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Encyclopedia > Medes
Median Empire

728 BC – 549 BC
Location of Media
Median Empire, ca. 600 BC
Capital Ecbatana
Religion Zoroastrianism, possibly also Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
Government Monarchy
Historical era Iron Age
 - Deioces 728 BC
 - Cyrus the Great 549 BC
Ancient Near East Portal

The Medes were an ancient Iranian people[1][2][3][4][5][6] who lived in the northwestern portions of present-day Iran, roughly the areas of present day Kurdistan, Hamedan, Tehran, Lorestan, Azerbaijan, Esfahan and Zanjan. This area was known in Greek as Media or Medea (Μηδία, Old Persian Māda;[7][8] adjective Median, antiquated also Medean). Under Assyrian rule, the Medes were known as Mādāyu.[9] They entered this region with the first wave of Iranian tribes, in the late second millennium BC (the Bronze Age collapse).[10] Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Image File history File links Median-empire-600BCE.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Medes User:Electionworld/Atlas:Iran ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Proto-Indo-Iranian religion is the term for the religion and beliefs of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, that is, the common predecessor of the various Indo-Iranian peoples. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Province of Pavia (PV) Mayor Elevation m Area 33. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان , Kurdish: Ekbatan) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... Iranian Azerbaijan or Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān), (Azeri: اذربایجان, c. ... Esfahān province (Persian: استان اصفهان (Ostan-e Esfahan); also transliterated as Isfahan, Esfahan, Espahan, Sepahan or Isphahan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... The Bronze Age collapse is the name of the Dark Age period of history of the Ancient Middle East extending between the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Hittite Empire in Anatolia and Syria, and the Egyptian Empire in Syria and Palestine between 1206 and 1150 BC, down to the...


By the 6th century BC, after having together with the Chaldeans defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Medes were able to establish their own empire,[7] that stretched from southern shore of the Black Sea and Aran province (the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan) to north and Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, and which included many tributary states, including the Persians, who eventually supplanted and absorbed the Median empire in the Achaemenid Persian Empire.[7] For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Arran (ar-Ran) is a historic geographic and sometimes political term used in the Azerbaijan Republic to signify the territory which lays within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers,[1] including the highland and... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ...


The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the king of Media. “Cyrus” redirects here. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Persia redirects here. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ...

Contents

Origins

The Medes are presumed to have migrated from Eurasian steppes southward to the Zagros mountains during the second millennium BC.[11] For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ...


Early historical references to Medes

The origin and history of the Medes is quite obscure, as we possess almost no contemporary information, and not a single monument or inscription from Media itself. The story that Ctesias gave (a list of nine kings, beginning with Arbaces, who is said to have destroyed Nineveh in 880s BC, preserved in Diodorus ii. 32 sqq. and copied by many later authors) has no historical value whatsoever; though some of his names may be derived from local traditions. Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Diodorus Siculus was a Greek historian, born at Agyrium in Sicily (now called Agira, in the province of Enna). ...


Herodotus, i. 101, lists the names of six Median tribes: "Thus Deioces collected the Medes into a nation, and ruled over them alone. Now these are the tribes of which they consist: the Busae, the Paretaceni, the Struchates, the Arizanti, the Budii, and the Magi." He further notes that "the Medes had exactly the same equipment as the Persians; and indeed the dress common to both is not so much Persian as Median." (7.62) Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ...


According to Herodotus, "the Medes were called anciently by all people Aryans; but when Media, the Colchian, came to them from Athens, they changed their name. Such is the account which they themselves give." --- the Medes, History of Herodotus (7.7). (Medea is the Colchian-Thracian witch of Jason and the Argonauts, in Greek myth.) This article is about the term Aryan. For Arian, a follower of the ancient Christian sect, See Arianism. ... In ancient geography, Colchis or Kolchis (Georgian: კოლხეთი Kʼolxeti; Laz: Kolkheti;[1] Greek: , Kolchís) was a nearly triangular ancient Georgian region[2] and kingdom in the Caucasus, which played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the Georgian nation. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the Greek mythological figure. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Jason and the Argonauts may refer to: the Greek myth of Jason and the Argonauts Jason and the Argonauts (film), a 1963 film with animation by Ray Harryhausen Jason and the Argonauts (TV movie), a TV movie made in 2000 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Greek mythology comprises the collected legends of Greek gods and goddesses and ancient heroes and heroines, originally created and spread within an oral-poetic tradition. ...


