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Encyclopedia > Mecca
Makkah al-Mukarramah
مكة المكرمة
Skyline of Makkah al-Mukarramahمكة المكرمة
Coordinates: 21°25′N 39°49′E / 21.417, 39.817
Province Makkah
Government
 - Mayor Shareef Usama Al-Barr
Area
 - Total 26 km² (10 sq mi)
Elevation 277 m (909 ft)
Population (2004)
 - Total 1,294,168

Mecca IPA: /ˈmɛkə/ or Makkah IPA: [ˈmækə] (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah IPA: [(Arabic) mækːæ(t) ælmʊkarˑamæ]; Arabic: مكة المكرمة) is an Islamic holy city in Saudi Arabia's Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. It has a population of 1,294,167 (2004 census). The city is located 73 kilometres (45 miles) inland from Jeddah, in a narrow valley , 277 metres (910 ft)above sea level. It is located 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Red Sea. Category: ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah). ... iam cool Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country, with an extended coastline. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Arabic redirects here. ... iam cool Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country, with an extended coastline. ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


The city is revered by Muslims for containing the holiest site of Islam, the Sacred Mosque of Mecca. A pilgrimage to Mecca during the week of the Hajj is one of the Pillars of Islam, a sacred duty that is required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford to go, at least once in their lifetime. People of other faiths are forbidden from entering the city. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Al-Masjid al-HÌ£arām ( IPA: The Sacred Mosque), is the largest mosque in the world. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The religion of Islam consists of faith (إيمان, īmān) and practice (دين, dīn). ...


The English word mecca (uncapitalized), meaning "A place that is regarded as the center of an activity or interest" or "A goal to which adherents of a religious faith or practice fervently aspire." [1] is derived from Mecca. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Geography

Mecca is at an elevation of 277 m (910 ft.) above sea level, and approximately 50 miles inland from the Red Sea.[2] The city is situated between mountains, which has defined the contemporary expansion of the city. The city centers around the Masjid al-Haram (holy place of worship). The area around the mosque comprises the old city. The main avenues are Al-Mudda'ah and Sūq al-Layl to the north of the mosque, and As-Sūg as Saghīr to the south. As the Saudis expanded the Sacred Mosque in the center of the city, where there were once hundreds of houses are now replaced with wide avenues and city squares. Traditional homes are built of local rock and are generally two to three stories. Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Al-Masjid al-HÌ£arām ( IPA: The Sacred Mosque), is the largest mosque in the world. ... Masjid al Haram The Masjid al Haram is a mosque in the city of Mecca (or Makkah). It is considered by Muslims to be the holiest place on Earth and is the focal point of the hajj pilgrimage required of all able-bodied Muslims as one of the Five Pillars...

City layout
City layout

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1460x1248, 312 KB) Summary Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1460x1248, 312 KB) Summary Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ...

Transportation

Transportation facilities related to the Hajj or Umrah (minor pilgrimage) are the main services available. Mecca has no airport, or rail service. Paved roads and modern expressways link Mecca with other cities in Saudi Arabia. The city has good roads. Most pilgrims access the city through the hajj terminal of King Abdul Aziz International Airport (JED) or the Jeddah Islamic Port, both of which are in Jeddah.[3] A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ... An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider in size, where direct access to adjacent properties has been eliminated. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ...


People

Population density in Mecca is very high. Most long-term residents of Mecca live in the Old City, and many work in the industry locally known as the Hajj Industry. As one Saudi CEO was quoted as saying, "We never stop preparing for the Hajj." Year-round, pilgrims stream into the city to perform the rites of Umrah, and during the last weeks of Dhull-Hijjah, on average 4 million Muslims arrive in the city to take part in the rites known as Hajj.[3] ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Government

The Mayor of Mecca, historically known as the Shareef of Mecca is today appointed by the Saudi Government. The current mayor of the city is Usama Al-Barr. A municipal council of fourteen locally elected members is responsible for the functioning of the municipality. The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in a framework of an absolute monarchy whereby the King of Saudi Arabia is not only head of state, but also the head of government. ...


