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Encyclopedia > McCarthyism
A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the supposed dangers of a Communist takeover.

McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States in a period that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s. This period is also referred to as the Second Red Scare, and coincided with increased fears about communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet agents. Originally coined to criticize the actions of U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy, "McCarthyism" later took on a more general meaning, not necessarily referring to the conduct of Joseph McCarthy alone. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (698x1010, 290 KB) Cover to the propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow published in 1947 by the Catechetical Guild This image is of the cover of a single issue of a comic book, and the copyright for it is most likely... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (698x1010, 290 KB) Cover to the propaganda comic book Is This Tomorrow published in 1947 by the Catechetical Guild This image is of the cover of a single issue of a comic book, and the copyright for it is most likely... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Political cartoon of 1919 depicting a European anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ...


During this time many thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists or communist sympathizers and became the subject of aggressive investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. The primary targets of such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists. Suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence, and the level of threat posed by a person's real or supposed leftist associations or beliefs was often greatly exaggerated. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment. Most of these punishments came about through trial verdicts later overturned,[1] laws that would be declared unconstitutional,[2] dismissals for reasons later declared illegal[3] or actionable,[4] or extra-legal procedures that would come into general disrepute. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Civil action redirects here. ...


The most famous examples of McCarthyism include the Hollywood Blacklist and the investigations and hearings conducted by Joseph McCarthy. It was a widespread social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate and conflict in the United States. Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ...

Contents

Origins of McCarthyism

Herbert Block (aka Herblock) coined the term "McCarthyism" in this cartoon in the March 29, 1950 Washington Post
Herbert Block (aka Herblock) coined the term "McCarthyism" in this cartoon in the March 29, 1950 Washington Post

The historical period that came to be known as McCarthyism began well before Joseph McCarthy's own involvement in it. There are many factors that can be counted as contributing to McCarthyism, some of them extending back to the years of the First Red Scare (1917-1920), and indeed to the inception of Communism as a recognized political force. Thanks in part to its success in organizing labor unions and its early opposition to fascism, the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA) increased its membership through the 1930s, reaching a peak of 50,000 members in 1942.[5] Image File history File links Herblock1950. ... Image File history File links Herblock1950. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, called Herblock (October 13, 1909 - October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ...


While the United States was engaged in World War II and allied with the Soviet Union, the issue of anti-communism was largely muted. With the end of World War II, the Cold War began almost immediately, as the Soviet Union installed repressive Communist puppet régimes across Central and Eastern Europe. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A puppet government is a government that, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people, owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ...


Events in 1949 and 1950 sharply increased the sense of threat from Communism in the United States. The Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb in 1949, earlier than many analysts had expected. That same year, Mao Zedong's Communist army gained control of mainland China despite heavy financial support of the opposing Kuomintang by the U.S. In 1950, the Korean War began, pitting U.S., U.N. and South Korean forces against Communists from North Korea and China. Although the Igor Gouzenko and Elizabeth Bentley affairs had raised the issue of Soviet espionage as far back as 1945, 1950 saw several significant developments regarding Soviet Cold War espionage activities. In January, Alger Hiss, a high-level State Department official, was convicted of perjury. Hiss was in effect found guilty of espionage; the statute of limitations had run out for that crime, but he was convicted of having perjured himself when he denied that charge in earlier testimony before the House Committee on Un-American Activities. In Great Britain, Klaus Fuchs confessed to committing espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union while working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the War. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested on charges of stealing atomic bomb secrets for the Soviets on July 17 and later executed. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... For the writer, see Elizabeth Bentley (writer). ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ... Department of State redirects here. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


There were also more subtle forces encouraging the rise of McCarthyism. It had long been a practice of more conservative politicians to refer to liberal reforms such as child labor laws and women's suffrage as "Communist" or "Red plots."[6] This tendency increased in reaction to the New Deal policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Many conservatives equated the New Deal with socialism or Communism, and saw its policies as evidence that the government had been heavily influenced by Communist policy-makers in the Roosevelt administration.[7][8] In general, the vaguely defined danger of "Communist influence" was a more common theme in the rhetoric of anti-Communist politicians than was espionage or any other specific activity. This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... FDR redirects here. ...

Senator Joseph McCarthy
Senator Joseph McCarthy

Joseph McCarthy's involvement with the ongoing cultural phenomenon that would bear his name began with a speech he made on Lincoln Day, February 9, 1950, to the Republican Women's Club of Wheeling, West Virginia. He produced a piece of paper which he claimed contained a list of known Communists working for the State Department. McCarthy is usually quoted as saying: "I have here in my hand a list of 205—a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department."[9] This speech resulted in a flood of press attention to McCarthy and set him on the path that would characterize the rest of his career and life. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 756 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1503 × 1192 pixel, file size: 809 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) He was gay. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 756 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1503 × 1192 pixel, file size: 809 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) He was gay. ... The Lincoln Day celebration is the primary annual celebration and fundraising event of many state and county organizations of the Republican Party in the United States. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ...


The first recorded use of the term McCarthyism was in a March 29, 1950 political cartoon by Washington Post editorial cartoonist Herbert Block (aka Herblock). The cartoon depicted four leading Republicans trying to push an elephant (the traditional symbol of the Republican Party) to stand on a teetering stack of ten tar buckets, the topmost of which was labeled "McCarthyism." is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This early political cartoon by Ben Franklin was originally written for the French and Indian War, but was later recycled during the Revolutionary War An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration or comic strip containing a political or social message. ... ... Herbert Lawrence Block, called Herblock (October 13, 1909 - October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... Herbert Lawrence Block, commonly known as Herblock (October 13, 1909 – October 7, 2001), was a U.S. editorial cartoonist. ... GOP redirects here. ...


The institutions of McCarthyism

There were many anti-Communist committees, panels and "loyalty review boards" in federal, state and local governments, as well as many private agencies that carried out investigations for small and large companies concerned about possible Communists in their work force.


In Congress, the most notable bodies for investigating Communist activities were the House Un-American Activities Committee, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Between 1949 and 1954, a total of 109 investigations were carried out by these and other committees of Congress.[10] HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. Res. ... The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. ...


The Executive Branch

Loyalty-security reviews

In the federal government, President Harry Truman's Executive Order 9835 initiated a program of loyalty reviews for federal employees in 1947. Truman's mandate called for dismissal if there were "reasonable grounds... for belief that the person involved is disloyal to the Government of the United States."[11] Truman, a Democrat, was probably reacting in part to the Republican sweep in the 1946 Congressional election, and felt a need to counter the growing criticism from conservatives and anti-communists.[12] For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Page one of Executive Order 9835, signed by Harry S. Truman in 1947. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The U.S. House election, 1946 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1946 which occurred in the middle of President Harry Trumans first term. ...


When President Dwight Eisenhower took office in 1953, he strengthened and extended Truman's loyalty review program, while decreasing the avenues of appeal available to dismissed employees. Hiram Bingham, Chairman of the Civil Service Commission Loyalty Review Board, referred to the new rules he was obliged to enforce as "just not the American way of doing things."[13] Similar loyalty reviews were established in many state and local government offices and some private industries across the nation. In 1958 it was estimated that roughly one out of every five employees in the United States was required to pass some sort of loyalty review.[14] Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Hiram Bingham, formally Hiram Bingham III, (19 November 1875 – 6 June 1956) was an American academic, explorer and politician. ...


