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Encyclopedia > Mechanical engineering
Engineering Portal

Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy. Mechanical engineers use these principles and others in the design and analysis of motor vehicles, aircraft, heating & cooling systems, watercraft, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, medical devices and more. Image File history File links Portal. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or through) water for pleasure, physical exercise (in the case of many small boats), transporting people and/or goods, or military missions. ...

Mechanical engineers design and build engines and power plants...
Mechanical engineers design and build engines and power plants...
...structures and vehicles of all sizes...
...structures and vehicles of all sizes...
and moving mechanisms, machines, and robots.
and moving mechanisms, machines, and robots.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1031 KB) Volkswagen W16 Engine Photographer: Florian Lindner camera: Panasonic DMC-FZ3 shutter speed: 1/15s lens aperture: f 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1031 KB) Volkswagen W16 Engine Photographer: Florian Lindner camera: Panasonic DMC-FZ3 shutter speed: 1/15s lens aperture: f 2. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x436, 79 KB)Caption: 030628-N-6077T-003 Central Command Area of Responsibility (Jun. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x436, 79 KB)Caption: 030628-N-6077T-003 Central Command Area of Responsibility (Jun. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... Image File history File links Delta_robot. ... Image File history File links Delta_robot. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...

Development

Mechanical engineering could be found in many ancient and medieval societies throughout the globe. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes (287 BC-212 BC), and Heron of Alexandria (10-70 AD) deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition. In ancient China, there were also many notable figures, such as Zhang Heng (78-139 AD) and Ma Jun (200-265 AD). The medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song (1020-1101 AD) incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before any escapement could be found in clocks of medieval Europe, as well as the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... A simple escapement. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Clocktower at Geelong Grammar School, Victoria, Australia A clock tower is a tower built with one or more (often four) clock faces. ... Roller chain and sprocket Mack AC delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum with chain drive visible Chain drive was a popular power transmission system from the earliest days of the automobile. ...


During the early 19th century in Britain mechanical engineering developed as a separate field to provide manufacturing machines and the engines to power them. The first British professional society of civil engineers was formed in 1818; that for mechanical engineers followed in 1847. In the United States, the first mechanical engineering professional society was formed in 1880, making it the third oldest type of engineering behind civil (1852) and mining & metallurgical (1871). The first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. An engineering education is based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science; this is followed by courses emphasizing the application of this knowledge to a specific field and studies in the social sciences and humanities to give the engineer a broader education. USMA redirects here. ... Norwich University (NU) is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ...


Education

Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Mechanical Engineering is offered at many universities in the United States, and similar programs are offered at universities in most industrialized nations. In Canada, China, India, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, South Africa, U.S., and many others, Mechanical Engineering programs typically take 4 to 5 years and result in a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSc)or a Bachelor of Technology (BTech), Bachelor in Engineering (B.E), or a Bachelor of Applied Science (B.A.Sc.). In Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and many other central and east European countries (Romania, Serbia, Croatia, etc) the (BSc) and (BTech) are available as an intermediate (or final) 4 years degree, however the 5-6 years "Diplomas";(Dipl), (Dipl-Ing), (Dipl-Tech); are still the most relevant degrees. Some countries like Malaysia, Singapore, and Nigeria offer a 4 or 5 year Bachelor of Science (BSc) / Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) degree with Honors (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering. In Spain, Portugal and most South America (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Venezuela, among others) the (BSc) or (BTech) programs have not been adopted, the formal name for the degree is just "Mechanical Engineer" and the course work is based on a 5-6 years training. In Australia and New Zealand, requirements are typically a 4 years Bachelor of Engineering (BE or BEng) degree, equivalent to the British MEng level. A BEng degree differ from a BSc degree in that the students obtain a broader education consisting of information relevant to various engineering disciplines. Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ...


