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Encyclopedia > Mecklenburg

The name "Mecklenburg" derives from a castle named "Mikilenburg" (Old German: "big castle"), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. It was the ancestral seat of the House of Mecklenburg. Old German could refer to: Old High German Old Low German (also Old Saxon) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Wismar is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... The Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg, the more common name for the House of Nikloting, was a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918. ...

Contents

History

Early history

Mecklenburg is the site of many prehistoric dolmen tombs. Its earliest organised inhabitants may have had Celtic origins. Poulnabrone dolmen in County Clare, Ireland For the French TV miniseries, see Dolmen (TV miniseries). ...


From the seventh through the 12th centuries, the area of Mecklenburg was ruled by these Western Slavic peoples, most notably the Obotrites and other tribes that Frankish sources referred to as "Wends". The 11th century founder of the Mecklenburgian dynasty of Dukes and later Grand Dukes, which lasted until 1918, was Niklot of the Obotrites. The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy or dukedom. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ...


In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the region, subjugated its local lords, and Christianized its people, in a precursor to the Northern Crusades. All this pointing to the fact that the people of Mecklenburg were 'Germanized', or 're-Germanized' depending on your point of view. However, elements of certain names and words used in Mecklenburg speak to the lingering Slavic influence. An example would be the city of Schwerin, which was originally called Zuarin in the Slavic. Another example is town of Bresegard, the 'gard' portion of the town name derives from the Slavic word 'grad' , meaning city or town. Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Bresegard is a small municipality in the German province of Mecklenburg. ...


Since the 12th century, the territory has remained stable and relatively independent of its neighbours; one of the few German territories for which this is true. During the reformation the Duke in Schwerin would convert to Protestantism and so would follow the Duchy of Mecklenburg.


History, 1621-1933

Like many German territories, Mecklenburg was sometimes partitioned and re-partitioned among different members of the ruling dynasty. In 1621 it was divided into the two duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Güstrow. With the extinction of the Güstrow line in 1701, the Güstrow lands were redivided, part going to the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and part going to the new line of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ...


In 1815, the two Mecklenburgian duchies were raised to Grand Duchies, and subsequently existed separately as such in Germany under enlightened but absolute feudal rule (constitutions being granted on the eve of World War I) until the revolution of 1918. Life in the semi-feudal Mecklenburg could be quite harsh. Practices such as having to ask for permission from the Grand Duke to get married, or having to apply for permission to emigrate, would linger late into the history of Mecklenburg (i.e. 1918), long after such practices had been abandoned in other German areas. Even as late as the later half of the nineteenth century the Grand Duke personally owned half of the countryside. The last Duke abdiacted in 1918, as monarchies fell throughout Europe. The Duke's ruling house reigned in Mecklenburg uninterrupted (except for two years) from its incorporation into the Holy Roman Empire until 1918. From 1918 to 1933, the duchies were free states in the Weimar Republic. April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten The German November Revolution was one of many Revolutions across Europe at the end of World War I in 1918-1919. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler...


Traditionally Mecklenburg has always been one of the poorer German areas, and later the poorer of the provinces, or Länder, within a unified Germany. The reasons for this may be varied, but one factor stands out: agriculturally the land is poor and can not produce at the same level as other parts of Germany. The two Mecklenburgs made attempts at being independent states after 1918, but eventually this failed as their dependence on the rest of the German lands became apparent. Bundesland (plural Bundesländer), also known as Land (plural Länder) is the German language name for the federal states of Austria and Germany. ...


History since 1934

After three centuries of partition, Mecklenburg was united in 1934 by the Nazi government. The Wehrmacht assigned Mecklenburg and Pomerania to Wehrkreis II under the command of General der Infanterie Werner Kienitz, with the headquarters at Stettin. Mecklenburg was assigned to an Area headquartered at Schwerin, which was responsible for military units in Schwerin; Rostock; Parchim; and Neustrelitz. 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... Parchim is a town located in the German Bundesland of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. ... Neustrelitz is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ...

