FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Mechanics" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek Μηχανική) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. Mechanic may refer to: Mechanic, a person who uses tools to fix and maintain machinery An assassin or hit man The Mechanic, a 1972 film starring Charles Bronson as a mob assassin Mechanic (Transformers), a character in Marvel Comicss Transformers Card mechanic, a card cheat who specializes in sleight... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... A physical body is an object which can be described by the theories of classical mechanics, or quantum mechanics, and experimented upon by physical instruments. ... In physics, force is anything that can cause a massive body to accelerate. ... In Newtonian mechanics, displacement is the vector that specifies the position of a point or a particle in reference to an origin or to a previous position. ...


The discipline has its roots in several ancient civilizations: ancient Greece, where Aristotle studied the way bodies behaved when they were thrown through the air (e.g. a stone); ancient China, with figures such as Zhang Heng, Shen Kuo, and Su Song; and ancient India, with thinkers such as Kanada, Aryabhata, and Brahmagupta. During the Middle Ages, significant contributions to mechanics were made by Muslim scientists, such as Muhammad ibn Musa, Alhacen, Avicenna, Avempace, al-Baghdadi, and al-Khazini. During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and especially Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as Newtonian mechanics. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095 AD) was a polymath Chinese scientist of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD). ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. ... Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) ( ) (589–668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into BanÅ« MÅ«sā. (Discuss) Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir (800 - 873) (Arabic: ) was a 9th century Persian astronomer, engineer, mathematician and physicist from Baghdad, the eldest of the BanÅ« MÅ«sā brothers. ... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] or Persian[2] Iraqi Muslim polymath[3][4] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with... Ibn Sina (full name AbÅ« ‘AlÄ« al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn SÄ«nā al-BalkhÄ«; Persian: ), also known as Avicenna) was a Persian [2][3][4] Muslim polymath: a physician, astronomer, alchemist, chemist, logician, mathematician, metaphysician, philosopher, physicist, poet, scientist, theologian, statesman, and soldier. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... This article is about a 12th century scientist. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Classical mechanics (also called Newtonian mechanics) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ...


A person working in the discipline is known as a mechanician. A mechanician is an engineer or a scientist working in the field of mechanics, or in a related or sub-field: engineering or computational mechanics, applied mechanics, geomechanics, biomechanics, and mechanics of materials. ...

Contents

Significance

Mechanics is the original discipline of physics, dealing with the macroscopic world that humans perceive. It is therefore a huge body of knowledge about the natural world. Mechanics encompasses the movement of all matter in the universe under the four fundamental interactions (or forces): gravity, the strong and weak interactions, and the electromagnetic interaction. A fundamental interaction or fundamental force is a mechanism by which particles interact with each other, and which cannot be explained in terms of another interaction. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... The strong interaction or strong force is today understood to represent the interactions between quarks and gluons as detailed by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). ... The weak interaction (often called the weak force or sometimes the weak nuclear force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. ... Electromagnetic interaction is a fundamental force of nature and is felt by charged leptons and quarks. ...


Mechanics also constitutes a central part of technology, the application of physical knowledge for humanly defined purposes. In this connection, the discipline is often known as engineering or applied mechanics. In this sense, mechanics is used to design and analyze the behavior of structures, mechanisms, and machines. Important aspects of the fields of mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, civil engineering, structural engineering, materials engineering, biomedical engineering and biomechanics were spawned from the study of mechanics. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Applied mechanics, also known as theoretical and applied mechanics, is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest building as of 2004. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ...


Classical vs. Quantum

The major division of the mechanics discipline separates classical mechanics from quantum mechanics. Classical mechanics (also called Newtonian mechanics) is used for describing the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, as well as astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. ... Fig. ...


Historically, classical mechanics came first, while quantum mechanics is a comparatively recent invention. Classical mechanics is older than written history, while quantum mechanics didn't appear until 1900. Both are commonly held to constitute the most certain knowledge that exists about physical nature. Classical mechanics has especially often been viewed as a model for other so-called exact sciences. Essential in this respect is the relentless use of mathematics in theories, as well as the decisive role played by experiment in generating and testing them. Exact science refers to systematized knowledge. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


Quantum mechanics is, formally at least, of the widest scope, and can be seen as encompassing classical mechanics, as a sub-discipline which applies under certain restricted circumstances. According to the correspondence principle, there is no contradiction or conflict between the two subjects, each simply pertains to specific situations. While it is true that historically quantum mechanics has been seen as having superseded classical mechanics, this is only true on the hypothetical or foundational level. For practical problems, classical mechanics is able to solve problems which are unmanageably difficult in quantum mechanics and hence remains useful and well used. In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... In physics, the correspondence principle is a principle, first invoked by Niels Bohr in 1923, which states that the behavior of quantum mechanical systems reduce to classical physics in the limit of large quantum numbers. ...


Einsteinian vs. Newtonian

Analogous to the quantum vs. classical reformation, Einstein's general and special theories of relativity have expanded the scope of mechanics beyond the mechanics of Newton and Galileo, and made small corrections to them. Relativistic corrections were also needed for quantum mechanics, although relativity is categorized as a classical theory. Einstein redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to special relativity. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI derived unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics. ... Galileo can refer to: Galileo Galilei, astronomer, philosopher, and physicist (1564 - 1642) the Galileo spacecraft, a NASA space probe that visited Jupiter and its moons the Galileo positioning system Life of Galileo, a play by Bertolt Brecht Galileo (1975) - screen adaptation of the play Life of Galileo by Bertolt Brecht...