Mecca is also the capital of Makkah province[citation needed], which also includes neighboring Jeddah. The governor was Prince Abdul-Majid bin Abdul-Aziz from 2000 until his death in 2007.[4] On May 16, 2007, Prince Khalid al-Faisal was appointed as the new governor.[5] iam cool Makkah Province is the most populous province of Saudi Arabia, located in the west of the country, with an extended coastline. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Prince Abdul-Majid bin Abdul-Aziz (circa 1943[1]–May 5, 2007) was governor of Mecca from 2000 until his death in 2007. ... Prince Khalid Al-Faisal(Born 1940) is the son of His late Majesty King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz. ...


History

1787 Turkish artwork of the Holy Mosque and related religious sites (Jabal al-Nur)
1787 Turkish artwork of the Holy Mosque and related religious sites (Jabal al-Nur)

For over 1000 years, Mecca has been one of the most important cities in the Arabian Peninsula. Image File history File links OldmapofMecca. ... Image File history File links OldmapofMecca. ... Arabia redirects here. ...


Early history

By the middle of the sixth century, there were three major settlements in northern Arabia, all along the southwestern coast that borders the Red Sea, in a habitable region between the sea and the great desert to the east. This area, known as the Hijaz, featured three settlements that had grown around oases, where water was available. In the center of the Hijaz was Yathrib, later renamed as Medina. 250 miles south of Yathrib was Taif, a mountain town, and northwest of Taif was Mecca. Though the area around Mecca was completely barren, Mecca was the wealthiest and most important of the three settlements. It had abundant water via the Zamzam Well, was the site of the holiest shrine in Arabia, the Kaaba, and was also at the crossroads of major caravan routes.[2] Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Taif in 1970 Taif (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ...


The Kaaba is a large cubical building now surrounded by the Masjid al-Haram . According to the Qur'an, the Kaaba was built by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail (Ishmael), around 2000 BC. Historians state that the Kaaba later became the repository of 360 idols and tribal gods of all of Arabia's nomadic tribes. Prior to Muhammad in the 7th century, the most important idol was that of Hubal, having been placed there by the ruling Quraysh tribe, who had taken control from the Jurhum tribe.[6] The Kaaba was also said to hold icons of other faiths, such as statues of Jesus and Mary.[7] Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām ( IPA: The Sacred Mosque), is the largest mosque in the world. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... Ώ // ---- Insert non-formatted text here]] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ... Hubal (هبل) was a god worshipped in pagan Arabia, notably at Mecca before the arrival of Islam. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Mary may refer to: // Mary (mother of Jesus), the mother of Jesus of Nazareth Blessed Virgin Mary, the Catholic and Orthodox conception of the mother of Christ See also Islamic view of Virgin Mary Mary Magdalene, devoted disciple of Jesus Mary Salome (disciple), mother of apostles James and John Mary...


The harsh conditions of the Arabian peninsula usually meant a constant state of conflict between the tribes, but once a year they would declare a truce and converge upon Mecca in an annual pilgrimage. This journey was intended for religious reasons, to pay homage to the shrine, and to drink from the Well of Zamzam. However, it was also the time each year that disputes would be arbitrated, debts would be resolved, and trading would occur at Meccan fairs. These annual events gave the tribes a sense of common identity and made Mecca extremely important throughout the peninsula.[8]


In the 5th century, the Quraysh tribe took control of Mecca,[9] and became skilled merchants and traders. In the 6th century they joined the lucrative spice trade as well, since battles in other parts of the world were causing trade routes to divert from the dangerous sea routes to the relatively more secure overland routes. The Byzantines had previously controlled the Red Sea, but piracy had been on the increase. Another previous route, that from the Persian Gulf via the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, was also being threatened by Sasanian exploitation, as well as being disrupted by Lakhm, Ghassan, and Persian-Roman wars. Mecca's prominence as a trading center surpassed the cities of Petra and Palmyra. Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... Spices at the central market of Agadir, Morocco in May 2005 The spice trade has been of major economic importance throughout human history and it particularly helped spur the Age of Exploration. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Lakhmids (Arabic: ‎), Banu Lakhm (Arabic: ‎), less commonly Muntherids (Arabic: ‎), were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in (266CE). ... The Ghassanid kingdom was a Christian Arab kingdom who immigrated from Yemen to the north of Arabia. ... Combatants Roman Republic, succeeded by Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire later Persian Empire projected through Parthian and Sassanid dynasties Commanders Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Mark Antony, Trajan, Valerian I, Julian, Belisarius, Heraclius Surena, Shapur I, Shapur II, Kavadh I, Khosrau I, Khosrau II, Shahrbaraz, Rhahzadh The Roman-Persian Wars were... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ...