Once a person lost a job due to an unfavorable loyalty review, it could be very difficult to find other employment. "A man is ruined everywhere and forever," in the words of the chairman of President Truman's Loyalty Review Board. "No responsible employer would be likely to take a chance in giving him a job."[15]


The Department of Justice started keeping a list of organizations that it deemed subversive beginning in 1942. This list was first made public in 1948, when it included 78 items. At its longest, it comprised 154 organizations, 110 of them identified as Communist. In the context of a loyalty review, membership in a listed organization was meant to raise a question, but not to be considered proof of disloyalty. One of the most common causes of suspicion was membership in the Washington Bookshop Association, a left-leaning organization that offered lectures on literature, classical music concerts and discounts on books.[16] Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the...


J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI

J. Edgar Hoover in 1961
J. Edgar Hoover in 1961

In Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America, historian Ellen Schrecker calls the FBI "the single most important component of the anti-communist crusade" and writes: "Had observers known in the 1950s what they have learned since the 1970s, when the Freedom of Information Act opened the Bureau's files, 'McCarthyism' would probably be called 'Hooverism.'"[17] FBI director J. Edgar Hoover was one of the nation's most fervent anti-communists, and one of the most powerful. Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... Ellen Wolf Schrecker, Ph. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ...


Hoover designed President Truman's loyalty-security program, and its background investigations of employees were carried out by FBI agents. This was a major assignment that led to the number of agents in the Bureau being increased from 3,559 in 1946 to 7,029 in 1952. Hoover's extreme sense of the Communist threat and the politically conservative standards of evidence applied by his bureau resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs. Due to Hoover's insistence upon keeping the identity of his informers secret, most subjects of loyalty-security reviews were not allowed to cross-examine or know the identities of those who accused them. In many cases they were not even told what they were accused of.[18]


Hoover's influence extended beyond federal government employees and beyond the loyalty-security programs. The records of loyalty review hearings and investigations were supposed to be confidential, but Hoover routinely gave evidence from them to congressional committees such as HUAC.[19] From 1951 to 1955, the FBI operated a secret "Responsibilities Program" that distributed anonymous documents with evidence from FBI files of Communist affiliations on the part of teachers, lawyers, and others. Many people accused in these "blind memoranda" were fired without any further process.[20]


The FBI engaged in a number of illegal practices in its pursuit of information on Communists, including burglaries, opening mail and illegal wiretaps.[21] The members of the left-wing National Lawyers Guild were among the few attorneys who were willing to defend clients in communist-related cases, and this made the NLG a particular target of Hoover's. The office of this organization was burglarized by the FBI at least fourteen times between 1947 and 1951.[22] Among other purposes, the FBI used its illegally obtained information to alert prosecuting attorneys about the planned legal strategies of NLG defense lawyers. The National Lawyers Guild is a progressive Bar Association in the United States dedicated to the need for basic and progressive change in the structure of our political and economic system. ...


The FBI also used illegal undercover operations to harass and disrupt Communist and other dissident political groups. In 1956, Hoover was becoming increasingly frustrated by Supreme Court decisions that limited the Justice Department's ability to prosecute Communists. At this time he formalized a covert "dirty tricks" program under the name COINTELPRO.[23] COINTELPRO actions included planting forged documents to create the suspicion that a key person was an FBI informer, spreading rumors through anonymous letters, leaking information to the press, calling for IRS audits, and the like. The COINTELPRO program remained in operation until 1971. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... COINTELPRO (an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program) was a series of covert and illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ...


HUAC

Main article: House Un-American Activities Committee

The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was the most prominent and active government committee involved in anti-Communist investigations. Formed in 1938 and known as the Dies Committee and chaired by Martin Dies until 1944, HUAC investigated a variety of "activities," including those of German-American Nazis during World War II. The Committee soon focused on Communism, beginning with an investigation into Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in 1938. A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in 1948. This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion. HUAC hearings The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA,[1] 1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Martin Dies, Jr. ... Poster for Festival of American Dance, Los Angeles Federal Theatre Project, WPA, 1937 The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was a New Deal project to fund theater and other live artistic performances in the United States during the Great Depression. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ...


HUAC achieved its greatest fame and notoriety with its investigation into the Hollywood film industry. In October 1947, the Committee began to subpoena screenwriters, directors, and other movie industry professionals to testify about their known or suspected membership in the Communist Party, association with its members, or support of its beliefs. It was at these testimonies that what became known as the "$64 question" was asked: "Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party of the United States?" Among the first film industry witnesses subpoenaed by the Committee were ten who decided not to cooperate. These men, who became known as the "Hollywood Ten" cited the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech and free assembly, which they believed legally protected them from being required to answer the Committee's questions. This tactic failed, and the ten were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. Two of the ten were sentenced to 6 months, the rest to a year. American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ... A subpoena is a command to appear at a certain time and place to give testimony upon a certain matter. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees. ...


In the future, witnesses (in the entertainment industries and otherwise) who were determined not to cooperate with the Committee would claim their Fifth Amendment protection against self-incrimination. While this usually protected them from a contempt of Congress citation, it was considered grounds for dismissal by many government and private industry employers. The legal requirements for Fifth Amendment protection were such that a person could not testify about his own association with the Communist Party and then refuse to "name names" of colleagues with Communist affiliations.[24][25] Thus many faced a choice between "crawl[ing] through the mud to be an informer," as actor Larry Parks put it, or becoming known as a "Fifth Amendment Communist,"—an epithet often used by Senator McCarthy.[26] Amendment V (the Fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, is related to legal procedure. ... Larry Parks (December 13, 1914 - April 13, 1975) was an American actor who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses during the era of McCarthyism. ...


Senate Committees

Senator Pat McCarran

In the Senate, the primary committee for investigating Communists was the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS), formed in 1950 and charged with ensuring the enforcement of laws relating to "espionage, sabotage, and the protection of the internal security of the United States." The SISS was headed by Democrat Pat McCarran and gained a reputation for careful and extensive investigations. This committee spent a year investigating Owen Lattimore and other members of the Institute of Pacific Relations. As had been done numerous times before, the collection of Scholars and diplomats associated with Lattimore (the so-called China Hands) were accused of "losing China," and while some evidence of pro-communist attitudes was found, there was nothing to support McCarran's accusation that Lattimore was "a conscious and articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy". Lattimore was charged with perjuring himself before the SISS in 1952. After many of the charges were rejected by a Federal Judge and one of the witnesses confessed to perjury, the case was dropped in 1955.[27] From http://bioguide. ... From http://bioguide. ... The Special Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 1951-77, more commonly known as the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) and sometimes the McCarran Committee, was authorized under S. Res. ... Pat McCarran Patrick Anthony McCarran (August 8, 1876 – September 28, 1954) was a Nevada senator for 22 years and noted for his strong anti-Communist stance. ... Owen Lattimore (July 29, 1900 – May 31, 1989) was a U.S. author and educator, the most influential American scholar of Central Asia in the 20th Century. ... The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) was established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of Asian problems and relations between Asia and the West. ... The China Hands were a group of American diplomats and soldiers who were known for their experience with and knowledge of China before, during, and after the World War II. The terminology China Hand originally referenced 19th Century merchants in the treaty ports of China, but evolved to reflect men...