Josephus relates the Medes (OT Heb. Madai) to the biblical character, Madai, son of Japheth. "Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks" Antiquities of the Jews, I:6. A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Madai was a Japhethic grandson of Noah in the Biblical tradition. ... Japheth (Hebrew. ... The Biblical character Javan (Hebrew יָוָן, Standard Hebrew Yavan, Tiberian Hebrew Yāwān) was the fourth son of Noahs son Japheth. ... Madai was a Japhethic grandson of Noah in the Biblical tradition. ... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ...


According to the Book of Jubilees (10:35-36), Madai had married a daughter of Shem, and preferred to live among Shem's descendants, rather than dwell in Japheth's allotted inheritance beyond the Black Sea; so he begged his brothers-in-law, Elam, Asshur and Arphaxad, until he finally received from them the land that was named after him, Media. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Shem (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Greek: Σημ, SÄ“m ; Arabic:  ; Geez: Sham ; renown; prosperity; name) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. ...


We can see how the Persian element gradually became dominant; princes with Persian names occasionally occur as rulers of other tribes. But the Gelae, Tapuri, Cadusii, Amardi, Utii and other tribes in northern Media and on the shores of the Caspian may not have been Persian stock. Polybius (V. 44, 9), Strabo (xi. 507, 508, 514), and Pliny (vi. 46), considered the Anariaci to be among these tribes; but this name, meaning the "non-Arians", is probably a comprehensive designation for a number of smaller indigenous tribes. The Cadusii1 (in Greek Kαδoυσιοι) were an ancient people living in north-western Iran. ... Polybius (c. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This...


The historical record

The Medes, people of the Mada, (the Greek form Μῆδοι is Ionic for Μᾶδοι), appear in history first in 836 BC. Earliest records show that Assyrian conqueror Shalmaneser III received tribute from the "Amadai" in connection with wars against the tribes of the Zagros. His successors undertook many expeditions against the Medes (Madai). Distribution of Greek dialects, ca. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ...


At this early stage, the Medes were usually mentioned together with another steppe tribe, the Scythians, who seem to have been the dominant group. They were divided into many districts and towns, under petty local chieftains; from the names in the Assyrian inscriptions, it appears they had already adopted the religion of Zoroaster[12] Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


In 715 BC and 713 BC, Sargon II of Assyria subjected them up to "the far mountain Bikni", i.e. the Elbruz (Damavand) and the borders of the desert. If the account of Herodotus is to be trusted, the Median dynasty descends from Deioces (Daiukku), a Median chieftain in the Zagros, who, along with his kinsmen, was transported by Sargon to Hamath (Haniah) in Syria in 715 BC. This Daiukku seems to have originally been a governor of Mannae, subject to Sargon prior to his exile. Sargon II, captor of Samaria, with a dignitary Sargon II (r. ... Alborz Mountains Mount Damavand, Irans tallest mountain is located in Alborz mountain range. ... The Congregation mosque of Damavand, built in 1409CE, has traces of Sassanid architecture in it. ... Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... Hama is a province of Syria with currently approximately 350,000 inhabitants. ... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ...


In spite of repeated rebellions by the early chieftains against Assyrian rule, the Medes paid tribute to Assyria under Sargon's successors, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal whenever these kings marched against them. Assyrian forts located in Median territory at the time of Esarhaddon's campaign (ca. 676) included Bit-Parnakki, Bit-kari and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin). Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... Esarhaddon (Greek and Biblical form; Akkadian Aššur-aha-iddina Ashur has given a brother to me), was a king of Assyria who reigned 681 BC-669 BC), the youngest son of Sennacherib and the Aramaic queen Naqia (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife. ... Ashurbanipal, Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, (reigned 669 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu, was the last great king of ancient Assyria. ...


