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Encyclopedia > Mead
Mead
Mead

Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. It is generally pronounced "meed" (IPA: /miːd/). Meadhing (pronounced meth' ing, IPA: /ˈmɛ.ðɪŋ/) is the practice of brewing honey. Mead is also known as "honey wine," although this is inaccurate. Mead is a separate and distinct family of alcoholic beverages, completely apart from beer, wine, liqueur, and distilled beverages. Download high resolution version (516x720, 44 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (516x720, 44 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... Honey honey comb A capped frame of honeycomb Honey is a sweet and viscous fluid produced by honeybees and other insects from the nectar of flowers. ... Water (from the Old English waeter; c. ... Yeasts are single-celled (unicellular) fungi, a few species of which are commonly used to leaven bread, ferment alcoholic beverages, and even drive experimental fuel cells. ... Symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet as used for English. ... Symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet as used for English. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage, selling over 133,000 million litres a year. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage is a liquid preparation meant for consumption containing ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ...


A mead that also contains spices (like cloves, cinnamon or nutmeg) or herbs (such as oregano or even lavender or chamomile) is called metheglin. This word is derived from the Welsh word meddyglyn, meaning "medicinal liquor", as healing herbs were often stored as metheglin so they would be available over the winter (as well as making them much easier to swallow). Slavic miod/med, which means "honey", derives from the same Proto-Indo-European root. External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Cassia (Indonesian cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... A herb (see also pronunciation differences) is a plant grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) (Catalan: orenga, Spanish: orégano, Portuguese: orégão, Italian: origano) is a spicy, Mediterranean, perennial herb, particularly common in Greek and Italian cuisines. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis The lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean region south to tropical... Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...


A mead that contains fruit (such as strawberry, blackcurrant or even rose hips) is called melomel and was also used as a delicious way to "store" summer produce for the winter. Species 20+ species; see text The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants. ... Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ... Dog Rose showing the bright red hips The rose hip, also called the rose haw, is the pomeaceous fruit of the rose plant. ...


Mulled mead is a popular winter holiday drink, where mead is flavoured with spices and warmed, traditionally by having a hot poker plunged into it.

Contents


History of mead

The history of mead goes back more than 8,000 years. The oldest known meads were created on the Island of Crete; fermented honey was seen as an entheogen and bees were sacred to Demeter. Wine had not yet been created. Mead was the drink of the Age of Gold, and the word for drunk in classical Greek remained "honey-intoxicated." (Kerenyi 1976 pp 35ff). Crete (Greek Κρήτη Kriti; called Candia in the Venetian period and Turkish: Girit) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... The word entheogen is a modern term derived from two Ancient Greek words, ἔνθεος (entheos) and γενέσθαι (genesthai). ... Families Andrenidae Apidae Colletidae Halictidae Megachilidae Melittidae Stenotritidae Bee collecting pollen Bees (Apoidea superfamily) are flying insects, closely related to wasps and ants. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter; for other uses, see Demeter (disambiguation). ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... The term Golden age stems from Greek mythology and Roman poets. ...


Mead was once very popular in Northern Europe, often produced by monks in monasteries in areas where grapes could not be grown. It faded in popularity, however, once wine imports became economical. Especially partial to it were the Slavs. In Polish it is called miód pitny (pronounced [mjut pi:tni]), meaning "drinkable honey". Mead was a favored drink among the Polish-Lithuanian szlachta (nobility). During the Crusades, Polish Prince Leszek I the White explained to the Pope that Polish knights could not participate in the Crusades because there was no mead in Palestine. Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... The Slavic peoples are defined by their usage of the Slavic languages. ... Polish-Lithuanian can refer to: Polish-Lithuanian Union from 1385 until 1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 untul 1795 Categories: Disambiguation ... Polish szlachcic. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Leszek I the White. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