Joseph McCarthy himself headed the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations in 1953 and 1954, and during that time used it for a number of his Communist-hunting investigations. McCarthy first examined allegations of Communist influence in the Voice of America, and then turned to the overseas library program of the State Department. Card catalogs of these libraries were searched for works by authors McCarthy deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelers, etc." Some libraries actually burned the newly-forbidden books.[28] McCarthy's committee then began an investigation into the United States Army. This began at the Army Signal Corps laboratory at Fort Monmouth. McCarthy garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but ultimately nothing came of this investigation.[29] McCarthy next turned his attention to the case of a U.S. Army dentist who had been promoted to the rank of major despite having refused to answer questions on an Army loyalty review form. McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a Brigadier General, led to the Army-McCarthy hearings, with the Army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nation-wide television audience. While the official outcome of the hearings was inconclusive, this exposure of McCarthy to the American public resulted in a sharp decline in his popularity.[30] In less than a year, McCarthy was censured by the Senate and his position as a prominent force in anti-communism was essentially ended. The Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSI) is the oldest subcommittee of the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... The card catalog at Yale Universitys Sterling Memorial Library goes almost completely unused, but adds to the austere atmosphere. ... A fellow traveller is a person who sympathizes with the beliefs of a particular organization, but does not belong to that organization. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, representing Myers Wigwag The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ... Ft. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin), and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohns, G. David Schine. ...


Blacklists

Red Channels, a 1950 publication claiming to document "Communist influence in radio and television"

On November 25, 1947 (the day after the House of Representatives approved citations of contempt for the Hollywood Ten), Eric Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association of America, issued a press release on behalf of the heads of the major studios that came to be referred to as the Waldorf Statement. This statement announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten and stated: "We will not knowingly employ a Communist or a member of any party or group which advocates the overthrow of the government of the United States[…]" This open capitulation to the attitudes of McCarthyism marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist. In spite of the fact that hundreds would be denied employment, the studios, producers and other employers did not publicly admit that a blacklist existed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x633, 87 KB)www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (432x633, 87 KB)www. ... Red Channels Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television was an anti-communist pamphlet published in the United States. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hollywood Ten was a group of American screenwriters, actors, and directors, alleged members of the Communist Party, who were convicted of contempt of Congress during the height of the Red Scare. ... Eric Johnston (December 21, 1896 – August 22, 1963) was a motion picture association executive. ... MPAA redirects here. ... The Waldorf Statement was a two-page press release issued on November 25, 1947 by Eric Johnston, President of the Motion Picture Association of America, following a closed-door meeting by forty-eight motion picture company executives at New York Citys Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ...


At this time, private loyalty-review boards and anti-communist investigators began to appear to fill a growing demand among certain industries to certify that their employees were above reproach. Companies that were concerned about the sensitivity of their business, or who, like the entertainment industry, felt particularly vulnerable to public opinion made use of these private services. For a fee, these teams would investigate employees and question them about their politics and affiliations. At such hearings, the subject would usually not have a right to the presence of an attorney, and as with HUAC, the interviewee might be asked to defend himself against accusations without being allowed to cross-examine the accuser. These agencies would keep cross-referenced lists of leftist organizations, publications, rallies, charities and the like, as well as lists of individuals who were known or suspected communists. Books such as Red Channels and newsletters such as Counterattack and Confidential Information were published to keep track of communist and leftist organizations and individuals.[31] Insofar as the various blacklists of McCarthyism were actual physical lists, they were created and maintained by these private organizations. Red Channels Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television was an anti-communist pamphlet published in the United States. ...


Laws and arrests

There were several attempts to introduce legislation or apply existing laws to help to protect the United States from the perceived threat of Communist subversion.


The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to "knowingly or willfully advocate, abet, advise or teach the […] desirability or propriety of overthrowing the Government of the United States or of any State by force or violence, or for anyone to organize any association which teaches, advises or encourages such an overthrow, or for anyone to become a member of or to affiliate with any such association". Hundreds of Communists were prosecuted under this law between 1941 and 1957. Eleven leaders of the Communist Party were charged and convicted under the Smith Act in 1949. Ten defendants were given sentences of five years and the eleventh was sentenced to three years. All of the defense attorneys were cited for contempt of court and were also given prison sentences. In 1951, twenty-three other leaders of the party were indicted, including Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union. By 1957 over 140 leaders and members of the Communist Party had been charged under the law.[32] The Alien Registration Act or Smith Act () of 1940 is a United States federal statute that made it a criminal offense for anyone to It also required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government; within four months, 4,741,971 aliens had registered under the Acts... Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ... Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) was born in Concord, New Hampshire on 7 August, 1890. ... The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a non-profit organization that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status. ...


Described by scholar Ellen Schrecker as "the McCarthy era's only important piece of legislation,"[33] the McCarran Internal Security Act became law in 1950 (the Smith Act technically predated McCarthyism). However, the McCarran Act had no real effect beyond legal harassment. It required the registration of Communist organizations with the Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate possible Communist-action and Communist-front organizations so they could be required to register. Due to numerous hearings, delays and appeals, the act was never enforced, even with regard to the Communist Party of the United States itself, and the major provisions of the act were found to be unconstitutional in 1965 and 1967.[34] ¹The Internal Security Act, the Subversive Activities Control Act, or the McCarran Act of 1950 required the registration of communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons thought to be engaged in “un-American” activities. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... The Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) was a United States government committee to investigate Communist infiltration of American society during the 1950s Red Scare. ...


In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality, or McCarran-Walter, Act was passed. This law allowed the government to deport immigrants or naturalized citizens engaged in subversive activities and also to bar suspected subversives from entering the country. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 (Also known as the McCarran-Walter Act) restricted immigration into the U.S. and is codified under Title 8 of the United States Code. ...


The Communist Control Act of 1954 was passed with overwhelming support in both houses of Congress after very little debate. Jointly drafted by Republican John Marshall Butler and Democrat Hubert Humphrey, the law was an extension of the Internal Security Act of 1950, and sought to outlaw the Communist Party by declaring that the party, as well as "Communist-Infiltrated Organizations" were "not entitled to any of the rights, privileges, and immunities attendant upon legal bodies". The Communist Control Act never had any significant effect, and was perhaps most notable for the odd mix of liberals and conservatives among its supporters. It was successfully applied only twice: in 1954 it was used to prevent Communist Party members from appearing on the New Jersey state ballot, and in 1960 it was cited to deny the CPUSA recognition as an employer under New York State's unemployment compensation system. The New York Post called the act "a monstrosity", "a wretched repudiation of democratic principles," while The Nation accused Democratic liberals of a "neurotic, election-year anxiety to escape the charge of being 'soft on Communism' even at the expense of sacrificing constitutional rights."[35] The Communist Control Act, also known as Brownell-Butler Act, was a piece of United States federal legislation, signed into law by Dwight Eisenhower on 24 August 1954, which outlawed the Communist Party of the United States. ... John M. Butler John Marshall Butler (July 21, 1897 – March 14, 1978) was a Republican member of the United States Senate, representing the State of Maryland from 1951-1963. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The first edition of The New York Post of July 6, 2004 incorrectly declared that U.S. presidential candidate John Kerry would choose U.S. Representative Dick Gephardt to be his vice-presidential running mate that day (in reality, Kerry chose John Edwards). ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ...