Most undergraduate Mechanical Engineering programs in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) to ensure similar course requirements and standards between universities. The ABET web site lists 276 accredited Mechanical Engineering programs as of June 19, 2006.[1] Mechanical Engineering programs in Canada are accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).[2]. Accreditation is a process by which a facilitys services and operations are examined by a third-party accrediting agency to determine if applicable standards are met. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some Mechanical Engineers go on to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Engineering, Master of Science, Master of Engineering Management (MEng.Mgt, MEM), a Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering (EngD, PhD) or an Engineer's degree. The Master's and Engineer's degrees may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia. [3] A Master of Engineering (M.Eng. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate course of one or two years in duration. ... The Master of Engineering Management degree is often abbreviated MEM can be either an academic or professional masters degree in the field of engineering. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The term engineers degree may be used to represent a graduate academic degree intermediate in rank between a masters degree and a doctorate (U.S.), or it may also represent a higher (in total, 6-year) degree equivalent to or slightly more extensive than a masters degree... This article is about the concept. ... Coursework refers to work carried out by students while they are studying a course at university or school that contributes towards their overall grade, but which is assessed separately from their final exams. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...


Coursework

Mechanical engineering programs generally cover the same fundamental subjects. Universities in the United States offering ABET-accredited programs in mechanical engineering are required to show their students can "work professionally in both thermal and mechanical systems areas."[4] This is to ensure a minimum level of competence among graduating engineers and to inspire confidence in the engineering profession as a whole. The specific courses required to graduate, however, may differ from program to program. Universities will often combine multiple subjects into a single class or split a subject into multiple classes, depending on the faculty available and the University's major area(s) of research. Fundamental subjects of mechanical engineering include:

Mechanical engineers are also expected to understand and be able to apply basic concepts from chemistry, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, and physics. Most mechanical engineering programs include several semesters of calculus, as well as advanced mathematical concepts which may include differential equations and partial differential equations, linear and modern algebra, and differential geometry, among others. Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Strength of materials is materials science applied to the study of engineering materials and their mechanical behavior in general (such as stress, deformation, strain and stress-strain relations). ... Solid mechanics is the branch of physics and mathematics that concern the behavior of solid matter under external actions (e. ... For other uses, see Instrumentation (disambiguation). ... Measurement is the estimation of the magnitude of some attribute of an object, such as its length or weight, relative to a unit of measurement. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... In physics and engineering, energy conversion is any process of converting energy from one form to another. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... Look up mechanism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Pneumatics, a subsection of an area called fluid power, is the use of pressurized air to effect mechanical motion. ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... For control theory in psychology and sociology, see control theory (sociology). ... An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. ... CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease... Solid modeling (or modelling) is the unambiguous representation of the solid parts of an object, that is, models of solid objects suitable for computer processing. ... Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer-based software tools that assist engineers and machinists in manufacturing or prototyping product components. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation in which the derivatives of a function appear as variables. ... In mathematics, and in particular analysis, a partial differential equation (PDE) is an equation involving partial derivatives of an unknown function. ... Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear maps (also called linear transformations), and systems of linear equations. ... Abstract algebra is the field of mathematics concerned with the study of algebraic structures such as groups, rings and fields. ... In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. ...


In addition to the core mechanical engineering curriculum, many mechanical engineering programs offer more specialized programs and classes, such as mechatronics / robotics, transport and logistics, cryogenics, fuel technology, automotive engineering, biomechanics, vibration, optics and others, if a separate department does not exist for these subjects.[7] Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biomechanics is the research and analysis of the mechanics of living organisms or the application and derivation of engineering principles to and from biological systems. ... Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ...


Most mechanical engineering programs also require varying amounts of research or community projects to gain practical problem-solving experience. Mechanical engineering students usually hold one or more internships while studying, though this is not typically mandated by the university. For information about a medical intern, see the article on Medical residency. ...


License

Engineers may seek license by a state, provincial, or national government. The purpose of this process is to ensure that engineers possess the necessary technical knowledge, real-world experience, and knowledge of the local legal system to practice engineering at a professional level. Once certified, the engineer is given the title of Professional Engineer (in the United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea and South Africa), Chartered Engineer (in the UK, Ireland, India and Zimbabwe), Chartered Professional Engineer (in Australia and New Zealand) or European Engineer (much of the European Union). Not all mechanical engineers choose to become licensed; those that do can be distinguished as Chartered or Professional Engineers by the post-nominal title P.E., P. Eng., or C.Eng., as in: Ryan Jones, P.Eng. How to obtain a amature radio licence differs from country to country. ... Post-nominal letters also called Post-nominal initials or Post-nominal titles are letters placed after the name of an individual to indicate that that individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honour. ...


