the expression of differing views on matters of public concern

History of bias in the mass media

Political bias has been a feature of the mass media since its birth with the invention of the printing press. The expense of early printing equipment restricted media production to a limited number of people. Historians have found that publishers often served the interests of powerful social groups.[20] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...

John Milton's pamphlet Areopagitica, a Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing, published in 1644, was one of the first publications advocating freedom of the press.[21] For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...

In the nineteenth century, journalists began to recognize the concept of unbiased reporting as an integral part of journalistic ethics. This coincided with the rise of journalism as a powerful social force. Even today, though, the most conscientiously objective journalists cannot avoid accusations of bias. [22] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Journalism ethics or journalistic ethics refers to a set of rules or morals adopted by news organizations or members of the news media. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ...

Like newspapers, the broadcast media (radio and television) have been used as a mechanism for propaganda from their earliest days, a tendency made more pronounced by the initial ownership of broadcast spectrum by national governments. Although a process of media deregulation has placed the majority of the western broadcast media in private hands, there still exists a strong government presence, or even monopoly, in the broadcast media of many countries across the globe. At the same time, the concentration of media in private hands, and frequently amongst a comparatively small number of individuals, has also lead to accusations of media bias. 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... The United States government requires users of radio spectrum to obtain a broadcast license to use the airwaves, except for low-powered transmitters like CBs and Walkie Talkies. ...

There are many examples of accusations of bias being used as a political tool, sometimes resulting in government censorship.

In the United States, in 1798, Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which prohibited newspapers from publishing “false, scandalous, or malicious writing” against the government, including any public opposition to any law or presidential act. This act was in effect until 1801. Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Text of the act. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...

During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln accused newspapers in the border states of bias in favor of the Southern cause, and ordered many newspapers closed. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... In a European context, the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense, refer to attempts during the interbellum to unite the countries that had won their independence from Imperial Russia due to the Russian Revolution, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of Imperial... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...

Chancellor Adolf Hitler of Germany, in the years leading up to World War II, accused newspapers of Marxist bias, an accusation echoed by pro-German media in England and the United States. Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Politicians who favored the United States entering World War II on the German side asserted that the international media were controlled by Jews, and that reports of German mistreatment of Jews were biased and without foundation. Hollywood was said to be a hotbed of Jewish bias, and films such as Charlie Chaplin’s The Great Dictator were offered as proof.[23] ... Yaweh redirects here. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ...

In the 1980s, the government of South Africa accused newspapers of liberal bias and instituted government censorship. In 1989, the newspaper New Nation was closed by the government for three months for publishing anti-apartheid propaganda. Other newspapers were not closed, but were extensively censored. Some published the censored sections blacked out, to demonstrate the extent of government censorship. In America during the labor union movement and the civil rights movement, newspapers supporting liberal social reform were accused by conservative newspapers of communist bias.[24] [25] Film and television media were accused of bias in favor of mixing of the races, and many television programs with racially mixed casts, such as I Spy and Star Trek, were not aired on Southern stations.[26] Liberal bias is a common phrase used in American political discourse to express the view that the American media generally has a liberal bias. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... New Nation is a weekly newspaper published in the UK for the black minority. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The I-SPY books were spotters guides written for British children, and particularly successful in the 1950s and 60s. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ...

During the war between the United States and North Vietnam, Vice President Spiro Agnew accused newspapers of anti-American bias, and in a famous speech delivered in San Diego in 1970, called anti-war protesters “The nattering nabobs of negativism.” [27] Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

In 2005, the board of PBS debated bias with regard to its programs, and subsequently reduced time and funding for the left-wing program Now with Bill Moyers, and expanded a show hosted by right-wing host Tucker Carlson. Look up now in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bill D. Moyers (born June 5, 1934 as Billy Don Moyers) is an American journalist and public commentator. ... Tucker Swanson McNear Carlson (born May 16, 1969) is a U.S. political news pundit who formerly co-hosted CNNs Crossfire and MSNBCs Tucker. ...