Popular support for McCarthyism

Flier issued in May 1955 by the Keep America Committee urging readers to "fight communistic world government" by opposing public health programs
Flier issued in May 1955 by the Keep America Committee urging readers to "fight communistic world government" by opposing public health programs

McCarthyism was supported by a variety of groups, including the American Legion, Christian fundamentalists and various other anti-communist organizations. One core element of support was a variety of militantly anti-communist women's groups such as the American Public Relations Forum and the Minute Women of the U.S.A.. These organized tens of thousands of housewives into study groups, letter-writing networks, and patriotic clubs that coordinated efforts to identify and eradicate subversion.[36] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 355 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (593 × 1000 pixel, file size: 264 KB, MIME type: image/png)At the Sign of the UNHOLY THREE, flier issued by the Keep America Committee, May 16, 1955. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 355 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (593 × 1000 pixel, file size: 264 KB, MIME type: image/png)At the Sign of the UNHOLY THREE, flier issued by the Keep America Committee, May 16, 1955. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ... The American Public Relations Forum (APRF) was a conservative anti-communist organization for Catholic women, established in southern California in 1952 with its headquarters in Burbank. ... The Minute Women of the U.S.A. was one of the largest of a number of militant anti-communist womens groups that was active during the 1950s and early 1960s. ...


Although far-right radicals were the bedrock of support for McCarthyism, they were not alone. A broad "coalition of the aggrieved" found McCarthyism attractive, or at least politically useful. Common themes uniting the coalition were opposition to internationalism, particularly the United Nations; opposition to social welfare provisions, particularly the various programs established by the New Deal; and opposition to efforts to reduce inequalities in the social structure of the United States.[37] UN redirects here. ... Social welfare redirects here. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... The contemporary United States has no legally-recognized social classes. ...


One focus of popular McCarthyism concerned the provision of public health services, particularly vaccination, mental health care services and fluoridation, all of which were deemed by some to be communist plots to poison or brainwash the American people. This viewpoint led to major collisions between McCarthyite radicals and supporters of public health programs, most notably in the case of the Alaska Mental Health Bill controversy of 1956.[38] Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Child receiving an oral polio vaccine. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act of 1956 (Public Law 84-830) was an Act of Congress passed to improve mental health care in Alaska. ...


Right-wing intellectuals found the decisiveness of McCarthyism refreshing. William F. Buckley, Jr., the founder of the influential conservative political magazine National Review, wrote a defense of McCarthy, McCarthy and his Enemies, in which he asserted that "McCarthyism ... is a movement around which men of good will and stern morality can close ranks."[39] This article is about the conservative journalist and commentator. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ...


In addition, as Richard Rovere points out, many ordinary Americans became convinced that there must be "no smoke without fire" and lent their support to McCarthyism. In January 1954, a Gallup poll found that 50% of the American public supported McCarthy, while only 29% had an unfavorable opinion of the senator. Earl Warren, the Chief Justice of the United States, commented that if the United States Bill of Rights had been put to a vote it probably would have been defeated.[37] See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ...


Views of Communists

Those who sought to justify McCarthyism did so largely through their characterization of Communism, and American Communists in particular. The CPUSA was said to be under the complete control of Moscow, and in fact, there is documentary evidence that the general policies of the CPUSA were set by the Soviet Communist Party.[40] Proponents of McCarthyism claimed that this control was so complete that any American Communist was inevitably a puppet of the Soviet Union. As J. Edgar Hoover put it in a 1950 speech, "Communist members, body and soul, are the property of the Party." This attitude was not confined to arch-conservatives. In 1940, The American Civil Liberties Union ejected founding member Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, saying that her membership in the Communist Party was enough to disqualify her as a civil libertarian. In the government's prosecutions of Communist Party members under the Smith Act (see above), the prosecution case was based not on specific actions or statements by the defendants, but on the premise that a commitment to violent overthrow of the government was inherent in the doctrines of Marxism-Leninism. Passages of the CPUSA's constitution that specifically rejected revolutionary violence were dismissed as deliberate deception.[41] The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) is an American organization consisting of two separate entities: the ACLU Foundation, a non-profit organization that focuses on litigation and communication efforts, and the American Civil Liberties Union which focuses on legislative lobbying and does not have non-profit status. ... Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) was born in Concord, New Hampshire on 7 August, 1890. ...


In addition, it was often claimed that the Party did not allow any member to resign, so a person who had been a member for a short time decades previously could be considered as suspect as a current member. Many of the hearings and trials of McCarthyism featured testimony by former Communist Party members such as Elizabeth Bentley, Louis Budenz and Whittaker Chambers, speaking as expert witnesses. Despite the obvious contradiction, these ex-communists were the source of some of the most vivid descriptions of how the Party permanently enslaved its members.[42] For the writer, see Elizabeth Bentley (writer). ... Louis F. Budenz (1891-1972) was an American activist and writer, as well as a Soviet espionage agent and head of the Buben group of spies. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ...


Victims of McCarthyism

It is difficult to estimate the number of victims of McCarthyism. The number imprisoned is in the hundreds, and some ten or twelve thousand lost their jobs.[43] In many cases, simply being subpoenaed by HUAC or one of the other committees was sufficient cause to be fired.[44] Many of those who were imprisoned, lost their jobs or were questioned by committees did in fact have a past or present connection of some kind with the Communist Party. But for the vast majority, both the potential for them to do harm to the nation and the nature of their communist affiliation were tenuous.[45] Suspected homosexuality was also a common cause for being targeted by McCarthyism. According to some scholars, this resulted in more persecutions than did alleged connection with Communism.[46] Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


In the film industry, over 300 actors, authors and directors were denied work in the U.S. through the unofficial Hollywood blacklist. Blacklists were at work throughout the entertainment industry, in universities and schools at all levels, in the legal profession, and in many other fields. A port security program initiated by the Coast Guard shortly after the start of the Korean War required a review of every maritime worker who loaded or worked aboard any American ship, regardless of cargo or destination. As with other loyalty-security reviews of McCarthyism, the identities of any accusers and even the nature of any accusations were typically kept secret from the accused. Nearly 3,000 seamen and longshoremen lost their jobs due to this program alone.[47] American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Protestors opposing the jailing of the Hollywood Ten in 1950 (from the 1987 documentary Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist). ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


A few of the more famous people who were blacklisted or suffered some other persecution during McCarthyism are listed here:

Elmer Bernstein (pronounced Bern-steen[1]) (April 4, 1922 – August 18, 2004) was an Academy and two-time Golden Globe award winning American film score composer. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Bartley Cavanaugh Crum (1900-1959) was a prominent American lawyer. ... Jules Dassin (born Julius Dassin on December 18, 1911, in Middletown, Connecticut) is an American film director. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Howard Melvin Fast (11 November 1914, New York City - 12 March 2003, Old Greenwich, Connecticut) was a Jewish American novelist and television writer, who wrote also under the pen names E. V. Cunningham and Walter Ericson. ... Lee Grant (October 31, 1927 in New York, New York) is an American theater, film and television actress, and film director who was blacklisted by the Hollywood movie studio bosses in the 1950s. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was a successful American playwright, linked throughout her life with many left-wing causes. ... John Hubley (May 21, 1914 – February 21, 1977) was an animator and animation director known for both his formal experimentation and for his emotional realism which stemmed from his tendency to cast his own children as voice actors in his films. ... Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Sam Jaffe (1891-1984) Sam Jaffe (March 8, 1891 – March 24, 1984) was an American actor, teacher and engineer. ... Gypsy Rose Lee (also known as Rose Louise Hovick and Louise Hovick) (February 9, 1911 or 1914 – April 26, 1970) was an American actress and burlesque entertainer, whose 1957 memoir, which included a scathing portrait of her domineering mother, was made into the stage musical and film Gypsy. ... Philip Loeb Philip Loeb (March 28, 1892 – September 1, 1955) was an American actor. ... Joseph Losey (January 14, 1909 - June 22, 1984) was an American theater and film director. ... Oliver Burgess Meredith (November 16, 1907[1] – September 9, 1997) was a versatile two-time Academy Award-nominated American actor. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... Mostel in Sirocco (1951) Zero Mostel (February 28, 1915 – September 8, 1977) was a Brooklyn-born stage and film actor best known for his portrayal of comic characters such as Tevye in Fiddler on the Roof , Pseudolus in A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, and Max... Clifford Odets photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Clifford Odets (July 18, 1906 - August 18, 1963) was an American socialist playwright, screenwriter, and social protester. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American scientist, peace activist, author and educator of German ancestry. ... -1... Edward Goldenberg Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg, Yiddish: עמנואל גולדנברג; December 12, 1893 – January 26, 1973) was an American stage and film actor of Romanian origin. ... Waldo Salt (October 18, 1914 - March 7, 1987) was a Hollywood screenwriter. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... Artie Shaw (May 23, 1910, New York, New York – December 30, 2004, Thousand Oaks, California) is considered to be one of the best jazz musicians of his time. ... Actor Howard Da Silva in The Lost Weekend Howard Da Silva (born May 4, 1909; died February 16, 1986) was an American actor. ... Paul Marlor Sweezy (April 10, 1910 – February 27, 2004) was a Marxian economist and a founding editor of the magazine Monthly Review. ... Monthly Review is a socialist magazine published in New York City. ... Tsien Hsue-shen Tsien Hsue-shen (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Qián Xuésēn; born December 11, 1911) is a scientist who was a major figure in the missile and space programs of both the United States and Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an Academy Award-winning American director, writer, actor and producer for film, stage, radio and television. ...

Critical reactions

The nation was by no means united behind the policies and activities that have come to be identified as McCarthyism. There were many critics of various aspects of McCarthyism, including many figures not generally noted for their liberalism.


For example, in his overridden veto of the McCarran Internal Security Act of 1950, President Truman wrote, "In a free country, we punish men for the crimes they commit, but never for the opinions they have."[60] Truman also unsuccessfully vetoed the Taft-Hartley Act, which among other provisions limited the power of labor unions and denied unions National Labor Relations Board protection unless the union's leaders signed affidavits swearing they were not and had never been Communists. In 1953, after he had left office, Truman criticized the current Eisenhower administration: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ¹The Internal Security Act, the Subversive Activities Control Act, or the McCarran Act of 1950 required the registration of communist organizations with the Attorney General in the United States and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons thought to be engaged in “un-American” activities. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent agency of the United States Government charged with conducting elections for union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices. ... An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant), and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiants signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. ...

It is now evident that the present Administration has fully embraced, for political advantage, McCarthyism. I am not referring to the Senator from Wisconsin. He is only important in that his name has taken on the dictionary meaning of the word. It is the corruption of truth, the abandonment of the due process law. It is the use of the big lie and the unfounded accusation against any citizen in the name of Americanism or security. It is the rise to power of the demagogue who lives on untruth; it is the spreading of fear and the destruction of faith in every level of society.[61]

On June 1, 1950, Senator Margaret Chase Smith, a Maine Republican, delivered a speech to the Senate she called a "Declaration of Conscience". In a clear attack upon McCarthyism, she called for an end to "character assassinations" and named "some of the basic principles of Americanism: The right to criticize; The right to hold unpopular beliefs; The right to protest; The right of independent thought." She said "freedom of speech is not what it used to be in America," and decried "cancerous tentacles of 'know nothing, suspect everything' attitudes."[62] Six other Republican Senators—Wayne Morse, Irving M. Ives, Charles W. Tobey, Edward John Thye, George Aiken, and Robert C. Hendrickson—joined Smith in condemning the tactics of McCarthyism. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Chase Smith (December 14, 1897–May 29, 1995) was a Republican Senator from Maine, and one of the most successful politicians in Maine history. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The Declaration of Conscience was a speech made by Senator Margaret Chase Smith on June 1, 1950, the height of the McCarthy Era. ... Wayne Lyman Morse (October 20, 1900 – July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... Irving McNeil Ives (January 24, 1896 February 24, 1962) was an American politician from the state of New York. ... Official photo Charles William Tobey (July 22, 1880–July 24, 1953) was an American businessman and Republican politician from Temple, New Hampshire. ... Edward John Thye Edward John Thye (April 26, 1896 – August 28, 1969) was an American politician for the state of Minnesota who served as a Republican. ... George David Aiken (August 20, 1892–November 19, 1984) was an American politician from Vermont. ... Robert Clymer Hendrickson (August 12, 1898 - December 7, 1964) was a United States Senator from New Jersey. ...


Elmer Davis, one of the most highly respected news reporters and commentators of the 1940s and 1950s, often spoke out against what he saw as the excesses of McCarthyism. On one occasion he warned that many local anti-Communist movements constituted a "general attack not only on schools and colleges and libraries, on teachers and textbooks, but on all people who think and write[...] in short, on the freedom of the mind."[63] Elmer Davis Elmer Davis (born January 13, 1890 - May 18, 1958 was prominent newsreporter, the Director of the United States Office of War Information during World War II and a Peabody Award Recipient. ...


In 1952, the Supreme Court upheld a lower court decision in Alder v. Board of Education of New York, thus approving a law that allowed state loyalty review boards to fire teachers deemed "subversive." In his dissenting opinion, Justice William O. Douglas wrote: "The present law proceeds on a principle repugnant to our society — guilt by association.[...] What happens under this law is typical of what happens in a police state. Teachers are under constant surveillance; their pasts are combed for signs of disloyalty; their utterances are watched for clues to dangerous thoughts."[64] William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 – January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ...


The 1952 Arthur Miller play The Crucible used the Salem witch trials as a metaphor for McCarthyism, suggesting that the process of McCarthyism-style persecution can occur at any time or place. The play focused heavily on the fact that once accused, a person would have little chance of exoneration, given the irrational and circular reasoning of both the courts and the public. Miller would later write: "The more I read into the Salem panic, the more it touched off corresponding images of common experiences in the fifties."[65] Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... For the 1996 film, see The Crucible (1996 film). ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692...