In the U.S., to become a licensed Professional Engineer, an Engineer must

  • pass the comprehensive FE (Fundamentals of Engineering) exam,
  • work a given number of years as an Engineering Intern (EI) or Engineer-in-Training (EIT),
  • pass the Principles and Practice or PE (Practicing Engineer or Professional Engineer) exam.

In the United States, the requirements and steps of this process are set forth by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES), a national non-profit representing all states. In the UK, current graduates require a MSc, MEng or BEng (Hons) in order to become chartered through the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) is a national non-profit organization composed of engineering and land surveying licensing boards representing all U.S. states and territories [1] The NCEES is responsible for the administration of the exams that engineers must pass in order to get... Look up MSC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Bachelor of Engineering (BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after four or five years of studying engineering at an accredited college or university in the United States and other countries, such as Australia. ... Logo The Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) is the British engineering society concerned with mechanical engineering. ...


"In most modern countries, certain engineering tasks, such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, and chemical plants, must be approved by a Professional Engineer or a Chartered Engineer." In the USA and Canada, only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients.".[8] This requirement is written into state and provincial legislation, such as Quebec's Engineer Act.[9] In other countries, such as Australia, no such legislation exists; however, practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics independent of legislation that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion.[10] Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... This article is about a Christian Rock band. ...

Further information: FE ExamProfessional EngineerChartered EngineerIncorporated Engineer, and Washington Accord

In the United States, the Fundamentals of Engineering exam (also known as the FE exam) is the first of two examinations engineers must pass in order to be certified. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ... In the United Kingdom, a chartered engineer is a professional engineer registered with Engineering Council UK (the British regulatory body for engineers). ... Incorporated engineer is a professional qualification in engineering (not a degree) offered through professional associations that act as subsidiary instruments of the Engineering Council (UK). ... The Washington Accord is an international accreditation agreement for professional engineering degree programs. ...

Salaries and workforce statistics

The total number of engineers employed in the U.S. in 2004 was roughly 1.4 million. Of these, 226,000 were mechanical engineers (15.6%), second only to civil engineers in size at 237,000 (16.4%). The total number of mechanical engineering jobs in 2004 was projected to grow 9 to 17%, with average starting salaries being $50,236 with a bachelor's degree, $59,880 with a master's degree, and $68,299 with a doctorate degree. This places mechanical engineering at 8th of 14 among engineering bachelors degrees, 4th of 11 among masters degrees, and 6th of 7 among doctorate degrees in average annual salary.[11] The median annual earning of mechanical engineers in the U.S. workforce is roughly $63,000. This number is highest when working for the government ($72,500), and lowest when doing general purpose machinery manufacturing in the private sector ($55,850).[12]


Canadian engineers make an average of $29.83 per hour with 4% unemployed. The average for all occupations is $18.07 per hour with 7% unemployed. Twelve percent of these engineers are self-employed, and since 1997 the proportion of female engineers has risen to 6%.[13]


Modern Tools

Most companies in the modern economy have evolved their existing design and analysis processes to use commercial Computer-aided engineering (CAE) programs. Companies in all industries use Computer-aided design (CAD) for design of products in 2D and 3D. This method for designing products has many benefits: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Computer-aided Engineering analysis (often referred to as CAE) is the application of computer software in engineering to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. ... CADD and CAD redirect here. ...

  • Easier and more exhaustive visualization of products in design
  • Ability to create assemblies of parts for ease of designing mating interfaces and tolerances
  • Coupled with Product lifecycle management tools, product data can be tracked as modifications are made
  • Simple to export for analysis using commercial tools

Commercial analysis tools are commonly used to perform complex simulations to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. These simulation tools include Finite element analysis (FEA), Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). This article is about managing product design and production details. ... Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ... Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer-based software tools that assist engineers and machinists in manufacturing or prototyping product components. ...


Using these tools, a design team can quickly and cheaply iterate on a design to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints. It is cheaper because no physical prototype need be created until the design has progressed a long way, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few.


Complicated models, or more accurately, those simulating complicated physical phenomena, can take a very long time to both develop and run. These types of models include those that require a high degree of accuracy in the model and those that model highly nonlinear phenomena, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows. A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid in which the viscosity changes with the applied strain rate. ...


Another benefit of modern CAE is the ability to capture a given design/analysis process and use Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) to automate and improve the iterative design process. MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes to automate the process, which allows product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore the space of possible designs, often finding better and/or innovative solutions to difficult design problems. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is a field of engineering that uses optimization methods to solve design problems incorporating a number of disciplines. ...