In Norse mythology, mead was the favorite drink of the Norse gods and heroes, e.g. in Valhalla, and the mead of the giant (Jotun) Suttung, made from the blood of Kvasir, was the source of wisdom and poetry. The nectar and ambrosia of the Greek gods are often thought of as draughts of fermented honey. Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Norse gods Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including Jotun, the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... Valhalla as portrayed in the animated film Valhalla In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... The giants seize Freyja. ... In Norse mythology, Suttung was a Jotun, son of Gilling, who (along with Suttungs mother) had been murdered by Fjalar and Galar. ... Kvasir is a god of Norse mythology. ... Headline text link titleItalic text For other uses, see Ambrosia (disambiguation). ... Greek mythological characters (Most of the gods and goddesses had Roman equivalents. ...


In Finland, a sweet mead called Sima (cognate with zymurgy), is still an essential seasonal brew connected with the Finnish Vappu festival. It is usually spiced by adding both the flesh and rind of a lemon. During secondary fermentation raisins are added to control the amount of sugars and to act as an indicator of readiness for consumption — they will rise to the top of the bottle when the drink is ready. A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Walpurgis Night in Sweden Walpurgis Night (Walpurgisnacht in German, and Dutch, Valborgsmässoafton in Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö in Estonian, Valpurgijos naktis in Lithuanian,ValpurÄ£u nakts or ValpurÄ£i in Latvian, čarodÄ›jnice or Valpuržina noc in Czech, chódotypalenje Lower Sorbian, chodojtypalenje in Upper Sorbian, and... Binomial name Citrus × limon (L.) Burm. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Ethiopian mead is called tej and is usually home-made. It is flavored with the powdered leaves and bark of gesho, a hops-like bittering agent which is a species of buckthorn. A sweeter, less-alcoholic version called berz, aged for a shorter time, is also made. The traditional vessel for drinking tej is a rounded vase-shaped container called a berele. Tej is a mead or honey wine brewed and consumed in Ethiopia. ... Species Humulus lupulusL. Humulus japonicusSiebold& Zucc. ... The basic tastes are the commonly recognized types of taste sensed by humans. ... Species See text The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as distinct) of about 100 species of shrubs or small trees from 1-10 m tall (rarely to 15 m), in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ...


Evidence exists that mead was also made in India, Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and Central Africa. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Mead is also mentioned in many old north Anglo-Saxon stories, including in the epic poem Beowulf. The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ...


The word "honeymoon" in English is supposedly traceable to the practice of a bride's father dowering her with enough mead for a month-long celebration in honor of the marriage. Italic textItalic textA honeymoon is the traditional trip taken by newlyweds to celebrate their marriage, and presumably, consummate it. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ...


Varieties of mead

Different types of mead include, but are not limited to:


Braggot - Braggot (also called bracket or brackett) marks the invention of Ale. Originally brewed with honey and hops, later with honey and malt - with or without hops added. Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ...


Black mead - A name sometimes given to the blend of honey and black currants. Binomial name Ribes nigrum L. The blackcurrant is a temperate shrub which produces small edible berries with a high natural vitamin C content, which are very dark purple/blue in colour—almost black—hence the name. ...


Cyser - Cyser is a blend of honey and apple juice fermented together. See also cider. A pint of cider. ...


Great mead - Any mead that is intended to be aged several years, like vintage wine. The designation is meant to distinguish this type of mead from "short mead" (see below.) Vintage near Sorrento, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, c. ...


Hippocras - Hippocras (or Ypocras) is a combination of Pyment (see below) and spices. This article is about the beverage. ...


Hydromel - Hydromel literally means "water-honey" in Greek. It is also the French name for mead. (Compare with the Spanish hidromiel and aquamiel, Italian idromele and Portuguese hidromel). It is also used as a name for a very light or low-alcohol mead.


Melomel - Melomel is made from honey and any fruit. Depending on the fruit-base used, certain melomels may also be known by more specific names (see cyser, pyment, morat for examples) This article is about the beverage. ...