News analyst Edward R. Murrow
News analyst Edward R. Murrow

One of the most influential opponents of McCarthyism was the famed CBS newscaster and analyst Edward R. Murrow. On October 20, 1953, Murrow's show See It Now aired an episode about the dismissal of Milo Radulovich, a former reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of associating with Communists. The show was strongly critical of the Air Force's methods, which included presenting evidence in a sealed envelope that Radulovich and his attorney were not allowed to open. On March 9, 1954, See It Now aired another episode on the issue of McCarthyism, this one attacking Joseph McCarthy himself. Titled "A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy," it used footage of McCarthy speeches to portray him as dishonest, reckless and abusive toward witnesses and prominent Americans. In his concluding comment, Murrow said: Image File history File links Edward_r_murrow_challenge_of_ideas_screenshot_2. ... Image File history File links Edward_r_murrow_challenge_of_ideas_screenshot_2. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See It Now was a television newsmagazine and documentary broadcast by CBS in the 1950s. ... Milo Radulovich was an American reserve Air Force lieutenant who was accused of being a communist in 1953. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ...

We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. We will not walk in fear, one of another. We will not be driven by fear into an age of unreason, if we dig deep in our history and our doctrine, and remember that we are not descended from fearful men.[66]

This broadcast has been cited as a key episode in bringing about the end of McCarthyism.[67]


In April 1954, Senator McCarthy was also under attack in the Army-McCarthy Hearings. These hearings were televised live on the new American Broadcasting Company, allowing the public to view first-hand McCarthy's interrogation of individuals and his controversial tactics. In one exchange, McCarthy reminded the attorney for the Army, Joseph Welch, that he had an employee in his law firm who had belonged to an organization that had been accused of Communist sympathies. Welch famously rebuked McCarthy: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?"[68] This exchange reflected a growing negative public opinion of McCarthy. Early in 1954, the U.S. Army accused Senator Joseph R. McCarthy (Republican, Wisconsin), and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, of pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to former McCarthy aide and friend of Cohns, G. David Schine. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Joseph Nye Welch (October 22, 1890 – October 6, 1960) was the head attorney for the United States Army while it was under investigation by Joseph McCarthys Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations for Communist activities. ...


The decline of McCarthyism

As the nation moved into the mid and late fifties, the attitudes and institutions of McCarthyism slowly weakened. Changing public sentiments undoubtedly had a lot to do with this, but one way to chart the decline of McCarthyism is through a series of court decisions.


A key figure in the end of the blacklisting of McCarthyism was John Henry Faulk. Host of an afternoon comedy radio show, Faulk was a leftist active in his union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. He was scrutinized by AWARE, one of the private firms that examined individuals for signs of communist "disloyalty". Marked by AWARE as unfit, he was fired by CBS Radio. Almost uniquely among the many victims of blacklisting, Faulk decided to sue AWARE in 1957 and finally won the case in 1962.[69] With this court decision, the private blacklisters and those who used them were put on notice that they were legally liable for the professional and financial damage they caused. Although some informal blacklisting continued, the private "loyalty checking" agencies were soon a thing of the past.[70] Even before the Faulk verdict, many in Hollywood had decided it was time to break the blacklist. In 1960, Dalton Trumbo, one of the best known members of the Hollywood Ten, was publicly credited with writing the films Exodus and Spartacus. John Henry Faulk (August 21, 1913–April 9, 1990) from Austin, Texas was a storyteller and former radio broadcaster. ... The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) is a performers union that represents a wide variety of talent, including actors in radio and television, as well as radio and television announcers and newspersons, singers and recording artists (both royalty artists and background singers), promo and voice-over announcers... CBS Radio Inc. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ... Exodus is a 1960 epic war film made by Alpha and Carlyle Productions and distributed by United Artists. ... Spartacus is a 1960 film directed by Stanley Kubrick and based on the novel of the same name by Howard Fast about the historical life of Spartacus and the Third Servile War. ...


Much of the undoing of McCarthyism came at the hands of the Supreme Court. As Richard Rovere wrote in his biography of Joseph McCarthy: "...the United States Supreme Court took judicial notice of the rents McCarthy was making in the fabric of liberty and thereupon wrote a series of decisions that have made the fabric stronger than before."[71] Two Eisenhower appointees to the court — Earl Warren (who was made Chief Justice) and William J. Brennan, Jr.— proved to be more liberal than Eisenhower had anticipated, and he would later refer to the appointment of Warren as his "biggest mistake."[72] Richard H. Rovere (5 May 1915—23 November 1979) was an American journalist. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... William Joseph Brennan, Jr. ...


In 1956, the Supreme Court heard the case of Slochower v. Board of Education. Slochower was a professor at Brooklyn College who had been fired by New York City for invoking the Fifth Amendment when McCarthy's committee questioned him about his past membership in the Communist Party. The court prohibited such actions, ruling "...we must condemn the practice of imputing a sinister meaning to the exercise of a person's constitutional right under the Fifth Amendment.[…] The privilege against self-incrimination would be reduced to a hollow mockery if its exercise could be taken as equivalent either to a confession of guilt or a conclusive presumption of perjury."[73]


Another key decision was in the 1957 case Yates v. United States, in which the convictions of fourteen Communists were reversed. In Justice Black's opinion, he wrote of the original "Smith Act" trials: "The testimony of witnesses is comparatively insignificant. Guilt or innocence may turn on what Marx or Engels or someone else wrote or advocated as much as a hundred years or more ago.[...] When the propriety of obnoxious or unfamiliar view about government is in reality made the crucial issue, [...] prejudice makes conviction inevitable except in the rarest circumstances."[74] Holding The Court held that for the Smith Act to be violated, people must be encouraged to do something, rather than merely to believe in something. ...


Also in 1957, the Supreme Court ruled on the case of Watkins v. United States, curtailing the power of HUAC to punish uncooperative witnesses by finding them in contempt of Congress. Justice Warren wrote in the decision: "The mere summoning of a witness and compelling him to testify, against his will, about his beliefs, expressions or associations is a measure of governmental interference. And when those forced revelations concern matters that are unorthodox, unpopular, or even hateful to the general public, the reaction in the life of the witness may be disastrous."[75] Holding Watkins was convicted unconstitutionally, as he was not allowed fair process to determine whether he could not answer questions posed as a witness, by a committee. ...


In its 1958 decision on Kent v. Dulles, the Supreme Court halted the State Department from using the authority of its own regulations to refuse or revoke passports based on an applicant's communist beliefs or associations.[76]


Continuing controversy

Though McCarthyism might seem to be of interest only as a historical subject, the political divisions it created in the United States continue to make themselves manifest, and the politics and history of anti-Communism in the United States are still contentious. One source of controversy is the comparison that a number of observers have made between the oppression of liberals and leftists during the McCarthy period and recent actions against Muslims and suspected terrorists. In The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism, author Haynes Johnson compares the "abuses suffered by aliens thrown into high security U.S. prisons in the wake of 9/11" to the excesses of the McCarthy era.[77] Similarly, David D. Cole has written that the Patriot Act "in effect resurrects the philosophy of McCarthyism, simply substituting 'terrorist' for 'communist.'"[78] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... David D. Cole is an American Law Professor at Georgetown University. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


From the opposite pole, Ann Coulter devotes much of her book Treason to drawing parallels between past opposition to McCarthy and McCarthyism and the efforts of modern-day liberals that, in her view, hinder the War on Terrorism.[79] Other authors who have drawn on a comparison between current anti-terrorist policies and McCarthyism include Geoffrey R. Stone,[80] Ted Morgan [81] and Jonah Goldberg.[82] Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ... Geoffrey R. Stone is the Harry Kalven, Jr. ... Ted Morgan is a French-American writer, biographer, journalist, and historian. ... Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969), is an American political commentator and writer. ...