Subdisciplines

The field of mechanical engineering can be thought of as a collection of many mechanical disciplines. Several of these subdisciplines which are typically taught at the undergraduate level are listed below, with a brief explanation and the most common application of each. Some of these subdisciplines are unique to mechanical engineering, while others are a combination of mechanical engineering and one or more other disciplines. Most work that a mechanical engineer does uses skills and techniques from several of these subdisciplines, as well as specialized subdisciplines. Specialized subdisciplines, as used in this article, are usually the subject of graduate studies or on-the-job training more than undergraduate research. Several specialized subdisciplines are discussed at the end of this section.


Mechanics

Main article: Mechanics
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Mohr's circle, a common tool to study stresses in a mechanical element
Mohr's circle, a common tool to study stresses in a mechanical element

Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Mohrs_circle. ... Image File history File links Mohrs_circle. ... Mohrs circle is a graphical representation of any 2-D stress state proposed by Christian Otto Mohr in 1882. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... In engineering mechanics, deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force. ... In physics and materials science, plasticity is a property of a material to undergo a non-reversible change of shape in response to an applied force. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ...

  • Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads
  • Dynamics (or kinetics), the study of how forces affect moving bodies
  • Mechanics of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress
  • Fluid Mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces. Fluid mechanics can be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in engineering is called hydraulics and pneumatics.
  • Continuum mechanics is a method of applying mechanics that assumes that objects are continuous. It is contrasted by discrete mechanics.

Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle (see HVAC), or to design the intake system for the engine. Statics is the branch of physics concerned with physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at rest under the action of external forces of equilibrium. ... In physics, dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of objects. ... A field of study at the boundary of two disciplines, Applied mechanics and Materials Science and Engineering, focussing on relations between the mechanical behavior of materials and their microstructures. ... material is the substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something. ... This box:      Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. ... Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Pneumatics, a subsection of an area called fluid power, is the use of pressurized air to effect mechanical motion. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... An intake is an air intake for an engine. ...


Kinematics

Main article: Kinematics

Kinematics is the study of the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects), while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. The movement of a crane and the oscillations of a piston in an engine are both simple kinematic systems. The crane is a type of open kinematic chain, while the piston is part of a closed four bar linkage. Kinematics (Greek κινειν,kinein, to move) is a branch of mechanics which describes the motion of objects without the consideration of the masses or forces that bring about the motion. ... A four bar linkage or simply a 4-bar or four-bar is the simplest movable linkage. ...


Mechanical engineers typically use kinematics in the design and analysis of mechanisms. Kinematics can be used to find the possible range of motion for a given mechanism, or, working in reverse, can be used to design a mechanism that has a desired range of motion. Mechanism is the following: In general, a mechanism is part of a chain of causes leading to some object or process. ...


Mechatronics and robotics

Main article: Mechatronics
Main article: Robotics

Mechatronics is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid systems. In this way, machines can be automated through the use of electric motors, servo-mechanisms, and other electrical systems in conjunction with special software. A common example of a mechatronics system is a CD-ROM drive. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Integrated software controls the process and communicates the contents of the CD to the computer. Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Small R/C servo mechanism 1. ... This article is about the unit of information. ...


Mechatronics is currently used in the following areas of engineering:

Industrial robots perform repetitive tasks, such as assembling vehicles.

Robotics is the application of mechatronics to create robots, which perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics (to determine the robot's range of motion) and mechanics (to determine the stresses within the robot). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shadow robot hand system holding a lightbulb. ... Small R/C servo mechanism 1. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... A control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... An anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Image File history File links Robots_in_car_production-line. ... Image File history File links Robots_in_car_production-line. ... Car redirects here. ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ...


Robots are used extensively in Industrial engineering. They allow businesses to save money on labor and perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform them economically. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields. Robots are also sold for various residential applications. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product. ... Lights out or lights-out manufacturing is a manufacturing methodology (or philosophy), rather than a specific process. ... Space exploration is the physical exploration of outer space, both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft. ...