Proposed Mecklenburg regional service flag (1992)

After World War II, the Soviet government occupying eastern Germany merged Mecklenburg with the smaller neighbouring region of Western Pomerania (German Vorpommern) to form the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). Mecklenburg contributed about two-thirds of the geographical size of the new state and the majority of its population. (The Soviets changed the name from "Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania" back to "Mecklenburg" in 1947.) Image File history File links Flag_of_Mecklenburg_(1992_proposal). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mecklenburg_(1992_proposal). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vorpommern (Polish: Pomorze Przednie) - in English sometimes also called West, Upper, or Hither Pomerania - is a region of Pomerania west of the River Oder in north-eastern Germany, including the island of Rügen but excluding the city of Szczecin (former Stettin). ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ...


In 1952, the East German government ended the independent existence of Mecklenburg, creating 3 districts ("Bezirke") out of its territory: Rostock, Schwerin and Neubrandenburg. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


During German reunification in 1990, the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania was revived, and is now one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. In this process the remnant of Pomerania not stripped from Germany and handed over to the Poles was attached to Mecklenburg. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ...


Coat of arms of the duchies of Mecklenburg

The arms used by both duchies in the nineteenth century
The arms used by both duchies in the nineteenth century

The House of Mecklenburg was founded by Niklot, prince of the Obotrites, Chizzini and Circipani on the Baltic See, who died in 1160. His Christian progeny was recognized as prince of the Holy Roman Empire 1170 and Duke of Mecklenburg 8 July 1348. On 27 February 1658 the ducal house divided in two branches: Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (560x620, 106 KB) Arms of the Grandduchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (560x620, 106 KB) Arms of the Grandduchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Drawn by Theo van der Zalm I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... The Grand Ducal House of Mecklenburg, the more common name for the House of Nikloting, was a North German dynasty that ruled until 1918. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Events Eric IX of Sweden is succeeded by Karl Sverkersson. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy in northern Germany, roughly consisting of the present day district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (the historical Stargarder Land), bordering areas of modern-day Brandenburg with the town of Fürstenberg and the area around Ratzeburg in modern Schleswig-Holstein. ...


The flag of both Mecklenburg duchies is traditionally made of the colours blue, yellow and red. The sequence however changed more than once in the past 300 years. In 1813 the duchies used yellow-red-blue. 23 December 1863 for Schwerin and 4 January 1864 for Strelitz blue-yellow-red was ordered.[1] Mecklenburg-Schwerin however used white instead of yellow for flags on sea by law of 24 March 1855.[2] Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Siebmachers Wappenbuch gives therefore (?) blue-white-red for Schwerin and blue-yellow-red for Strelitz.[3] According to this source, the grand ducal house of Schwerin used a flag of 3.75 to 5.625 M with the middle arms on a white quadrant (1.75 M) in the middle.


The middle arms show the shield of Mecklenburg as arranged in the seventeenth century. The county of Schwerin in the middle and in the quartering Mecklenburg (bull's head with hide), Rostock (griffin), principality of Schwerin (griffin and green rectangle), Ratzeburg (crown over gross), Stargard (hand holding ring) and Wenden (bull's head). The shield is held by a bull and a griffin and bears a royal crown. Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... Composite of Pomeranian heraldic charges of griffins. ... Ratzeburg is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Starogard or Stargard means old town or old fort in Pomeranian language. ...


The dukes of Strelitz used according to Siebmachers the blue-yellow-red flag with just the (oval) shield of Mecklenburg in the yellow band.


Ströhl in 1897 and Bulgaria,[4] show another arrangement: The grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin flows a flag (4:5) with the arms of the figures from the shield of arms.


The former Schwerin standard with the white quadrant is now ascribed to the grand dukes of Strelitz. Ströhl mentions a flag for the grand ducal house by law of 23 December 1863 with the middle arms in the yellow band. And he mentions a special sea flag, the same but with a white middle band. 'Berühmte Fahnen' shows furthermore a standard for grand duchess Alexandra of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, princess of Hannover (1882-1963), showing her shield and that of Mecklenburg joined by the order of the Wendic Crown in a white oval. On sea the yellow band in her flag was of cause white. The princes (dukes) of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had according to this source their own standard, showing the griffin of Rostock. Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


Geography

Mecklenburg is known for its mostly flat countryside. Much of the terrain forms a morass, with ponds, marshes and fields as common features, with small forests interspersed. The terrain changes as one moves north towards the Baltic Sea.