Median Empire

In the second 8th century BC, the Medes gained their independence and were united by a dynasty. Traditionally, the creator of the Median kingdom was one Deioces, who, according to Herodotus, reigned from 728 to 675 BC and founded the Median capital Ecbatana (modern Hamadan, Iran).[13] Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Avicennas tomb in Hamedan Hamadan or Hamedan ( Persian: همدان ) is the capital city of Hamadan Province of Iran. ...


According to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares the Medes were preceded by a Scythian invasion and domination lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC). The Medes tribes seem to have come into immediate conflict with a settled state to the West known as Mannae, allied with Assyria. Assyrian inscriptions state that the early Medes rulers, who had attempted rebellions against the Assyrians in the time of Esarhaddon and Ashur-bani-pal, were allied with chieftains of the Ashguza (Scythians) and other tribes - who had come from the northern shore of the Black Sea and invaded Asia Minor. The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC. Hvakhshathra or Cyaxares (r. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Madius the Scythian Ruled the Median empire 653-625 BCE Categories: Nobility stubs | Monarchs of Persia ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day north-western province of West-Azarbaijan in Iran, around the 10th to 8th century BCE. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


In 612 BC, Cyaxares conquered Urartu, and in alliance with Nabopolassar (who created the Neo-Babylonian Empire), succeeded in destroying the Assyrian capital, Nineveh, and by 606 BC, the remaining vestiges of Assyrian control. From this point, the Medes king ruled over much of northern Mesopotamia, eastern Anatolia and Cappadocia. His power was a threat to his neighbors, and the exiled Jews expected the destruction of Babylonia by the Medes (Isaiah 13, 14m 21; Jerem. 1, 51.). Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... Nabopolassar (Akkadian:Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ... Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, or revolting at the slightest indication that it did not. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


When Cyaxares attacked Lydia in the Battle of Halys, the kings of Cilicia and Babylon intervened and negotiated a peace in 585 BC, whereby the Halys river was established as the Medes' frontier with Lydia. Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon married a daughter of Cyaxares, and an equilibrium of the great powers was maintained until the rise of the Persians under Cyrus the Great. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... The Battle of Halys took place between the Medes and the Lydians in 585 BC. The Lydians were commanded by their king Alyattes II and the Medes by their king Cyaxares. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... An engraving inside an onyx-stone-eye in a Marduk statue that might depict Nebechandrezzar II Nebuchadrezzar II, more often called Nebuchadnezzar () (c 630-562 B.C.E), was a ruler of Babylon in the Chaldean Dynasty, who reigned c. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ...


Median Kings

Modern research by a professor of Assyriology, Robert Rollinger, has questioned the extent of the Median empire and its sphere of influence, proposing for example that it did not control the Assyrian heartland.[17] Deioces was the first king of the Medes, an Aryan people in what would become Iran. ... Fravartish or Phraortes (c. ... Madius the Scythian Ruled the Median empire 653-625 BCE Categories: Nobility stubs | Monarchs of Persia ... Hvakhshathra or Cyaxares (r. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ...


Persian dominance

Further information: Persian Mesopotamia
Mede nobleman and Persians.
Mede nobleman and Persians.

In 553 BC, Cyrus the Great, King of Persia, rebelled against his grandfather, the Mede King Astyages, son of Cyaxares; he finally won a decisive victory in 550 BC resulting in Astyages' capture by his own dissatisfied nobles, who promptly turned him over to the triumphant Cyrus. Thus were the Medes subjected to their close kin, the Persians. In the new empire they retained a prominent position; in honor and war, they stood next to the Persians; their court ceremony was adopted by the new sovereigns, who in the summer months resided in Ecbatana; and many noble Medes were employed as officials, satraps and generals. Interestingly, at the beginning the Greek historians referred to the Achaemenid Empire as a Median empire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... “Cyrus” redirects here. ... Astyages (so-called by Herodotos; called Astyigas by Ctesias, and Aspadas by Diodorus; Akkadian: Ishtumegu) (reigned 585 BCE-550 BCE) was the son of King Cyaxares, and the last king of the Median Empire. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the assassination of the usurper Smerdis, a Mede Fravartish (Phraortes), claiming to be a scion of Cyaxares, tried to restore the Mede kingdom, but was defeated by the Persian generals and executed in Ecbatana (Darius in the Behistun inscr.). Another rebellion, in 409 BC, against Darius II (Xenophon, Hellen. ~. 2, 19) was of short duration. But the non-Aryan tribes to the north, especially the Cadusii, were always troublesome; many abortive expeditions of the later kings against them are mentioned[citation needed]. Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a half Xerxes was murdered...