Not all accusations of bias are political. Science writer Martin Gardner has accused the entertainment media of anti-science bias. He claims that television programs such as The X-Files promote superstition. [28] In contrast, the Competitive Enterprise Institute accuses the media of being biased in favor of science and against business interests, and of credulously reporting science that purports to show that greenhouse gasses cause global warming. [29] Martin Gardner (b. ... Anti-science is a term applied to individuals who are claimed to oppose science or the scientific method. ... The X-Files is an American Peabody, Golden Globe and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on 10 September 1993, and ended on 19 May 2002. ...

Role of language in media bias

Mass media, despite its ability to project worldwide, is limited in its cross-ethnic compatibility by one simple attribute -- language. Ethnicity, being largely developed by a divergence in geography, language, culture, genes and similarly, point of view, has the potential to be countered by a common source of information. Therefore, language, in the absence of translation, comprises a barrier to a worldwide community of debate and opinion, although it is also true that media within any given society may be split along class, political or regional lines. Furthermore, if the language is translated, the translator has room to shift a bias by choosing weighed words for translation. For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ...

Language may also be seen as a political factor in mass media, particularly in instances where a society is characterized by a large number of languages spoken by its populace. The choice of language of mass media may represent a bias towards the group most likely to speak that language, and can limit the public participation by those who do not speak the language. On the other hand, there have also been attempts to use a common-language mass media to reach out to a large, geographically dispersed population, such as in the use of Arabic language by news channel Al Jazeera. Arabic redirects here. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ...

Many media theorists concerned with language and media bias point towards the media of the United States, a large country where English is spoken by the vast majority of the population. Some theorists argue that the common language is not homogenizing; and that there still remain strong differences expressed within the mass media. This viewpoint asserts that moderate views are bolstered by drawing influences from the extremes of the political spectrum. In the United States, the national news therefore contributes to a sense of cohesion within the society, proceeding from a similarly informed population. According to this model, most views within society are freely expressed, and the mass media is accountable to the people and tends to reflect the spectrum of opinion.

Language may also be a more subtle form of bias. Use of a word with positive or negative connotations rather than a more neutral synonym can form a biased picture in the audience's mind. It makes a difference whether the media calls a group "terrorist" or "freedom fighters" or "insurgents". For example, a 2005 memo to the staff of the CBC states: Radio-Canada redirects here. ...

Rather than calling assailants "terrorists," we can refer to them as bombers, hijackers, gunmen (if we're sure no women were in the group), militants, extremists, attackers or some other appropriate noun.

In a widely criticized episode, initial online BBC reports of the 7 July 2005 London bombings identified the perpetrators as terrorists, in contradiction to the BBC's internal policy. But by the next day, Tom Gross[30] and many others noted that the online articles had been edited, replacing "terrorists" by "bombers". In another case, March 28, 2007, the broadcaster paid almost $400,000 in legal fees in a London court to keep an internal memo dealing with alleged anti-Israeli bias from becoming public. BBC was accused of pro-Palestinian bias over a documentary about Israel developing a nuclear weapon during the second Palestinian intifada in 2000. [9] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... Tom Gross is a British-born journalist and international affairs commentator, specializing in the Middle East. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

National and ethnic viewpoint

Many news organizations reflect or are perceived to reflect in some way the viewpoint of the geographic, ethnic, and national population that they primarily serve. Media within countries is sometimes seen as being sycophantic or unquestioning about the country's government.

Western media is often criticized in the rest of the world (including eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East) as being pro-Western with regard to a variety of political, cultural and economic issues. Al Jazeera has been frequently criticized in the West about its coverage of Arab world issues. Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... Arab States redirects here. ...

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and wider Arab-Israeli issues are a particularly controversial area, and nearly all coverage of any kind generates accusation of bias from one or both sides. This topic is covered in a separate article. Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is being pursued not only in the cities, towns, and countryside of Israel and the occupied territories of West Bank and the Gaza Strip with bombs and bullets, it is also a media battle being waged on television and in newspapers and magazines. ...

