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Encyclopedia > Measuring poverty
Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day. Unfortunately, information is missing for some countries.
Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 dollar per day. Unfortunately, information is missing for some countries.
World map showing Life expectancy.
World map showing Life expectancy.
World map showing the Human Development Index.
World map showing the Human Development Index.
World map showing the Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality.
World map showing the Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality.
The percentage of the world's population living on less than $1 per day has halved in twenty years. However, most of this improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. The graph shows the 1981-2001 period.
Life expectancy has been increasing and converging for most of the world. Sub-Saharan Africa has recently seen a decline, partly related to the AIDS epidemic. The graph shows the 1950-2005 period.
Life expectancy has been increasing and converging for most of the world. Sub-Saharan Africa has recently seen a decline, partly related to the AIDS epidemic. The graph shows the 1950-2005 period.

Although the most severe poverty is in the developing world, there is evidence of poverty in every region. In developed countries, this condition results in wandering homeless people and poor suburbs and ghettos. Poverty may be seen as the collective condition of poor people, or of poor groups, and in this sense entire nation-states are sometimes regarded as poor. To avoid stigma these nations are usually called developing nations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 59 KB) Summary Summary Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 doller per day. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 59 KB) Summary Summary Map of world poverty by country, showing percentage of population living on less than 1 doller per day. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 53 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Life expectancy List of countries by life expectancy ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 53 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Life expectancy List of countries by life expectancy ... World map of life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival of human beings based upon a number of criteria such as gender and geographic location. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 20 KB) UN Human Development Index (HDI) for 2004, derived from 2006 UN HDI report. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1350x625, 20 KB) UN Human Development Index (HDI) for 2004, derived from 2006 UN HDI report. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gini coefficient ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gini coefficient ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution, defined as the ratio of area between the Lorenz curve of the distribution and, to the area under the uniform distribution. ... Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (733x655, 22 KB) Summary Chart showing the percentage of the population living on less than $1 per day 1981-2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x632, 47 KB) Summary Data source: World Resources Institute. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (910x632, 47 KB) Summary Data source: World Resources Institute. ... AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. ... A homeless person in Paris. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ...


When measured, poverty may be absolute or relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over time and between countries. An example of an absolute measurement would be the percentage of the population eating less food than is required to sustain the human body (approximately 2000-2500 kilocalories per day). Poverty that is so extreme that people cannot even meet the basic human necessities like food, clothes and shelter is known as absolute poverty. ... Relative poverty is a poverty measure based on a poor standard of living or a low income relative to the rest of society. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ...


The World Bank defines extreme poverty as living on less than US$ (PPP) 1 per day, and moderate poverty as less than $2 a day. It has been estimated that in 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day. The proportion of the developing world's population living in extreme economic poverty has fallen from 28 percent in 1990 to 21 percent in 2001. Much of the improvement has occurred in East and South Asia. In Sub-Saharan Africa GDP/capita shrank with 14 percent and extreme poverty increased from 41 percent in 1981 to 46 percent in 2001. Other regions have seen little or no change. In the early 1990s the transition economies of Europe and Central Asia experienced a sharp drop in income. Poverty rates rose to 6 percent at the end of the decade before beginning to recede. [1] There are various criticisms of these measurements.[2][3] World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group is a group of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... Extreme poverty is a severe state of poverty in which people are unable to purchase even basic human necessities, such as food, clothes, and shelter. ... Purchasing power parity (PPP) is in economics the method of using the long-run equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize the currencies purchasing power. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Some economists such as Guy Pfeffermann say that other indicators of "absolute poverty" are also improving. Life expectancy has greatly increased in the developing world since WWII and is starting to close the gap to the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Even in Sub-Saharan Africa, the least developed region, life expectancy increased from 30 years before World War II to a peak of about 50 years before the HIV pandemic and other diseases started to force it down to the current level of 47 years. Child mortality has decreased in every developing region of the world[4]. The proportion of the world's population living in countries where per-capita food supplies are less than 2,200 calories (9,200 kilojoules) per day decreased from 56% in the mid-1960s to below 10% by the 1990s. Between 1950 and 1999, global literacy increased from 52% to 81% of the world. Women made up much of the gap: Female literacy as a percentage of male literacy has increased from 59% in 1970 to 80% in 2000. The percentage of children not in the labor force has also risen to over 90% in 2000 from 76% in 1960. There are similar trends for electric power, cars, radios, and telephones per capita, as well as the proportion of the population with access to clean water.[5] World map of life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival of human beings based upon a number of criteria such as gender and geographic location. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ...


Relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context. In this case, the number of people counted as poor could increase while their income rise. A relative measurement would be to compare the total wealth of the poorest one-third of the population with the total wealth of richest 1% of the population. There are several different income inequality metrics, one example is the Gini coefficient. The social environment or social context is a group of identical or similar social positions and social roles. ... Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution, defined as the ratio of area between the Lorenz curve of the distribution and, to the area under the uniform distribution. ...


In many developed countries the official definition of poverty used for statistical purposes is based on relative income. As such many critics argue that poverty statistics measure inequality rather than material deprivation or hardship. For instance, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 46% of those in "poverty" in the U.S. own their own home (with the average poor person's home having three bedrooms, with one and a half baths, and a garage).[6] Furthermore, the measurements are usually based on a person's yearly income and frequently take no account of total wealth. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is based on "economic distance", a level of income set at 50% of the median household income. The US poverty line is more arbitrary. It was created in 1963-64 and was based on the dollar costs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's "economy food plan" multiplied by a factor of three. The multiplier was based on research showing that food costs then accounted for about one third of the total money income. This one-time calculation has since been annually updated for inflation.[7] Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


Income inequality for the world as a whole is diminishing. A 2002 study by Xavier Sala-i-Martin finds that this is driven mainly, but not fully, by the extraordinary growth rate of the incomes of the 1.2 billion Chinese citizens. However, unless Africa achieve economic growth, then China, India, the OECD and the rest of middle-income and rich countries will diverge away from it, and global inequality will rise. Thus, the economic growth of the African continent should be the priority of anyone concerned with increasing global income inequality.[8] Income inequality metrics or income distribution metrics are techniques used by economists to measure the distribution of income among members of a society. ... Xavier Sala i Martín (b. ...


Even if poverty may be lessening for the world as a whole, it continues to be an enormous problem:

  • One third of deaths - some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day - are due to poverty-related causes. That's 270 million people since 1990, the majority women and children, roughly equal to the population of the US.
  • Every year nearly 11 million children die before their fifth birthday.
  • In 2001, 1.1 billion people had consumption levels below $1 a day and 2.7 billion lived on less than $2 a day
  • 800 million people go to bed hungry every day.[9]

The World Bank's "Voices of the Poor" [10], based on research with over 20,000 poor people in 23 countries, identifies a range of factors which poor people consider elements of poverty. Most important are those necessary for material well-being, especially food. Many others relate to social rather than material issues.

  • precarious livelihoods
  • excluded locations
  • gender relationships
  • problems in social relationships
  • lack of security
  • abuse by those in power
  • dis-empowering institutions
  • limited capabilities, and
  • weak community organizations.

References

  1. ^ Worldbank.org reference
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ The Eight Losers of Globalization By Guy Pfeffermann. Guy Pfeffermann is the Director of International Finance Corporation's Global Business School Network. This organization is a member of the World Bank Group, which promotes private sector investment in developing and transition countries. 2002.

    It is an area where not only is there little or no consensus among disciplines, but where economists themselves have widely differing views. So, what can one say with a fair degree of certainty about growth and inequality in developing countries? Life expectancy at birth — the most basic and robust of all social indicators — has increased very considerably around the world. The private sector of a nations economy consists of those entities which are not controlled by the state - i. ...

  5. ^ www.sciencedirect.org
  6. ^ Rector, Robert E. and Johnson, Kirk A., Understanding Poverty in AmericaExecutive Summary, Heritage Foundation, January 15, 2004 No. 1713
  7. ^ US Department of Human Services-FAQ Poverty Guidelines and Poverty
  8. ^ [3][4]
  9. ^ millenniumcampaign.org
  10. ^ [5]

 
 

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