Muhammad's great-grandfather had been the first to equip a camel caravan, and they became a regular part of the town's economy. Alliances were struck between the merchants in Mecca, and the local nomadic tribes, who would bring leather, livestock, and metals which were mined in the local mountains. Caravans would then be loaded up in Mecca, and would take the goods to the cities in Syria and Iraq.[10] Goods from other continents also flowed through Mecca. From Africa and the Far East towards Syria flowed spices, leather, drugs, cloth, and slaves; and in return Mecca received money, weapons, cereals, and wine, which were distributed throughout Arabia. The Meccans signed treaties with both the Byzantines and the bedouins, and negotiated safe passage for caravans, which included such things as water and pasture rights. These further increased Mecca's political power as well as economic, and Mecca became the center of a loose confederation of client tribes, which included those of the Tamim. Other forces such as the Abyssinian, Ghassan, and Lakhm were in decline, and Meccan influence was the primary binding force in Arabia in the late sixth century.[8] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Ghassanid kingdom was a Christian Arab kingdom who immigrated from Yemen to the north of Arabia. ... The Lakhmids (Arabic: ‎), Banu Lakhm (Arabic: ‎), less commonly Muntherids (Arabic: ‎), were a group of Arab Christians who lived in Southern Iraq, and made al-Hirah which was a fabulous city with many castles and bath-houses and Palm gardens their capital in (266CE). ...

Mecca in 1850
Mecca in 1850

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Muhammad

See also: Muhammad
See also: Conquest of Mecca

Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570, and the story of his life has been inextricably linked with Mecca ever since. He was a member of a minor faction, the Hashemites, of the ruling Quraysh tribe. After he began receiving revelations and preaching against the paganism of the city, he emigrated in 622 with some followers to the northern city of Medina, and launched raids on Meccan commerce. In the Battle of Badr he decimated Mecca's leadership, and won for himself considerable prestige among the Bedouin tribes. Conflict continued, such as at the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Ditch.[11] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Combatants Muslims Quraish Commanders Muhammad Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength 10,000 Unknown Casualties 0 0 Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD (10th day of Ramadan8 AH). ... This limestone statue of a Boddhisattva was probably created in the Henan province of China around 570, in the Northern Qi Dynasty. ... The name of this Arab dynasty should not be confused with Hashem one of the names for God in Judaism Hashemite traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashim, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... The Battle of the Ditch was a battle in which Muslim forces successfully defended Medina in 627 AD against the Quraysh . ...


In 628, Muhammad adopted a more peaceful posture, as he and some followers attempted to enter Mecca on pilgrimage, to show that the traditional rituals could be adopted into his new religion of Islam. At al-Hudaybiya, he agreed to a truce with the Meccans, whereby Muslims would be allowed into the city. Two years later, the truce was broken, but rather than fight, the city of Mecca simply surrendered to Muhammad. He declared amnesty for the inhabitants, gave generous gifts to the leading Quraysh, and instituted some major changes. He removed or destroyed all of the cult images from the Kaaba, declaring it the holiest site in Islam, and dedicating it as the center of Muslim pilgrimage.[11] Many of the Arabian tribes then chose to accept Islam as their own faith. Muhammad had succeeded in something that seemed impossible for hundreds of years -- uniting the warring tribes of the Arabian peninsula into a single umma, a congregation and community, all followers of a single god. His preaching and Koranic visions had created a synthesis of multiple belief systems, which combined elements of pagan Arabian religious ideas, Judaism, Christianity, the hellfire monastic preaching of the Syriacs, and new ideas unique to the new religion of Islam.[12] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Treaty of Hudaybiyya (Arabic: صلح الحديبية) is the treaty that took place between the state of Medina and the Quraishi tribe of Mecca in March 628CE (corresponding to Dhu al-Qidah, 6 AH) [1]. // In 628 AD, a group of 1,400 Muslims marched towards Mecca, in an attempt to... Umma was an ancient city in Sumer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Muhammad died in 632, but with the sense of unity that he'd passed on to the Arabians, Islam began a rapid expansion, and within the next few hundred years stretched from northern Africa well into Asia. As the Islamic Empire grew, Mecca continued to attract pilgrims not just from Arabia, but now from all across the Empire, as Muslims sought to perform the annual Hajj. Template:Islamic Empire infobox The Ottoman Empire (1299 - 29 October 1923) (Ottoman Turkish: Devlet-i Aliye-yi Osmaniyye; literally, The Sublime Ottoman State, modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu), is also known in the West as the Turkish Empire. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Another major change was that prior to Muhammad, Muslims had faced towards Jerusalem in their daily prayers, but Muhammad changed this practice and required everyone to face towards the Kaaba of Mecca instead.