Media bias and religion

Media bias towards religion is most obvious in countries where the media is controlled by the state, which is in turn dominated by a particular religion. In these instances, bias against other faiths can be explicit and virulent.

But even in countries with freedom of religion and a free press, the dominant religion exerts some amount of influence on the media. In nations where Christianity is the majority faith, reporters tend to focus on the activities of the Christian community, to the exclusion of other faiths. But the opposite may also occur, with media self-consciously avoiding reporting on any religious matters at all in order to avoid the appearance of favoring one faith over another, or presenting religious faith and phenomenon in a negative light.

This type of bias is often seen with reporting on new religious movements. It is often the case that the only view the public gets of a new religious movement, controversial group or purported cult is a negative and sensationalized report by the media. For example, most new or minority religious movements only receive media coverage when something sensational occurs, e.g. the mass suicide of a cult or illegal activities of a leader in the religious movement. A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ...

According to the Encyclopedia of Social Work (19th edition), the news media play an influential role in the general public's perception of cults. As reported in several studies, the media have depicted cults as problematic, controversial, and threatening from the beginning, tending to favor sensationalistic stories over balanced public debates (Beckford, 1985; Richardson, Best, & Bromley, 1991; Victor, 1993). It furthers the analysis that media reports on cults rely heavily on police officials and cult "experts" who portray cult activity as dangerous and destructive, and when divergent views are presented, they are often overshadowed by horrific stories of ritualistic torture, sexual abuse, mind control, etc. Furthermore, unfounded allegations, when proved untrue, receive little or no media attention.[31]

Other influences

The apparent bias of media is not always specifically political in nature. The news media tend to appeal to a specific audience, which means that stories that affect a large number of people on a global scale often receive less coverage in some markets than local stories, such as a public school shootings, a celebrity wedding, a plane crash, or similarly glamorous or shocking stories. For example, the deaths of millions of people in an ethnic conflict in Africa might be afforded scant mention in American media, while the shooting of five people in a high school is analyzed in depth. The reason for this type of bias is a function of what the public wants to watch and/or what producers and publishers believe the public wants to watch. For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... Capt. ...

Bias has also been claimed in instances referred to as conflict of interest, whereby the owners of media outlets have vested interests in other commercial enterprises or political parties. In such cases in the United States, the media outlet is required to disclose the conflict of interest. A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ...

However, the decisions of the editorial department of a newspaper and the corporate parent frequently are not connected, as the editorial staff retains freedom to decide what is covered as well as what isn't. Biases, real or implied, frequently arise when it comes to deciding what stories will be covered and who will be called for those stories.

Accusations that a source is biased, if accepted, may cause media consumers to distrust certain kinds of statements, and place added confidence on others. For example, if readers believe that a particular newspaper is conservatively biased, they may feel that a pro-liberal article in that paper must be true. Conversely, they may assume that a pro-conservative article in that paper is suspect. Because of the possibility of influencing the public in this way, accusations about which media outlets are biased, and how, have become a very common occurrence.