Metheglin - Metheglin starts with traditional mead but has herbs and spices added. Some of the most common metheglins are ginger, tea, orange peel, coriander, cinnamon, cloves, or vanilla. Its name indicates that many metheglins were originally employed as folk medicines. (Though the Welsh word for honey is medd, the word "metheglin" actually derives from meddeglyn, a compound word comprised of meddyg, "healing" + llyn, "liquor".) This article is about the beverage. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


Morat - Morat blends honey and mulberries. Berntor in Murten Murten (in German) Morat (in French) is a town in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland, on the southern shores of Lake Murten. ... Species Morus alba - White Mulberry Morus australis - Chinese Mulberry Morus indica - Indian Mulberry Morus microphylla - Texas Mulberry Morus nigra - Black Mulberry Morus rubra - Red Mulberry Morus serrata - Himalayan Mulberry For other meanings, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ...


Omphacomel - A medieval mead recipe that blends honey with verjuice; could therefore be considered a variety of pyment. Verjuice (verjus in French) is a very acidic juice made by pressing unripe grapes. ...


Oxymel - Another historical mead recipe, blending honey with wine vinegar. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ...


Perry - Perry-mead blends honey with milled, ripe pears. (See entry for the modern drink Babycham.) Traditional perry (poiré in French) is bottled champagne-style in Normandy Perry or pear cider is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented pear juice. ... Babycham (Trade name) is a light, sparkling perry invented by Francis Showering, a brewer in Shepton Mallet in Somerset, England. ...


Pyment - Pyment blends honey and red or white grapes. Pyment made with white grape juice is sometimes called "white mead." This article is about the beverage. ...


Rhodomel - Rhodomel is made from honey, rose hips, petals, or rose attar, and water. Dog Rose showing the bright red hips The rose hip, also called the rose haw, is the pomeaceous fruit of the rose plant. ... Farid ad-Din Attar (farīdu-d-dīn aṭṭār ; ca. ...


Sack mead - This refers to mead that is made with more copious amounts of honey than usual. The finished product retains an extremely high specific gravity and elevated levels of sweetness. It derives its name from the Fortified_wine dessert wine Sherry (which is sometimes sweetened after fermentation, and in England once bore the nickname of "sack".) Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Dessert wines are those wines which are typically served with dessert, although they are also drunk on their own, i. ... Sherry solera Sherry is a type of wine originally produced in and around the town of Jerez, Spain. ...


Short mead - Also called "quick mead". A type of mead recipe that is meant to age quickly, for immediate consumption. Because of the techniques used in its creation, short mead shares some qualities found in hard cider (or even light ale): primarily that it is effervescent, and often has a cidery taste. Cider has different meanings in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Light ale is an English term that is used to refer to a bottled basic bitter. ... Carbonated bubbles in a soda float to the surface. ...


Show mead - A term which has come to mean "plain" mead; that which has honey and water as a base, with no fruits, spices or extra flavorings. (Since honey alone does not provide enough nourishment for the yeast to carry on its life-cycle, a mead that is devoid of fruit, etc. will require a special yeast nutrient and other enzymes to produce an acceptable finished product.)


Tej - Tej is an Ethiopian mead, fermented with wild yeasts (and bacteria), and with the addition of gesho. Recipes vary from family to family, with some recipes leaning towards braggot with the inclusion of grains. Tej is a mead or honey wine brewed and consumed in Ethiopia. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Mulsum - Mulsum is not a true mead, but is unfermented honey blended with a high-alcohol wine. The eating and drinking habits of the Romans changed over the long (over 1000 years) duration of their ancient civilization. ...


Medovukha - Eastern Slavic variant, very alcoholic. In principle, a vodka with distilled honey addition. Medovukha is a Russian alcoholic beverage that is, like mead, derived from honey. ...