Structural analysis

Main article: Structural analysis
Main article: Failure analysis

Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering (and also civil engineering) devoted to examining why and how objects fail. Structural failures occur in two general modes: static failure, and fatigue failure. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded (having a force applied) the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically, depending on the criterion for failure. Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading cycles. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle (propagation) until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure. Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws and mathematics required to study and predict the behavior of structures. ... Failure analysis is the process of determining the cause of failure, collecting and analyzing data, and developing conclusions to eliminate the failure mechanism causing specific device or system failures. ... In physics and materials science, plasticity is a property of a material to undergo a non-reversible change of shape in response to an applied force. ...


Failure is not simply defined as when a part breaks, however; it is defined as when a part does not operate as intended. Some systems, such as the perforated top sections of some plastic bags, are designed to break. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause.


Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Engineers may use various books and handbooks such as those published by ASM [14] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes.


Structural analysis may be used in the office when designing parts, in the field to analyze failed parts, or in laboratories where parts might undergo controlled failure tests.


Thermodynamics and thermo-science

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Thermodynamics
Main article: Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is an applied science used in several branches of engineering, including Mechanical and Chemical Engineering. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system. Typically, engineering thermodynamics is concerned with changing energy from one form to another. As an example, automotive engines convert chemical energy (enthalpy) from the fuel into heat, and then into mechanical work that eventually turns the wheels. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... A physical system is a system that is comprised of matter and energy. ... t In thermodynamics and molecular chemistry, the enthalpy or heat content (denoted as H or ΔH, or rarely as χ) is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system under constant pressure. ...


Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transfer, thermofluids, and energy conversion. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plants, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, heat exchangers, heat sinks, radiators, refrigeration, insulation, and others. In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... Thermofluids thermofluids is the study of fluids with respect to heat. ... In physics and engineering, energy conversion is any process of converting energy from one form to another. ... For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... A heat exchanger is a device built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted. ... This article is about the substance or device. ... Not to be confused with radiata. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ... Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and processes used to reduce heat transfer. ...


Drafting

A CAD model of a mechanical double seal
A CAD model of a mechanical double seal
Main article: Technical drawing
Main article: CNC

Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which mechanical engineers create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information. A U.S. mechanical engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman (or, in a more politically correct way, draftsperson). Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but recent Computer-Aided Designing (CAD) programs have begun to allow the designer to create in three dimensions. Image File history File links Mech_2_3D.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mechanical engineering ... Image File history File links Mech_2_3D.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mechanical engineering ... A mechanical seal is a type of seal utilised in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... Manufacturing is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. ... CAD is a TLA that may stand for: Cadiz Railroad (AAR reporting mark CAD) Canadian dollar – ISO 4217-code Capital Adequacy Directive Card Acceptance Device Children of the Anachronistic Dynasty Computer-aided design Computer-aided detection (medical) Computer-aided diagnosis (medical) Computer-assisted dispatch Computer-assisted drafting Coronary artery disease...


Instructions for manufacturing a part must be fed to the necessary machinery, either manually, through programmed instructions, or through the use of a Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) or combined CAD/CAM program. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings, but this is becoming an increasing rarity, with the advent of CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) manufacturing. Engineers primarily manually manufacture parts in the areas of applied spray coatings, finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine. For other uses, see CAM. Animation showing rotating cams and cam followers producing reciprocating motion. ... For other uses, see CNC (disambiguation). ... Thermal Spray techniques are coating processes which involve spraying melted (or heated) materials onto a surface. ...


Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Three-dimensional models created using CAD software are also commonly used in Finite element analysis (FEA) and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Visualization of how a car deforms in an asymmetrical crash using finite element analysis. ... A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. ...


Specialized subdisciplines

An aerodynamic test vehicle used by mechanical engineers.
An aerodynamic test vehicle used by mechanical engineers.

The following is a list of some additional subdisciplines and topics within mechanical engineering. These topics may be considered specialized because they are not typically part of undergraduate mechanical engineering requirements, or require training beyond an undergraduate level to be useful. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not harm the environment or deplete the Earths natural resources. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Computer-aided Engineering analysis (often referred to as CAE) is the application of computer software in engineering to analyze the robustness and performance of components and assemblies. ... In mathematics, the term optimization, or mathematical programming, refers to the study of problems in which one seeks to minimize or maximize a real function by systematically choosing the values of real or integer variables from within an allowed set. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices with critical dimensions that lie within that size range. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ...