See also

For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... Objectivity is frequently held to be essential to journalistic professionalism (particularly in the United States); however, there is some disagreement about what the concept consists of. ... Media ethics is that universe of ethics dealing with the particular ethical principles and standards of media, worldwide. ... Media bias in the United States is the description of systematically non-uniform selection or coverage of news stories in the United States media. ... The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is being pursued not only in the cities, towns, and countryside of Israel and the occupied territories of West Bank and the Gaza Strip with bombs and bullets, it is also a media battle being waged on television and in newspapers and magazines. ... Claims of Media bias in South Asia attract constant attention. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... The hostile media effect, sometimes called the hostile media phenomenon, refers to the theory that ideological partisans often think that media coverage is biased against their particular interests in an issue. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Cultural bias is the phenomenon of interpreting and judging phenomena by standards inherent to ones own culture. ... Systemic bias is the inherent tendency of a process to favor particular outcomes. ... Culture of fear is a term proposed in a variety of sociological theses, which argue that feelings of fear and anxiety predominate in contemporary public discourse and relationships, changing how we relate to one another as individuals and as democratic agents. ... Missing white woman syndrome (MWWS), also known as missing pretty girl syndrome, is a term used to describe disproportionate media coverage of white female victims. ... In critical theory, and particularly postmodernism, a metanarrative (sometimes master- or grand narrative) is a global or totalizing cultural narrative schema which orders and explains knowledge and experience.[1] The prefix meta means beyond and is here used to mean about, and a narrative is a story. ... The group attribution error is a group-serving, attributional bias identical to the fundamental attribution error except that it occurs between members of different groups rather than different individuals. ... For other uses of Transparency, see Transparency (disambiguation). ... Managing the news refers to acts which are intended to influence the presentation of information within the news media. ... David Brock b. ... Conservapedia is an English-language wiki-based web encyclopedia project with the stated purpose of creating an encyclopedia written from a socially- and economically-conservative viewpoint supportive of Conservative Christianity. ... CNN has been the subject of some controversies. ... Two notable people are named Bill OReilly: For the anchor of The OReilly Factor, see: Bill OReilly (commentator) For the Australian cricketer, see: Bill OReilly (cricketer) This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Fox News Channel has been the subject of several controversies. ... Scare quotes are quotation marks used for purposes other than to identify a direct quotation, mostly as a flag to provoke in the reader a negative association for the word enclosed in the quotes. ...


  • Eldridge, J. (2000). "The Contribution of the Glasgow Media Group to the Study of Television and Print Journalism." Journalism Studies, 1 (1), pp. 113-27.
  • Lichter, S Robert Farnsworth, Stephen J. The Nightly News Nightmare: Television Coverage of Presidential Elections 1980-2004. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0742553787. 
  • Harrison, M. (1985). TV News: Whose Bias?. London: Policy Journals.
  • Herman, E Chomsky, N. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0375714499. 
  • Lichter, S Robert Rothman, Stanley Lichter, Linda S. The Media Elite: America's New Powerbrokers. Hastings House, a division of United Publishers Gr. ISBN 0803893507. 
  • Goldberg, Bernard. Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0060520841. 
  • Alterman, Eric. What Liberal Media?: The Truth About Bias and the News. Basic Books. ISBN 0465001777. 
  • Goldberg, Bernard. Arrogance: Rescuing America From the Media Elite. Warner Books. ISBN 0446693642. 
  • [10] by professor Jim Kuypers ISBN
  • Kuypers, Jim A.. Press Bias and Politics: How the Media Frame Controversial Issues. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0275977587. 
  • Newton, K. (1989). "Media bias." In Goodin, R Reeve, A. Liberal Neutrality. Routledge. ISBN 0415001455. , pp. 130-55.
  • Gutmann, Stephanie. Other War: Israelis, Palestinians and the Struggle for Media Supremacy. Encounter Books. ISBN 1893554945. 

S. Robert Lichter is Professor of Communication at George Mason University, where he directs the Center for Media and Public Affairs, which conducts scientific studies of the news and entertainment media, and the Statistical Assessment Service (STATS), which works to improve the quality of statistical and scientific information in the... Edward S. Herman is an economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... S. Robert Lichter is Professor of Communication at George Mason University, where he directs the Center for Media and Public Affairs, which conducts scientific studies of the news and entertainment media, and the Statistical Assessment Service (STATS), which works to improve the quality of statistical and scientific information in the... Bernard Bernie Goldberg (born 1945) is an American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... Bias book cover Bias: A CBS Insider Exposes How the Media Distort the News is a book by Bernard Goldberg, formerly of CBS, giving detailed examples of liberal bias in TV news reporting. ... Eric Alterman is a liberal American journalist, author, media critic, blogger, and educator, possibly best known for the political weblog named Altercation, which was hosted by MSNBC.com from 2002 until 2006, and now is hosted by Media Matters for America. ... Bernard Bernie Goldberg (born 1945) is an American writer, journalist, and political commentator. ... Jim A. Kuypers is an American Academic specializing in communication studies at Virginia Tech. ...