There are no contradictions or conflicts between the two, so long as the specific circumstances are carefully kept in mind. Just as one could, in the loosest possible sense, characterize classical mechanics as dealing with "large" bodies (such as engine parts), and quantum mechanics with "small" ones (such as particles), it could be said that relativistic mechanics deals with "fast" bodies, and non-relativistic mechanics with "slow" ones. However, "fast" and "slow" are subjective concepts, depending on the state of motion of the observer. This means that all mechanics, whether classical or quantum, potentially needs to be described relativistically. On the other hand, as an observer, one may frequently arrange the situation in such a way that this is not really required. A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom: it may be elementary or composite. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ...


Types of Mechanical Bodies

Thus the often-used term body needs to stand for a wide assortment of objects, including particles, projectiles, spacecraft, stars, parts of machinery, parts of solids, parts of fluids (gases and liquids), etc. A physical body is an object which can be described by the theories of classical mechanics, or quantum mechanics, and experimented upon by physical instruments. ... A projectile is any object sent through the air by the application of some force. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... STARS can mean: Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society Special Tactics And Rescue Service, a fictional task force that appears in Capcoms Resident Evil video game franchise. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... A solid is a state of matter, characterized by a definite volume and a definite shape (i. ... A subset of the phases of matter, fluids include liquids and gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. ... -1... A liquid will assume the shape of its container. ...


Other distinctions between the various sub-disciplines of mechanics, concern the nature of the bodies being described. Particles are bodies with little (known) internal structure, treated as mathematical points in classical mechanics. Rigid bodies have size and shape, but retain a simplicity close to that of the particle, adding just a few so-called degrees of freedom, such as orientation in space. Degrees of freedom is a general term used in explaining dependence on parameters, and implying the possibility of counting the number of those parameters. ...


Otherwise, bodies may be semi-rigid, i.e. elastic, or non-rigid, i.e. fluid. These subjects have both classical and quantum divisions of study. Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ...


For instance: The motion of a spacecraft, regarding its orbit and attitude (rotation), is described by the relativistic theory of classical mechanics. While analogous motions of an atomic nucleus are described by quantum mechanics. sup my name is matt derungs!!!! i would kill u Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... Attitude may refer to: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude, a song by American pop and jazz singer Suede Attitudes (band) Attitude Adjustment (Hardcore/Crossover/Thrash metal band) Attitude, song from Metallica on their album Reload. ... A sphere rotating around its axis. ... The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ...


Sub-disciplines in mechanics

The following are two lists of various subjects that are studied in mechanics.


Note that there is also the "theory of fields" which constitutes a separate discipline in physics, formally treated as distinct from mechanics, whether classical fields or quantum fields. But in actual practice, subjects belonging to mechanics and fields are closely interwoven. Thus, for instance, forces that act on particles are frequently derived from fields (electromagnetic or gravitational), and particles generate fields by acting as sources. In fact, in quantum mechanics, particles themselves are fields, as described theoretically by the wave function. There are two types of field theory in physics: Classical field theory, the theory and dynamics of classical fields. ... Classical electrodynamics (or classical electromagnetism) is a theory of electromagnetism that was developed over the course of the 19th century, most prominently by James Clerk Maxwell. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... This article covers the physics of gravitation. ... A wave function is a mathematical tool that quantum mechanics uses to describe any physical system. ...


Classical mechanics

The following are described as forming Classical mechanics:

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Classical mechanics. ... In physics, kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics concerned with describing the motions of objects without considering the factors that cause or affect the motion. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Lagrangian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics introduced by Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1788. ... The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. ... Hamiltonian mechanics is a re-formulation of classical mechanics that was invented in 1833 by William Rowan Hamilton. ... Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. ... This article is about a celestial body. ... Astrodynamics is the study of the motion of rockets, missiles, and space vehicles, as determined from Sir Isaac Newtons laws of motion and his law of universal gravitation. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ... Acoustics is a branch of physics and is the study of sound (mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids). ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... A standard definition of mechanical equilibrium is: A system is in mechanical equilibrium when the sum of the forces, and torque, on each particle of the system is zero. ... Fluid mechanics is the subdiscipline of continuum mechanics that studies fluids, that is, liquids and gases. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Applied mechanics, also known as theoretical and applied mechanics, is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gravitation (disambiguation). ...

Quantum mechanics

The following are categorized as being part of Quantum mechanics: Fig. ...

Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Quantum statistical mechanics is the study of statistical ensembles of quantum mechanical systems. ...

Professional Organizations

Applied Mechanics Division (AMD) is a division in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). ... The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering. ... The American Physical Society was founded in 1899 and is the worlds second largest organization of physicists. ...

See also

Applied mechanics, also known as theoretical and applied mechanics, is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ...

External links

  • iMechanica: the web of mechanics and mechanicians
  • Mechanics Blog by a Purdue University Professor
  • The Mechanics program at Virginia Tech
  • Physclips: Mechanics with animations and video clips from the University of New South Wales

  Results from FactBites:
 
Builder & design software to create your web page & websites (189 words)
TM and Copyright © 1998 - 2007 Virtual Mechanics Inc. All rights reserved.
Virtual Mechanics' tools make it easy for you to build your own attractive, functional website quickly, without having to know HTML.
You can be assured that your website can be hosted on any server and is compliant with all the major browsers and search engines.
mechanics. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (694 words)
Mechanics was studied by a number of ancient Greek scientists, most notably Aristotle, whose ideas dominated the subject until the late Middle Ages, and Archimedes, who made several contributions and whose approach was quite modern compared to other ancient scientists.
In 1905, Albert Einstein showed that Newton’s mechanics was an approximation, valid for cases involving speeds much less than the speed of light; for very great speeds the relativistic mechanics of his theory of relativity was required.
In the quantum mechanics developed during the 1920s as part of the quantum theory, the motions of very tiny particles, such as the electrons in an atom, were explained using the fact that both matter and energy have a dual nature—sometimes behaving like particles and other times behaving like waves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m