Under Persian rule, the country was divided into two satrapies: the south, with Ecbatana and Rhagae (Rey near modern Tehran), Media proper, or Greater Media, as it is often called, formed in Darius' organization the eleventh satrapy (Herodotus iii. 92), together with the Paricanians and Orthocorybantians; the north, the district of Matiane (see above), together with the mountainous districts of the Zagros and Assyria proper (east of the Tigris) was united with the Alarodians and Saspirians in eastern Armenia, and formed the eighteenth satrapy (Herod. iii. 94; cf. v. 49, 52, VII. 72). Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


When the Persian empire decayed and the Cadusii and other mountainous tribes made themselves independent, eastern Armenia became a special satrapy, while Assyria seems to have been united with Media; therefore Xenophon in the Anabasis always designates Assyria by the name of "Media".[citation needed] Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


Under the Seleucids

Main article: Atropatene

Alexander the Great occupied the satrapy of Media in the summer of 330 BC. In 328 he appointed as satrap a former general of Darius called Atropates (Atrupat), whose daughter was married to Perdiccas in 324, according to Arrian. In the partition of his empire, southern Media was given to the Macedonian Peithon; but the north, far off and of little importance to the generals squabbling over Alexander's inheritance, was left to Atropates. Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Atropates (Greek Aτρoπάτης, from Old Persian Aturpat protected by fire[1]) was a Mede nobleman who served Darius III, then Alexander the Great, and eventually founded an independent kingdom and dynasty that was named after him. ... Perdiccas (d. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Peithon (about 355 BC - about 314 BC) was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordia in western Macedonia. ...


While southern Media, with Ecbatana, passed to the rule of Antigonus, and afterwards (about 310 BC) to Seleucus I, Atropates maintained himself in his own satrapy and succeeded in founding an independent kingdom. Thus the partition of the country, that Persia had introduced, became lasting; the north was named Atropatene (in Pliny, Atrapatene; in Ptolemy, Tropatene), after the founder of the dynasty, a name still said to be preserved in the modern form 'Azerbaijan'. Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ...


The capital of Atropatene was Gazaca in the central plain, and the castle Phraaspa, discovered on the Araz river by archaeologists in April 2005. The kings had a strong and warlike army, especially cavalry (Polyb. v. 55; Strabo xi. 253). Nevertheless, King Artabazanes was forced by Antiochus the Great in 220 BC to conclude a disadvantageous treaty (Polyb. v. 55), and in later times, the rulers became dependent in turn upon the Parthians, upon Tigranes of Armenia, and in the time of Pompey who defeated their king Darius (Appian, Mithr. 108), upon Antonius (who invaded Atropatene) and upon Augustus of Rome. In the time of Strabo (AD 17), the dynasty still existed; later, the country seems to have become a Parthian province. Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Atropatene is that country of western Asia which was least of all other countries influenced by Hellenism; there exists not even a single coin of its rulers. Southern Media remained a province of the Seleucid Empire for a century and a half, and Hellenism was introduced everywhere. Media was surrounded everywhere by Greek towns, in pursuance of Alexander's plan to protect it from neighboring barbarians, according to Polybius (x. 27). Only Ecbatana retained its old character. But Rhagae became the Greek town Europus; and with it Strabo (xi. 524) names Laodicea, Apamea Heraclea or Achais. Most of them were founded by Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I. The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Polybius (c. ... Ray, is an old city of Iran. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Nahavand (also spelled Nahawand in some texts) is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ... Apamea or Apameia (Greek: Απάμεια) was a Hellenistic city in Media founded by Seleucus I Nicator, near Laodicea (now Nahavand, Iran) and Heraclea. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I Antiochus I Soter ( 324/323_262/261 BC reigned 281 BC - 261 BC) was half Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC. On the assassination of his father Seleucus I in...