View of Mecca 1910
View of Mecca 1910

Mecca also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to the Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims. Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jedda, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jedda (1955) was the last movie made by Charles Chauvel, and the first to star two Aboriginal actors, (Robert Tudawali and Ngarla Kunoth), in the leading roles. ...


Political history

Mecca was never the capital of any of the Caliphates nor the Ottoman Empire, in Islamic History, Prophet Muhammad's emigration to Medina established the city as the first capital of the Ummah. Ali ibn-Abi Talib, Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law moved the capital to Kufa, Iraq as the 4th Amir of the Ummah. When the Umayyad Dynasty took power they moved the capital to Damascus, Syria, and then the Abbasid Caliphate moved the capital to Baghdad, Iraq. The center of the Muslim Ummah remained at Baghdad for nearly 500 years, and flourished into a center of research and commerce.In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Baghdad and sacked the city. This event was one of the most detested events in Islamic History. Soon after the Sack of Baghdad, the Mongols rampaged west and conquered Syria. The next city to quickly emerge as the center of power in the Ummah was Cairo, which in Arabic means "The-Triumphant" or "The-Radiant". When the Ottoman Empire came into prominence the capital was moved to Constantinople. Mecca still remained as a prominent trading center though. When pilgrims arrived for the hajj they often financed their journey by bringing goods which they could sell in the Meccan markets, and acquiring goods there which they could sell when they returned home.[13] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kufa (&#1575;&#1604;&#1603;&#1608;&#1601;&#1577; al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic &#1575;&#1604;&#1571;&#1605;&#1608;&#1610;&#1608;&#1606; / &#1576;&#1606;&#1608; &#1571;&#1605;&#1610;&#1577; umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The History of Islam is the history of the Islamic faith and the world it shaped as a social, cultural, and political phenomenon. ... Combatants Mongol Empire Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Baiju Kitbuga Koke Ilge Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength 120,000 total (40,000 Armenian infantry, 12,000 Armenian cavalry, and Mongol, Turkish and Georgian soldiers)[1] 50,000 Casualties Unknown but believed to be minimal 50,000 soldiers, 90... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Mecca re-entered Islamic political history briefly when it was held by Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, an early Muslim who opposed the Umayyad caliphs. The caliph Yazid I besieged Mecca in 683.[14] Abd Allah al-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr or Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (624 - 692) (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير) was the son of Zubair, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma bint Abu Bakr. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ...


Thereafter the city figured little in politics; it was a city of devotion and scholarship. For centuries it was governed by the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca, descendants of Muhammad by his grandson Hassan ibn Ali. The Sharifs ruled on behalf of whatever caliph or Muslim ruler had declared himself the Guardian of the Two Shrines.[citation needed] Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques is a title given to the King of Saudi Arabia. ...


Mecca was attacked and sacked by Ismaili Muslims in 930.[citation needed] The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...


Ottoman return of Mecca

See also: Ottoman return of Mecca 1813

Combatants Ottoman Empire (Egyptians) First Saudi State Commanders Tusun Pasha Mohammed Ali Pasha Faisal bin Saud AL-Kabeer Strength 22,000 1,000 Casualties none. ...

Mecca in the 20th century

See also: Battle of Mecca 1916

In June 1916, Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali revolted against Ottoman Empire from Mecca and Mecca was the first city captured by his forces. Combatants Banu Hashim Ottoman Empire The Battle of Mecca occurred in the muslim holy city of Mecca In June and July of 1916. ... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Sherif Hussein ibn Ali Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


In 1926, the Sharifs of Mecca were overthrown by the Saudis, and Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.[citation needed]


1979 Siege

Main article: Grand Mosque Seizure

On November 20, 1979 two hundred armed Islamist dissidents led by Saudi preacher Juhayman al-Otaibi seized the Grand Mosque. They claimed that the Saudi royal family no longer represented pure Islam and that the mosque, and the Kaaba, must be held by those of the true faith. The rebels seized tens of thousands of pilgrims as hostages and barricaded themselves in the mosque. The siege lasted two weeks, and resulted in several hundreds deaths and significant damage to the shrine, especially the Safa-Marwa gallery. While it is the Saudi forces that carried out the assault, they were assisted with weapons and planning by a small team of advisors from France's GIGN commando unit.[15] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Juhayman ibn Muhammad ibn Sayf al-Otaibi (Arabic: ) (1936 – 9 January 1980) was a militant who led the takeover of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Islams holiest site, in the last months of 1979. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Categories: Stub | Law enforcement in France ...