McCarthyism also attracts controversy purely as a historical issue. Through declassified documents from Soviet archives and Venona project decryptions of coded Soviet messages, it has become known that the Soviet Union engaged in substantial espionage activities in the United States during the 1940s. It is also known that the CPUSA was substantially funded and its policies controlled by the Soviet Union, and that CPUSA members were often recruited as spies.[83] In the view of some contemporary authors, these revelations stand as at least a partial vindication of McCarthyism. Some feel that there was a genuinely dangerous subversive element in the United States, and that this danger justified extreme measures.[82] Others, while accepting that there were inexcusable excesses during McCarthyism, argue that some contemporary historians of McCarthyism often deny the seriousness of Communist espionage during the period.[84] The contrary view holds that, recent revelations notwithstanding, by the time McCarthyism began in the late 1940s, the CPUSA was an ineffectual fringe group, and the damage done to U.S. interests by Soviet spies after World War II was minimal.[85] As historian Ellen Schrecker put it, "in this country, McCarthyism did more damage to the constitution than the American Communist Party ever did."[86] The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ...


Current use of the term

Since the time of McCarthy, the word "McCarthyism" has entered American speech as a general term for a variety of distasteful practices: aggressively questioning a person's patriotism, making poorly supported accusations, using accusations of disloyalty to pressure a person to adhere to conformist politics or to discredit an opponent, subverting civil rights in the name of national security and the use of demagoguery are all often referred to as McCarthyism. Demagogy (from Greek demos, people, and agogos, leading) refers to a political strategy for obtaining and gaining political power by appealing to the popular prejudices, fears, and expectations of the public — typically via impassioned rhetoric and propaganda, and often using nationalistic or populist themes. ...


See also

Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For example, Yates v. United States, 1957; or Watkins v. United States, 1957: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pp 205, 207. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  2. ^ For example, the California "Levering Oath" law, declared unconstitutional in 1967: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 124. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  3. ^ For example, Slochower v. Board of Education, 1956: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 203. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  4. ^ For example, Faulk vs. AWARE Inc., et al, 1956: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 197. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  5. ^ Johnpoll, Bernard K (1994). A Documentary History of the Communist Party of the United States Vol. 3. Greenwood Press, pg. xv. ISBN 0-313-28506-3. 
  6. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg 41. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  7. ^ Brinkley, Alan (1995). The End Of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. Vintage, pg. 141. ISBN 0-679-75314-1. 
  8. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 6, 15, 78-80. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  9. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pg. 49. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  10. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 150. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  11. ^ Martin Fausold, Alan Shank, editors (1991). The Constitution and the American Presidency. SUNY Press, pg. 116. ISBN 0-7914-0468-4. 
  12. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  13. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 133. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  14. ^ Brown, Ralph S. (1958). Loyalty and Security: Employment Tests in the United States. Yale University Press. 
  15. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 271. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  16. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 70. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  17. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pp 239, 203. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  18. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pp 211, 266+. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  19. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 65. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  20. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 212. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  21. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 312. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  22. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 225. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  23. ^ Cox, John Stuart and Theoharis, Athan G. (1988). The Boss: J. Edgar Hoover and the Great American Inquisition. Temple University Press, pg. 312. ISBN 0-87722-532-X. 
  24. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 154-155. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  25. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 68. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  26. ^ Transcript - See it Now: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, CBS-TV, March 9, 1954, <http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/murrowmccarthy.html>. Retrieved on 16 March 2007 
  27. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 145-150. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  28. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate. University of Massachusetts Press, pg. 216. ISBN 0-87023-555-9. 
  29. ^ Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism. W. W. Norton & Company, pg. 384. ISBN 0-393-05880-8. 
  30. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 138. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  31. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 116. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  32. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  33. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 141. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  34. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, 187. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  35. ^ McAuliff, Mary Sperling (1978). Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954. University of Massachusetts Press, 142. ISBN 0-87023-241-X. 
  36. ^ Nickerson, Michelle M. "Women, Domesticity, and Postwar Conservatism", in the OAH Magazine of History 17 (January 2003). ISSN 0882-228X
  37. ^ a b Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, pp. 21-22. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  38. ^ Marmor, Judd (1974), "Psychodynamics of Group Opposition to Mental Health Programs", Psychiatry in Transition, Brunner/Mazel, ISBN 0876300700
  39. ^ Buckley, William F. (1954). McCarthy and His Enemies: The Record and Its Meaning. Regnery Publishing, pg.335. ISBN 0-89526-472-2. 
  40. ^ Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. 
  41. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pp 161, 193, 194. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  42. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 133. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  43. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. xiii. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  44. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pp 63-64. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  45. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 4. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  46. ^ D'Emilio, John (1998). Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. University of Chicago Press; 2nd Edition. ISBN 0-226-14267-1. 
  47. ^ Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown, pg. 267. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Blacklisted in Hollywood; Dave Wagner & Paul Buhle (2003). Blacklisted: The Film Lover's Guide to the Hollywood Blacklist. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6145-X. 
  49. ^ Blacklisted in his profession, committed suicide in 1959; Bosworth, Patricia (1998). Anything Your Little Heart Desires: An American Family Story. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-83848-6. 
  50. ^ Indicted under the Foreign Agents Registration Act; Dubois, W. E. B. (1968). The Autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois. International Publishers. ISBN 0-7178-0234-5. 
  51. ^ Blacklisted, imprisoned for contempt of Congress; Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press, pg. 75. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X. 
  52. ^ a b c On the Red Channels blacklist for artists and entertainers; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  53. ^ a b c d e Blacklisted in Hollywood; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 244. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  54. ^ Blacklisted and unemployed, committed suicide in 1955; Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg 156. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  55. ^ Security clearance withdrawn; Schrecker, Ellen (2002). The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents. Palgrave Macmillan, pg. 41. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  56. ^ Pauling biography citing State Department's revocation of Pauling's passport in 1952. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  57. ^ Blacklisted, passport revoked; Manning Marable, John McMillian, Nishani Frazier, editors (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. Columbia University Press, pg. 559. ISBN 0-231-10890-7. 
  58. ^ Subpoenaed by New Hampshire Attorney General, indicted for contempt of court; Heale, M. J. (1998). McCarthy's Americans: Red Scare Politics in State and Nation, 1935-1965. University of Georgia Press, pg. 73. ISBN 0-8203-2026-9. 
  59. ^ Passport revoked, incarcerated; Chang, Iris (1996). Thread of the Silkworm. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00678-7. 
  60. ^ Truman, Harry S. (September 1950). Veto of the Internal Security Bill. Truman Presidential Museum & Library. Retrieved on 2006-08-07.
  61. ^ Doherty, Thomas (2003). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press, pp. 14-15. ISBN 023112953X. 
  62. ^ Margaret Chase Smith Library; "Declaration of Conscience". Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  63. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press, pg. 29. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  64. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 114. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  65. ^ Miller, Arthur (October 21, 1996), Why I Wrote "The Crucible", The New Yorker, <http://www.newyorker.com/archive/content/?020422fr_archive02>. Retrieved on 7 August 2006 
  66. ^ Transcript - See it Now: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, CBS-TV, March 9, 1954, <http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/murrowmccarthy.html>. Retrieved on 27 December 2006 
  67. ^ See for example, Streitmatter, Rodger (1998). Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. Westview Press, pg. 154. ISBN 0813332117. 
  68. ^ Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press, pg. 207. ISBN 0-231-12953-X. 
  69. ^ Faulk, John Henry (1963). Fear on Trial. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-72442-X. 
  70. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 197. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  71. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press, pg. 264. ISBN 0-520-20472-7. 
  72. ^ Sabin, Arthur J. (1999). In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday. University of Pennsylvania Press, pg. 5. ISBN 0-8122-3507-X. 
  73. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 203. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  74. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 205. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  75. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 207. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  76. ^ Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press, pg. 211. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  77. ^ Johnson, Haynes (2005). The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism. Harcourt, pg. 471. ISBN 0151010625. 
  78. ^ Cole, David (December 17, 2001). "National Security State". The Nation. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.  See also Cole, David (Winter, 2003). "The New McCarthyism: Repeating History in the War on Terrorism" ([dead link]Scholar search). Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review Vol. 38 (no. 1). Harvard Law School. doi:10.2139/ssrn.383660. Retrieved on 2007-03-14. 
  79. ^ Coulter, Ann (2003). Treason: Liberal Treachery from the Cold War to the War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-5032-4. 
  80. ^ Stone, Geoffrey R. (2004). Essay on McCarthyism and modern threats to liberty. The University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2006-11-02.
  81. ^ Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House, pg. 597 et seq.. ISBN 081297302X. 
  82. ^ a b Goldberg, Jonah (2003). Two Cheers for "McCarthyism"?. National Review. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  83. ^ Marshall, Joshua (1999). "Exhuming McCarthy" ([dead link]Scholar search). The American Prospect Vol. 10 (no. 43). Retrieved on 2007-02-07. 
  84. ^ See for example Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey (2003). In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books. ISBN 1-893554-72-4. , Radosh, Ronald (July 11, 2001). "The Persistence Of Anti-Anti-Communism". FrontPageMagazine.com. 
  85. ^ Theoharis, Athan (2002). Chasing Spies: How the FBI Failed in Counter-Intelligence But Promoted the Politics of McCarthyism in the Cold War Years. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-420-2.  "American spies may have aimed to further Soviet interests and betray their own nation, but the effect of their actions compromised neither long-term nor immediate U.S. security interests..."
  86. ^ (Emphasis in original) Schrecker, Ellen. Comments on John Earl Haynes', "The Cold War Debate Continues".