Under the peat of Mecklenburg are sometimes found deposits of ancient lava flows. Traditionally, at least in the countryside, the stone from these flows is cut and used in the construction of homes, often in joint use with cement, brick and wood, forming a unique look to the exterior of country houses.


Mecklenburg has productive farming, but the land is most suitable for grazing purposes. Nontheless Mecklenburg is a relativley poor region of Germany with a rate of unemployment from 20-25% [Traditionally Mecklenburg has been one of the poorer German areas]. The area has seen an increase in tourism, particularly with regard to the beaches at the Baltic Sea, Isle of Rügen, the mecklenburgian lakeland (Mecklenburgische Seenplatte) as well as the rangy central of Mecklenburg (Mecklenburgische Schweiz) with its pristine nature and the old hanseatic towns well known for the famous Brick Gothic churches. Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... Holstentor in Lübeck - background left , right St. ...


thomas is from here and no 1 else maters


Linguistically Mecklenburgers retain many features of the plattdeutsch, or low German dialect or language. Subdivisions East Low German Low Franconian Low Saxon Low German (in Low German, Platt(düütsch) or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of West Germanic languages spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... Low German (also called Plattdeutsch, Plattdüütsch or Low Saxon) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers...


Famous people from Mecklenburg include:

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Jan Ullrich (born December 2, 1973 in Rostock, East Germany, now Germany) is a retired German professional road bicycle racer. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Baron Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller (German: Müller) (June 30, 1825 - October 10, 1896) was a German-Australian physician, geographer, and most notably botanist. ... Siegfried Marcus 1831-1898 Siegfried Samuel Marcus (born in Malchin, Mecklenburg, Germany, on 1831-09-18, died in Vienna on 1898-07-01) was a German – Austrian inventor and automobile pioneer of Jewish ancestry. ... Portrait of Heinrich Schliemann. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Johannes Heinrich Carl Christian Gillhoff (born May 24, 1861 in Glaisin, Mecklenburg - died January 16, 1930 in Parchim, Mecklenburg ) was a teacher and author. ... Fritz Reuter (November 7, 1810- July 12, 1874), was a German novelist. ... The Moravian Seal, as rendered by North Carolina artist Marie Nifong The Moravian churches form a modern, mainline Protestant denomination with a religious heritage that began in 15th-century Bohemia, Czech Republic. ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ (Ströhl, Deutsche Wappenrolle, Stuttgart, 1897, p. 89)
  2. ^ (Ströhl, 86)
  3. ^ Siebmachers Wappenbuch (Nurenberg, 1878)
  4. ^ Berühmte Fahnen Deutscher Geschichte (Dresden, 1922)
  5. ^ (1963) Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 

See also

Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ... Mecklenburg County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Mecklenburg County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ...

External links

  • Government portal of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
  • Map of Mecklenburg in 1871
  • Map of Mecklenburg in 1789

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mecklenburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (530 words)
The Wehrmacht assigned Mecklenburg and Pomerania to Wehrkreis II, with the headquarters at Stettin.
Mecklenburg was assigned to an Area headquartered at Schwerin, which was responsible for military units in Schwerin; Rostock; Parchim; and Neustrelitz.
Mecklenburg contributed about two-thirds of the geographical size of the new state and the majority of its population.
Mecklenburg County, North Carolina - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (616 words)
Mecklenburg County was formed in 1762 from the western part of Anson County.
The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence was allegedly signed on May 20, 1775; if the document is indeed genuine, Mecklenburg County was the first part of the Thirteen Colonies to declare independence from Great Britain.
Mecklenburg County is a member of the regional Centralina Council of Governments.
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