1987 massacre of pilgrims

On July 31, 1987, during an anti-US demonstration by pilgrims, 402 people were killed and 649 wounded after the Saudi police opened fire against the demonstrators. The 1987 massacre of Iranian pilgrims occurred on July 31, 1987. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Tourism

Mecca in May 2007
Mecca in May 2007

The primary industry in Mecca in modern times is to support the annual pilgrimage of the Hajj, as well as to support the pilgrims who visit the city at all other times of the year. Major stops in their visit include: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) الحرم المكي الشريف Pilgrims of Islam completing the hajj to Mecca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 517 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) الحرم المكي الشريف Pilgrims of Islam completing the hajj to Mecca. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Kaaba

Main article: Kaaba

The Kaaba is the ancient stone building towards which all Muslims pray. Many believe that it dates back to the time of Abraham in 2000 BC. All pilgrims are required to walk counter-clockwise around the Kaaba seven times, in a ritual called the Tawaf. The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Ώ // ---- Insert non-formatted text here]] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... In Islamic context, Tawaf refers to the ritual of circumambulating the Kabah (the holiest building in Mecca) during the Hajj (pilgrimage). ...


Well of Zamzam

Main article: Zamzam Well

Muslims believe that the Zamzam well was revealed to Hagar, mother of Ishmael. She was desperately seeking water for her infant son, but could find none. Mecca is located in a hot dry valley with few other sources of water. According to tradition, the water of the Zamzam well is divinely blessed. It is believed to satisfy both hunger and thirst, and cure illness. The water is served to the public through coolers stationed throughout the Masjid al Haram in Mecca and the Masjid al Nabawi in Medina. All pilgrims make every effort to drink of this water during their pilgrimage, and some dip their ihram clothing into it, so that the cloth can be used as their own burial shroud when they die. The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Drinking the water from Zamzam spring. ... Masjid al Haram Al-Masjid al-Haram (Arabic: ) is a very large mosque in the city of Makkah (Mecca). ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), Medina Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ihram (إحرام) is an Arabic word that denotes a sacred state in which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage, hajj or the minor pilgrimage, umrah. ...


Current status

The city has grown substantially in the 20th and 21st centuries, as the convenience and affordability of jet travel has increased the number of pilgrims participating in the Hajj. Thousands of Saudis are employed year-round to oversee the Hajj and staff the hotels and shops that cater to pilgrims; these workers in turn have increased the demand for housing and services. The city is now ringed by freeways, and contains shopping malls and skyscrapers.[16] Jet aircraft are aircrafts with jet engines. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Non-Muslims and Mecca

As is evident from the image, the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has engineered an efficient transportation system in and around Mecca. As is compliant with the Qur'anic commandment:


"O ye who believe! Truly the Pagans are unpure; so let them not, after this year of theirs, approach the Sacred Mosque. And if ye fear poverty, soon will Allah enrich you, if He wills, out of His bounty, for Allah is All-knowing, All-wise." -- Qur'an, 9:29 The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

"Non-Muslim Bypass:" Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca
"Non-Muslim Bypass:" Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca

Non-Muslims are not permitted to enter Mecca per Saudi law. Officials conduct checks to confirm that motorists are either Muslims and non Muslims. The main airport has a similar security policy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


As one might expect, the existence of cities closed to non-Muslims and the mystery of the Hajj aroused intense curiosity in people from around the world. Some have disguised themselves as Muslims and entered the city of Mecca and then the Kaaba to experience the Hajj for themselves.[citation needed] The most famous account of a foreigner's journey to Mecca is A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, written by Sir Richard Francis Burton. Burton traveled as a Qadiri Sufi from Afghanistan; his name, as he signed it in Arabic below his front piece portrait for "The Jew, The Gypsy and al-Islam," was al-Hajj 'Abdullah.[citation needed] For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Divine love and the cultivation of the elements of the Divine within the individual human being. ...