Holding The Court held that for the Smith Act to be violated, people must be encouraged to do something, rather than merely to believe in something. ... This article is about the conservative journalist and commentator. ... The Foreign Agents Registration Act is a United States law passed in 1938 requiring information from foreign sources to be properly identified to the American public. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Henry Faulk (August 21, 1913–April 9, 1990) from Austin, Texas was a storyteller and former radio broadcaster. ... David D. Cole is an American Law Professor at Georgetown University. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David D. Cole is an American Law Professor at Georgetown University. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ann Hart Coulter (born December 8, 1961)[1] is an American best-selling author, columnist and political commentator. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ted Morgan is a French-American writer, biographer, journalist, and historian. ... Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969), is an American political commentator and writer. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Stub | 1969 births | Bloggers ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Earl Haynes is a historian who is a specialist in 20th Century political history in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist and anti-Communist movements, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly... Harvey E. Klehr (born December 25, 1945) is a professor of politics and history at Emory University; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist movement, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly with John Earl Haynes). ... Ronald Radosh is an American historian specializing in the espionage case of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. ... Athan George Theoharis (born August 3, 1936) is a professor emeritus of History at Marquette University. ... Ellen Wolf Schrecker, Ph. ...

References and further reading

  • Andrew, Christopher and Mitrokhin, Vasili (2000). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00312-5. 
  • Caute, David (1978). The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671226827. 
  • Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12953-X. 
  • Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey (2003). In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books. ISBN 1-893554-72-4. 
  • Haynes, John Earl (2000). Red Scare or Red Menace?: American Communism and Anti Communism in the Cold War Era. Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1-56663-091-6. 
  • Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08462-5. 
  • Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509701-7. 
  • Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504361-8. 
  • Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House. ISBN 0-8129-7302-X. 
  • Navasky, Victor S. (1980). Naming Names. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0809001837. 
  • Powers, Richard Gid (1997). Not Without Honor: A History of American AntiCommunism. Free Press. ISBN 0-300-07470-0. 
  • Schrecker, Ellen (1998). Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-77470-7. 
  • Schrecker, Ellen (2004). The Age Of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29425-5. 
  • Weinstein, Allen and Vassiliev, Alexander (2000). The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America — The Stalin Era. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-75536-5. 

Christopher Maurice Andrew (born 23 July 1941) is a British historian and professor with a special interest in international relations and in particular the history of intelligence services. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David John Caute (born 16 December 1936) is a British author, journalist and historian. ... John Earl Haynes is a historian who is a specialist in 20th Century political history in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist and anti-Communist movements, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly... Harvey E. Klehr (born December 25, 1945) is a professor of politics and history at Emory University; he is known for his books on the subject of the American Communist movement, and on Soviet espionage in America (many written jointly with John Earl Haynes). ... Ted Morgan is a French-American writer, biographer, journalist, and historian. ... Victor S. Navasky (b. ... Ellen Wolf Schrecker, Ph. ... Allen Weinstein is the Archivist of the United States. ...

External links

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This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... -1... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , Slovak: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: , Slovak: ) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Belligerents French Union France, State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... THE CUBAN REVOLUTION The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... The Kitchen Debate was an impromptu debate (through interpreters) between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, on July 24, 1959. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Belligerents Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel John F. Kennedy Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 15,000 1,511 Cuban exiles 2 CIA agents Casualties and losses... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Belligerents MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] Soviet Union UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire United States Commanders Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Holden Roberto Casualties and losses Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began in... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet 40th Army: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... People on the streets of Bucharest The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage, describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communism Portal Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a variant of Communism derived from the teachings of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong (Wade-Giles Romanization: Mao Tse-tung). Marxism consists of thousands of truths, but they all... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... -1...

  Results from FactBites:
 
McCarthyism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4442 words)
McCarthyism is the term describing a period of intense anti-Communist suspicion in the United States that lasted roughly from the late 1940s to the mid to late 1950s.
The period of McCarthyism is also referred to as the Second Red Scare, and coincided with increased fears of Communist influence on American institutions, espionage by Soviet agents, heightened tension from Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe, the success of the Chinese Communist revolution (1949) and the Korean War (1950-1953).
McCarthy's handling of this investigation, including a series of insults directed at a Brigadier General, led to the army-McCarthy hearings, with the army and McCarthy trading charges and counter-charges for 36 days before a nation-wide television audience.
Joseph McCarthy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7096 words)
McCarthy was born on a farm in the town of Grand Chute, Wisconsin.
McCarthy publicized a letter of commendation signed by his commanding officer and countersigned by Admiral Chester Nimitz, but it was revealed that McCarthy had written this letter himself, in his capacity as intelligence officer.
McCarthy appointed Roy Cohn as chief counsel and Robert Kennedy as an assistant counsel to the subcommittee.
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