Under the Arsacids

A Mede involved in a religious ritual.
A Mede involved in a religious ritual.

In 221 BC, the satrap Molon tried to make himself independent (there exist bronze coins with his name and the royal title), together with his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, but they were defeated and killed by Antiochus the Great. In the same way, the Mede satrap Timarchus took the diadem and conquered Babylonia; on his coins he calls himself the great king Timarchus; but again the legitimate king, Demetrius I, succeeded in subduing the rebellion, and Timarchus was slain. But with Demetrius I, the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire began, brought about chiefly by the intrigues of the Romans, and shortly afterwards, in about 150, the Parthian king Mithradates I conquered Media (Justin xli. 6). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Molon (in Greek Moλων; died in 220 BC) was a general of the Seleucid king Antiochus the Great (223–187 BC). ... Alexander (in Greek Αλέξανδρος; died in 220 BC), brother of Molon. ... Coin of Timarchus. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Coin of the 6th Arsacid, Mitradates I Mithridates I or Mithradates (c. ...


From this time Media remained subject to the Arsacids or Parthians, who changed the name of Rhagae, or Europus, into Arsacia (Strabo xi. 524), and divided the country into five small provinces (Isidorus Charac.). From the Parthians, it passed in 226 to the Sassanids, together with Atropatene. Iran Under the Arsacid Dynasty. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Under the Sassanids

By this time the older tribes of Aryan Iran had lost their distinct character and had been amalgamated into one people, the Iranians. The revival of Zoroastrianism, enforced everywhere by the Sassanids, completed this development. Atropatene, already center of the fire cult during Parthian times (see Takht-i-Suleiman) now became the site of one of the legendary Great Fires. Under the patronage of Kartir, the 'priest of priests' of the early Sassanid kings, Arsacia/Rhagae advanced to become one of the two (the other being Ishtakhr, ancestral seat of the Sassanid priest-kings) centers of the Zoroastrian priesthood. Takht e Soleyman, or Takht e Soleiman, is the holiest shrine of Zoroastrism and Sassanid Empire, now a World Heritage Site near the town of Takab in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ... Kartir Hangirpe (alternatively, Karder or Kirdir) was a highly influential Zoroastrian high-priest of the late 3rd century CE and served as advisor to at least three Sassanid emperors. ...


Median language

Main article: Median language

Strabo, in his "Geography", mentions the affinity of Mede with other Iranian languages: The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...

The name of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia and of Media, as also to the Bactrians and Sogdians on the north; for these speak approximately the same language, with but slight variations. Ariana is a feminine name (also spelled Arianna). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ...

Geography, 15.8

Words probably of Mede origin appear in various other Iranian dialects, including Old Persian. For example, Herodotus mentions the word Spaka (dog), still found in Iranic languages such as Talyshi. Other words also thought to be of Mede origin (I.M Diakonoff, Medes) include See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... ...

  • Farnah: Divine glory; (Avestan: khvarɘnah),
  • Paridaiza: Paradise, (as in Pardis پردیس)
  • Vazraka: Great, (as Modern Persian Bozorg بزرگ),
  • Vispa: All, (as in Avestan),
  • Xshayathiya (royal, royalty).

Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... Yasna 28. ...