  1. ^ Glasgow University Media Group
  2. ^ “The Corporation” 11
  3. ^ FAIR - Why Progressive TV Is DOA by Jim Naureckas Nov/Dec 2003.
  4. ^ FAIR - Air America Blackout Oct 25/31 2006
  5. ^ www.cato.org
  6. ^ www.wallis.rochester.edu Media Bias, the paper is now published on the Journal of Public Economics.
  7. ^ www.cato.orgWeekly Network Bias rankings
  8. ^ Media Bias, the paper is now published on the Quarterly Journal of Economics
  9. ^ a b Liberman, Mark (2005-12-23). Multiplying ideologies considered harmful. Language Log. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  10. ^ Liberman, Mark (2005-12-22). Linguistics, politics, mathematics. Language Log. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  11. ^ post.economics.harvard.edu, now published on the American Economic Review
  12. ^ www.gsb.uchicago.edu, published on the Journal of Political Economy
  13. ^ See econ-www.mit.edu for the working paper version; the paper is forthcoming on the Quarterly Journal of Political Science
  14. ^ Link to the abstract
  15. ^ Link to the abstract
  16. ^ a b Link to the paper
  17. ^ FAIR - Examining the "Liberal Media" Claim - Journalists' Views on Politics, Economic Policy and Media Coverage 06/01/98
  18. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairness_and_Accuracy_in_Reporting
  19. ^ Stephen Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter, The Nightly News Nightmare: How Television Portrays Presidential Elections, Second Edition, Rowman & Littlefield, 2006
  20. ^ Ann Heinrichs, The Printing Press (Inventions That Shaped the World), p. 53, Franklin Watts, 2005, ISBN 0531167224, ISBN13 978-0531167229
  21. ^ John Milton, Areopagitica And Other Prose Works, Kessinger, 2004, ISBN 1417912111, ISBN13 978-1417912117
  22. ^ Dale Jacquette, Journalistic Ethics: Moral Responsibility in the Media, Prentice Hall, 2006, ISBN 0131825399, ISBN13 978-0131825390
  23. ^ Louis Pizzitola, Hearst Over Hollywood, Columbia University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-231-11646-2
  24. ^ Heather Cox Richardson, The Death of Reconstruction: Race, Labor, and Politics in the Post-Civil War North, 1865-1901, Harvard University Press, 2001, ISBN 0674006372, ISBN-13 978-0674006379
  25. ^ Steve Estes, I Am a Man!: Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights Movement, The University of North Carolina Press, 2005, ISBN 0807829293, ISBN-13 978-0807829295
  26. ^ Nichelle Nichols, Beyond Uhura: Star Trek and Other Memories, Berkley, 1995, ISBN 1572970111 ISBN-13 978-1572970113
  27. ^ www.bartleby.com/63/48/8148.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-28.
  28. ^ Martin Gardner, The Night is Large, St. Martin's Griffin, 1997, ISBN 0312169493, ISBN13 978-0312169497
  29. ^ Ronald Bailey, Global Warming and Other Eco Myths: How the Environmental Movement Uses False Science to Scare Us to Death, Prima Lifestyles; 2002, ISBN 0761536604, ISBN13 978-0761536604
  30. ^ JPost: Tom Gross - The BBC discovers 'terrorism,' briefly
  31. ^ Robins, Susan P., Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition, National Association of Social Workers. Washington, DC. 1997 Update

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Economic Review (AER) is a quarterly journal of economics published by the American Economic Association. ... Samuel Robert Lichter is Professor of Communication at George Mason University, where he directs the Center for Media and Public Affairs, which conducts scientific studies of the news and entertainment media, and the Statistical Assessment Service (STATS), which works to improve the quality of statistical and scientific information in the...