Frontiers of research

Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below (see also exploratory engineering). Exploratory engineering is a term coined by K. Eric Drexler to describe the process of designing and analyzing detailed hypothetical models of systems that are not feasible with current technologies or methods, but do seem to be clearly within the bounds of what science considers to be possible within the...


Mechatronics

Main article: Mechatronics

Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems. Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ...


Nanotechnology

Main article: Nanotechnology

At the smallest scales, mechanical engineering becomes nanotechnology and molecular engineering - one speculative goal of which is to create a molecular assembler to build molecules and materials via mechanosynthesis. For now this goal remains within exploratory engineering. Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices with critical dimensions that lie within that size range. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A molecular assembler is a molecular machine capable of assembling other molecules given instructions, energy, and a supply of smaller building block molecules to work from. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with mechanochemistry. ... Exploratory engineering is a term coined by K. Eric Drexler to describe the process of designing and analyzing detailed hypothetical models of systems that are not feasible with current technologies or methods, but do seem to be clearly within the bounds of what science considers to be possible within the...


See also

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At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Mechanical engineering at:

Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... This page aims to list all articles related to the specific discipline of mechanical engineering. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Engineering is a collective term to describe the application of scientific theory in the design, creation, and maintenance of technology. ... This article is about the concept in physics. ... This is a list of mechanical engineers, notable people who were trained in or practiced mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering, etc. ... This is a list of inventors. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... PIV stands for: Particle image velocimetry Positiv Infinitely Variable Pentium 4 Penis in Vagina sex This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...

Associations

  • ADDA International (American Design Drafting Association)
  • ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers)
  • ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)
  • Pi Tau Sigma (Mechanical Engineering Honor Society)

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an international voluntary organization for people involved in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or refrigeration (HVAC&R). ... The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering. ... The Key of Pi Tau Sigma. ...

Wikibooks

References

  1. ^ ABET searchable database of accredited engineering programs, Accessed June 19, 2006.
  2. ^ Accredited engineering programs in Canada by the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers, Accessed April 18, 2007
  3. ^ Types of post-graduate degrees offered at MIT - Accessed 19 June 2006.
  4. ^ 2008-2009 ABET Criteria, p.15.
  5. ^ University of Tulsa Required ME Courses - http://www.me.utulsa.edu/Undergraduate.html - Accessed 19 June 2006
  6. ^ Harvard Mechanical Engineering Page - Accessed 19 June 2006
  7. ^ MIT Engineering Electives - Accessed 19 June 2006
  8. ^ Why Should You Get Licensed?. National Society of Professional Engineers. Retrieved on July 11, 2005.
  9. ^ Engineers Act. Quebec Statutes and Regulations (CanLII). Retrieved on July 24, 2005.
  10. ^ Codes of Ethics and Conduct. Online Ethics Center. Retrieved on July 24, 2005.
  11. ^ U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Engineering - http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm#earnings - Accessed 19 June 2006
  12. ^ http://www.worldwidelearn.com/online-education-guide/engineering/mechanical-engineering-major.htm - Website cites NACE and Dept. of Labor as sources, but was unable to verify. Accessed 19 June 2006
  13. ^ Mechanical Engineers on jobfutures.ca - Accessed June 30, 2007
  14. ^ http://www.asminternational.org/Template.cfm?Section=Bookstore&Template=/ecommerce/ecomdefault.cfm

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Further reading

  • Burstall, Aubrey F. (1965). A History of Mechanical Engineering. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-52001-X. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Scotland (127 words)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Scotland
The Department of Mechanical Engineering is one of only two grade 5 research departments of Mechanical Engineering in Scotland and exists within the oldest Faculty of Engineering in the United Kingdom.
The University was also the first UK university to appoint a Professor of Engineering when, in 1840, Queen Victoria created the Chair of Civil Engineering and Mechanics.
Mechanical engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (640 words)
Mechanical engineering is a very broad field of engineering that involves the application of physical principles for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems.
In the United States, the order of growth of the different branches of engineering, measured by the date a professional society was formed, is civil engineering (1852), mining and metallurgical engineering (1871), mechanical engineering (1880), electrical engineering (1884), and chemical engineering (1908).
An engineering education is based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science; this is followed by courses emphasizing the application of this knowledge to a specific field and studies in the social sciences and humanities to give the engineer a broader education.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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