There are also several other individuals who have entered the city namely John Poclum, Dr. Gary Horse and Fad Kaler. They have recorded their findings in the BooK With in the Holy City of Mecca. They described their journey through European eyes. It gives great insight to the myths, fears and legends to the Hajj. The book is a good way for outsiders to learn the truth about the Hajj and how greatly important and Holy the Hajj is for Muslims.


Spelling

Mecca is the original English transliteration of the Arabic name. In the 1980s, the Saudi Arabian government and others began promoting the transliteration Makkah (in full, Makkah al-Mukarramah), which more closely resembles the actual Arabic pronunciation. Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


The spelling Makkah or Meccah is not new and has always been a common alternative [17]. (In the works and letters of T E Lawrence, almost every conceivable variation of the spelling appears.) Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 &#8211; May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916&#8211;1918. ...


The spelling Makkah is starting to be taken up by many organizations, including the United Nations[18], U.S. Department of State[19] and the British Foreign Office [20], but the spelling Mecca remains in common use. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ...


Economy

The Meccan economy is almost entirely dependent on money spent by people attending the hajj. The city takes in more than $100 million during the hajj. The Saudi government spends about $50 million on services for the hajj. There are some industries and factories in the city, but Mecca no longer plays a major role in Saudi Arabia's economy, which is mainly based on oil exports.[21] The few industries operating in Mecca include textiles, furniture, and utensils. The majority of the economy is service oriented. Water is scarce and food must be imported.[citation needed] A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


See also

Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), Allāt (a contraction of pre-Arabic *al-ilāhat the Goddess) was a pre-Islamic Arabian goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Hejazi Arabic is a term used to describe the variety of the Arabic language spoken in the western region of Saudi Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Manāt was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Shi&#699;a Islam (Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%&#8211;35% of all Muslim. ... Mentioned in the Quran (Sura 53:20), al-Ê•uzzā the Mightiest One or the strong (derived from the root Ê•zy) was a pre-Islamic Arabian fertility goddess who was one of the three chief goddesses of Mecca. ... Map of Satguru Nanak Dev Jis Journeys Guru Nanaks travel to many areas, going from the Punjab. ...

Notes

  1. ^ American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.. Definition of mecca
  2. ^ a b Islamic World, p. 13
  3. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  4. ^ Associated Press (May 7, 2007). Prince Abdul-Majid, Governor of Mecca, Dies at 65.
  5. ^ Saudi Press Agency [1]
  6. ^ Hawting, p. 44
  7. ^ Islamic World, p. 20
  8. ^ a b Lapidus, Ira. History of Islamic Societies, pp. 16-17
  9. ^ Britannica
  10. ^ Islamic World, pp. 17-18
  11. ^ a b Lapidus, p. 32
  12. ^ Lapidus, p. 33
  13. ^ Lapidus, p. 328
  14. ^ Ummayads: The First Muslim Dynasty, retrieved November 26, 2007.
  15. ^ "The Siege of Mecca", Doubleday(US), 2007-08-28. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. 
  16. ^ "Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca", The Independent (UK), 2006-04-19. Retrieved on 2007-05-03. 
  17. ^ Six Months in Meccah, John Keane,Tinsley Brothers, 1881.
  18. ^ United Nations. Typical document illustrating Makkah spelling.</
  19. ^ U.S. Department of State Background Note: Saudi Arabia.
  20. ^ British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Typical document illustrating Makkah spelling.
  21. ^ Mecca. World Book Encyclopedia. 2003 edition. Volume M. P.353

The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • (1999) What life was like in the lands of the prophet: Islamic world, AD 570 - 1405. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-7835-5465-6. 
  • "Quraysh". 'Encyclopaedia Britannica'. (2007). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (online). Retrieved on 2007-02-19. 
  • Lapidus, Ira M. (1988). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 22552 5. 
  • Hawting, G. R. (1980). "The Disappearance and Rediscovery of Zamzam and the 'Well of the Ka'ba'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 43 (1): 44-54. 

... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Rosenthal, Franz; Ibn Khaldun (1967). The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09797-6. 
  • Crone, Patricia (1987). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Princeton University Press. 

Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ...