References and Notes

History of Greater Iran
Empires of Persia · Kings of Persia
Pre-modern
Modern
  1. ^ "Mede." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 January 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9051719>.
  2. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 278.
  3. ^ Gwendolyn Leick, Who's Who in the Ancient Near East, Routledge, Published 2001. pg 192
  4. ^ Ian Shaw, Robert Jameson, A Dictionary of Archaeology, Blackwell Publishing, 1999.
  5. ^ Sabatino Moscati, Face of the Ancient Orient, Courier Dover Publications, Published 2001. pg 67
  6. ^ John Prevas, Xenophon's March: Into the Lair of the Persian Lion, Da Capo Press, 2002. pg 20.
  7. ^ a b c Parpola, Simo. Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today (PDF). Assyriology 14. Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. “With the fall of Nineveh, the Empire was split in two, the western half falling in the hands of a Chaldean dynasty, the eastern one in the hands of Median kings. In 539 BC, both became incorporated in the Achaemenid Empire, the western one as the megasatrapy of Assyria (AӨūra), the eastern one as the satrapy of Media (Māda).”
  8. ^ Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP). Old Persian: Grammar, Text, Glossary, translated into Persian by S. Oryan (in Persian), page 396. ISBN 964-421-045-X. 
  9. ^ Parpola, Simo. Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today (PDF). Assyriology 3. Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. “Ethnonyms like Arbāyu "Arab", Mādāyu "Mede", Muşurāyu "Egyptian", and Urarţāyu "Urartian" are from the late eighth century on frequently borne by fully Assyrianized, affluent individuals in high positions.”
  10. ^ Daniel J Hopkins, Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, p. 527, 1997, ISBN 0877795460
  11. ^ M. Chahin, Before the Greeks, p. 109, James Clarke & Co., 1996, ISBN 0718829506
  12. ^ Mary Boyce, Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism (Chicago: Univ. Of Chicago Press, 1990) [1]
  13. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-156129/article-9029769
  14. ^ R. Schmitt, DEIOCES in Encyclopedia Iranica [2]
  15. ^ I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2
  16. ^ I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2
  17. ^ On some problems concerning the Western expansion of the Median empire"

Image File history File linksMetadata Farvahar_background. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Greater Iran (in Persian: Irān-e Bozorg, or Irān-zamÄ«n; the Encyclopedia Iranica uses the term Iranian Cultural Continent[1]) is a term for the Iranian plateau in addition to... Persia redirects here. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... BCE redirects here. ... Zayandeh River Civilization (تمدن زاینده رود) is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is supposed to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 5th millennium BC.[1] During the 2006 excavations, the Iranian archaeologists uncovered some artifacts that they linked to those from Sialk and Marvdasht. ... The 5500 year old skeletons and other unearthed artifacts here are preserved and off access to visitors. ... Bowl depicting scorpions. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Linear-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to ca. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom (or Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom) covered the areas of Bactria and Sogdiana, comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BCE established... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... BCE redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Kushano-Hephthalites (565 - 670 CE) were the successors of Kushans and Hephthalites. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Alavids (سلسله علویان طبرستان in Persian) were a Shia emirate based in Tabaristan of Iran. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... The tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Ghaznavid Empire (سلسله غزنویان in Persian) was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 962 to 1187. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Ghurids (or Ghorids; self-designation: ShansabānÄ«) (Persian: ) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty in Khorasan, most likely of Eastern Persians (Tajiks)[1][2] origin. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... The Kartid Dynasty (Karts, also known as Kurts) was a dynasty that ruled over a large part of Khurasan during the 13th and 14th centuries. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... The Chupanids, also known as the Chobanids, (سلسله امرای چوپانی, Amir Chupani), were descendants of a Mongol family that came to prominence in 14th century Persia. ... edit The Jalayirids (آل جلایر) were a Mongol descendant dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia [1] after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids, self-designated GurkānÄ« (Persian: ), were a Persianate Central Asian Sunni Muslim dynasty of originally Turko-Mongol[4][5][6][7] descent whose empire included the whole of Central Asia, Iran, modern Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Lahore, Delhi, Agra , Kabul, Lucknow and Bhopal Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Absolute Monarchy , Unitary Government with a federal structure Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hotaki dynasty (1709-1738) was founded by Mirwais Khan Hotak, an Afghan of ethnic Tatar[1] [2]and chief of the Ghilzai clan of Kandahar province in modern-day Afghanistan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... The Durrani Empire was a larger state that included modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of eastern Iran and western India. ... // It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-1929 Amanullah Khan reigned in Afghanistan from 1919, achieving full independence from the British Empire shortly afterwards. ... // Reign of Mohammed Nadir Shah, 1929-1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah quickly abolished most of Amanullah Khans reforms, but despite his efforts to rebuild an army that had just been engaged in suppressing a rebellion, the forces remained weak while the religious and tribal leaders grew strong. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ... This is a timeline of the history of Afghanistan. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azerbaycan, Azerbeycan) is historically and geographically Eurasian and stretches from the Caucasus region, which is adjacent to the Caspian Sea, to the Zagros in Iran. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Anthem بحريننا Bahrainona Our Bahrain Capital (and largest city) Manama Official languages Arabic Government Constitutional Monarchy  -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah  -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah Independence from UK   -  Date 15 August 1971  Area  -  Total 665 km² (189th) 253 sq mi   -  Water (%) 0 Population  -  2007 estimate 708,573... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Flag Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century. ... The Pahlavi dynasty (in Persian: دودمان پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... The eight-year Iran-Iraq war resulted in USD$350 billion in damage for Iran alone. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... This article includes an overview from prehistory to the present in the region of the current state of Iraq in Mesopotamia. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... Simo Parpola is professor of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies is an academic journal published by various Assyriologists and other academics, focusing on the history of the Assyrian people. ... The Iranian calendar (Persian: ), also known as Persian calendar or (mistakenly) the Jalāli Calendar is an astronomical solar calendar currently used in Iran and Afghanistan as the main official calendar. ... Simo Parpola is professor of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki, Finland. ... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies is an academic journal published by various Assyriologists and other academics, focusing on the history of the Assyrian people. ...