Mead can have a wide range of flavors, depending on the source of the honey, additives called "adjuncts" or "gruit" (including fruit and spices), yeast employed during fermentation, and aging procedure. Mead can be difficult to find commercially, though some producers have been successful marketing it. Blended varieties of mead can be known by either style represented. For instance, a mead made with cinnamon and apples can be referred to as a cinnamon cyser or as an apple metheglin.


Some meads retain some measure of the sweetness of the original honey, and some can even be considered as dessert wines. Drier meads are also available, and some producers offer sparkling meads, which (like champagne) can make for a delightful celebratory toast. There are a number of faux-meads, which are actually cheap wines with large amounts of honey added, to produce a cloyingly sweet liqueur. It has been said that "a mead that tastes of honey is as good as a wine that still tastes of grape". Champagne is often drunk as part of a celebration Champagne is a sparkling wine (fizzy wine) produced by inducing the in-bottle secondary fermentation of wine to effect carbonation. ...


Historically, meads would have been fermented by wild yeasts and bacteria residing on the skins of the fruit or within the honey itself. Wild yeasts generally result in a high alcohol content and some interesting by-flavors. As commercial brewing interests 'tamed' the yeasts into the strains we recognize now, certain strains became associated with certain styles of mead. Mostly, these are strains that are also used in beer or wine production. Several commercial labs, such as White Labs, WYeast, Vierka, and others have gone so far as to develop strains specifically for mead. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast used in both baking and brewing. ... Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Mead can also be distilled to a brandy or liqueur strength. Krupnik is a sweet Polish liqueur made through just such a process. Polish Krupnik Krupnik is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to liqueurs, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ...


Brands

  • Empire T&W American Royal Mead
  • Rabbit's Foot Meadery, Sunnyvale, California, USA
  • Red Branch Cider Company, Sunnyvale, California, USA
  • "Bunratty Mead" made by Bunratty Mead & Liquer Co Bunratty, Co. Clare, Ireland
  • Stonewall Vineyards Pyment, Concord, Virginia, USA.
  • "Moniack Mead" made by Highland Wineries Inverness Scotland
  • Lurgahsall Winery, Petworth, West Sussex, UK.
  • [1], Lindisfarne, North East England, UK.
  • [2], Huddersfield,England, UK.
  • [3], Norfolk,England, UK.
  • [4], Cornwall,England, UK.

References

  • Schramm, Ken; The Compleat Meadmaker; Brewers Publications; ISBN 0-937381-82-9; paperback, 2003
  • Kerenyi, Karl; Dionysus: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life; Princeton University Press; ISBN 0-691098-63-8; unknown binding, 1976
  • Digby, Kenelm; The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Kt Opened 1669; Prospect Books; eds. Jane Stevenson and Peter Davidson; ISBN 0-907325-76-9; paperback, 1997
  • Gayre, Robert and Papazian, Charlie; Brewing Mead: Wassail! In Mazers of Mead; Brewers Publications; ISBN 0-937381-00-4; paperback, 1986.

One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Sir Kenelm Digby (July 11, 1603 – July 11, 1665) was born at Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire. ... Charles N. Charlie Papazian is a former nuclear engineer who is regarded by many as the father of the modern homebrewing movement. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject:
Mead
  • MeadWorks.ca , A Canadian-based mead brewing club, resource, and Ezine.
  • Gotmead.com , A huge site with over 1200 pages of mead-related info, along with a lively, but friendly Forum.
  • A Friend In Mead General Interest
  • East Cowdry Bootleggers A short history & homebrewing recipes.
  • [5] Web site location for the venerable Mead Lovers Digest. Archives, FAQ, and information for subscribing to the digest are here.
  • [6] Good site covering areas of general interest, also tasting notes and a searchable archive of the Mead Lovers Digest.
  • [7] Apiary Honighäuschen at the Drachenfels with mead recipes
  • RealBeer.com's Mead pages

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