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Afif | Arar | Abha | Abqaiq | Al-Bahah | Buraidah | Dammam | Dhahran | Diriyah | Duba | Ha'il | Hofuf | Al Jawf | Jeddah | Jizan | Jubail | Khamis Mushait | Al-Kharj | Khobar | Al Majma'ah | Mecca (Makkah) | Medina | Najran | Bisha | Qatif | Ras Tanura | Khafji | Riyadh (National Capital) | Ta’if | Tabuk | Unaizah | Yanbu' al Bahr | Hafar Al-Batin

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... This is a list of cities and towns in Saudi Arabia. ... Afif (Arabic: عفيف) is a town in central Saudi Arabia, in the Najd region. ... Arar is the capital of Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (The Northern Border) province in Saudi Arabia. ... Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. ... Map of Abqaiq Region Abqaiq (also Buqayq, Arabic: بقيق buqayq, meaning father of the sand flies) is a small city in the interior of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia located in the desert southwest of the Dhahran-Dammam-Khobar metropolitan area. ... Al Bahah (Arabic: الباحة) is a city in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. ... Buraidah (Arabic: بريدة) is a city in the [[Qassim]] region of Saudi Arabia in the heart of the Arabian peninsula. ... Dammam Corniche Dammam (Also Damman or Ad Dammām) is the capital of the Ash Sharqiyah province in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ... Diriyah (also Ad-Diriyah or Ad-Dariyah) is a town in Saudi Arabia located outside of Riyadh in Ar Riyad Province. ... Duba is a city on the northern Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. ... Hail (Arabic: ‎) is an oasis city in Najd in northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the capital of the Hail Province. ... Hofuf (Arabic: الهفوف) is a common name for the major city also called Al-Hasa or Hassa in the Al-Hasa oasis in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Al-Jawf (Arabic: الجوف) is a city in the north of Saudi Arabia. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Jizan, Saudi Arabia Jizan or Jazan (Arabic: جيزان) is the capital of the Jizan Province in the far south-west of Saudi Arabia. ... Location of Jubail, Saudi Arabia. ... Khamis Mushait (Arabic: خميس مشيط Khamis Mushayt) is a city in south-west Saudi Arabia, located 35 minutes east of Abha, the provincial seat of the Asir province in southwest Saudi Arabia. ... Al Kharj (Arabic: الخرج) is a city in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ... Khobar Corniche Khobar (also written al-Khobar or al-Khubar ; Arabic: الخبر) is a large city located in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the Arabian/Persian Gulf. ... Al Majmaah (Arabic: المجمعة) is a city and a governorate in Ar Riyad Province, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Najran is a province of Saudi Arabia, located in the south of the country along the border with Yemen. ... Bisha (بيشة) (also known as Qal`at Bishah قلعة بيشة) is a town in southwestern Saudi Arabia. ... Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; Arabic: ) is a historic, coastal oasis region located on the western shore of the Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Map of Ras Tanura Region Ras Tanura (more accurately Ras TannÅ«rah, Arabic: رأس تنورة meaning top/head of the barbeque spit) is a city in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia located on a peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf. ... Ras Al Khafji was historically the principle town in the neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. ... Riyadh (Arabic: ar-Riyāḍ) is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. ... Taif is in the mid-southwest of the country near to Mecca Ta’if ( transliteration: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... Satellite view of Unzaizah. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Province Established 17 AH - 638 AD Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Mutlaq Abu Ethnain  - City Governor  - Provincial Governor Population (2005)  - City +338,636  - Urban +289,179  - Metro +49,457   Hafar Al-Batin Municipality estimate Time zone AST (UTC+3)  - Summer (DST) AST (UTC+3) Postal Code...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mecca - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1375 words)
The caliph Yazid I besieged Mecca in 683 CE.
Mecca was attacked and sacked by Ismaili Muslims in 930 CE and by Wahhabi Muslims in 1803.
The focal point of Mecca is the Ka'bah, the "House of God" believed by Muslims to have been rebuilt by Abraham and his son Ishmael; it is covered in a gold-embroidered fl fabric (kiswah).
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Mecca is the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (the founder of Islam), the center of pilgrimage for Muslims, and the focal point of their daily prayers.
After the spread of Islam and the growth of the Muslim community, the fortunes of Mecca rose and fell with the yearly ebb and flow of pilgrims.
Mecca was led by local sharifs, rulers who claimed descent from Muhammad, from 966 until the 20th century.
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