See also

The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Abarshahr was a Satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Map showing kingdoms of Corduene and Adiabene in the first centuries CE. The blue line shows the expedition and then retreat of the Ten Thousand through Corduene in 401 BC. Adiabene (from the Greek: , Adiabene, itself derived from Aramaic , or )[1] was an ancient Kurdish semi-independent kingdom in Mesopotamia... Arabia was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire, corresponding to the lands between Egypt and Mesopotamia, known as Arabia Petraea. ... This is the ancient Latin name (Greek name, Areia) for the area around Herat, in NW Afghanistan. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... Asuristan (Assyria) was a satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Azerbaijan or Azerbeijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan, Azərbeycan) is a country in the Caucaus region, adjacent to the Caspian Sea. ... Balasagan (literally meaning country of Balas) was a satrapy (satrapy) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Carmania was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire as well as, later on, the Sassanid Empire. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Iberia was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli (4th century BC-5th century AD) corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia. ... Kushanshahr was a satrapy of the Sassanid Empire. ... The Machelones (Machelônes, Machelonoi) were a Colchian tribe located to the far south of the Phasis (modern-day Rioni River, western Georgia). ... Maishan was a satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Margu (Greek Margiana) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions of ca. ... Maka was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire corresponding to modern day Oman. ... Paratan or Paradene was a satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire. ... Parthia (Old Persian Parthava), before it became the Parthian Empire, was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire. ... Patishkhwagar was a vassal and later satrapy (province) of the Sassanid Empire corresponding to Gilan, Delam (Dailam) and Ruyan, Tabaristan, and Danbavand. ... External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Sakastan Sakasthana or Sakasthan is a term indicating certain regions of the South Asia where the Scythians or Sakas settled around 100 BC. Sakastan region includes southern Afghanistan; Punjab, NWFP, and Sindh provinces of Pakistan; Northern Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab states of India. ... The ancient Elamite Empire, تمدن عیلام in Farsi, lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
d. The Medes and the Persians. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (402 words)
The Medes were an Aryan (Indo-Iranian) people who entered the Iranian plateau around 1500 along with the Persians, Parthians, Bactrians, and Arachosians, while other Aryan tribes went on to conquer northern India.
The Medes themselves were divided into six tribes (one of which was called the Magi).
B.C.E., the Medes established a capital at Ecbatana (Hamadan) on the mountainous eastern fringes of Babylonia.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Media and Medes (1224 words)
Habor by the river of Gozan, in the cities of the Medes".
Persian supremacy eclipsed that of the Medes, the name of Persia was extended to the whole Median territory.
Assyrian capital, Cyaxares pushed his conquering armies westward, and soon the dominion of the Medes extended from the confines of Elam to the river Halys in Asia Minor.
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