External links

Blogs and Websites about media bias

  • Accuracy in Media (AIM), a conservative media watchdog group founded in 1969 by Reed Irvine, website updated daily.
  • Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), a progressive media watch group which has been offering criticism of public relations firms, think tanks, industry-funded organizations and industry-friendly experts.
  • Center for Media and Democracy, a self-described non-partisan group, aims to strengthen participatory democracy by investigating and exposing public relations spin and propaganda.
  • Reporting Wars, compares MSM news items side by side, attempting to expose any media bias with their own news stories.
    • What is media bias?
  • Honest Reporting, a site about anti-Israeli media bias.
  • Times Watch, website updated daily that provide examples of claims about bias in the New York Times reporting.
  • CAMERA, another site documenting bias in the coverage of Middle East.
  • Biased BBC, a blog critical of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) News.
  • CBCwatch, a blog critical of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC).
  • Glasgow Media Group
  • Media Research Center, website updated daily that provide examples of claims about liberal bias and misinformation in the news.
  • Newsbusters.org, daily blogs that provide examples of claims about liberal bias and misinformation in the news.
  • Media Matters, website updated daily that provides examples of claims about conservative bias and misinformation in the news.
  • MediaLens, a group of six blogs on this topic.
  • Media Bias Indicators, from Chronically Biased.
  • Israel's Media Watch, bias in the Israeli media.
  • cnnEXPOSED.com, exposes CNN's pro-U.S. bias in war and national security reporting.
  • Glasgow University Mass Media Unit
  • Politmus.com, a website that allows users to rate and comment on media bias.
  • Bad News from the Netherland. This blog states up front that it provides only negative facts. It shows that by using real news stories without context, one can make any country look bad. It spawned a second similar blog, *Bad news from Finland.
  • [http://The Age Newspaper Study www.honestreporting.com/a/specialReports.asp?p=4
  • Chronicle of Bias A site that talks about liberal bias in the Houston Chronicle
  • Skewz.com A website that employs a user-generated rating system that allows the community to vote on the political bias (liberal vs. conservative) of traditional and new media.

1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... The three letter acronym MSM can refer to: Mainstream Media, often used in blogs Maastricht School of Management, in Maastricht, the Netherlands Manhattan School of Music, a conservatory in New York City Marriott School of Management, Brigham Young University business school Master of science in management Masters of Sports Management... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... The Houston Chronicle is a daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States. ...


  • Tracking Propaganda to the Source: Tools for Analyzing Media Bias by Richard Alan Nelson.
  • What's Wrong With the News? - Analysis of what is wrong with the media today.
  • Weekly Network Bias Rankings and discussion
  • Content Analysis
  • The Memory Hole (site for the preservation of FOIAed documents and material removed from government websites)
  • The Media Awareness Project (site about drug reform)
  • "Those Aren't Stones, They're Rocks" -Seth Ackerman Article concerning perceived pro-Israel bias
  • Blinded By Science: How ‘Balanced’ Coverage Lets the Scientific Fringe Hijack Reality by reporter Chris Mooney
  • "A Measure of Media Bias" - a paper-in-progress attempting to analyze media bias by looking at sources statistically
Chris C. Mooney is an American journalist who focuses on science in political policy. ...

  Results from FactBites:
AIM Report: New Evidence of Liberal Media Bias - November A (2775 words)
Claims of media bias are not new, but increasing claims of bias, especially a perceived liberal media bias, have led to diminishing credibility ratings among news outlets, and an increased level of skepticism of all news coverage.
Perception of bias is associated with the perception of accuracy and credibility, and a decrease in a news sources' credibility renders that source less useful; as perceived credibility declines, conceivably, so does the audience.
With liberals being happy with the media, and because conservatives perceive a general media bias, the study suggests that the media in fact are liberal.
  More results at FactBites »



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