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A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning "larger", "greater") is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A dictator is an absolutist or autocratic ruler who assumes sole power over the state, though the term is normally not applied to an absolute monarch. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state and heads of government, and cabinets, by country. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


In many systems, the mayor is an elected politician who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of municipalities. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor, as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...

Contents

History

The word derives from Latin major ("major", "greater") which developed like such terms as senior ("elder") to mean (in) chief.


In spite of its Latin etymology, "mayor" was not a Roman office, as Roman municipia were rather governed by collegial magistrates bearing various titles, such as "Consul" or various terms expressing their number (e.g. duumvir, two), or even titles of pre-Roman local origin. Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... A duumvirate is an alliance between two equally powerful political or military leaders. ...


Among the nations which arose on the ruins of the Roman empire of the West, and which made use of the Latin spoken by their "Roman" subjects as their official and legal language, maior (and, in some contexts, the rarer Low-Latin feminine maiorissa) were found to be very convenient terms to describe important officials of both sexes who had the superintendence of others. Any female servant or slave in the household of a barbarian whose business was to oversee other female servants or slaves, would be quite naturally called a maiorissa.


The male officer who governed a king's household (and was often the de facto head of government) was the major domus, and tended to make his office hereditary. At the courts of the various realms (resulting from dynastic divisions and unions) of the Frankish kings of the Merovingian line, the major domus, generally known as the "mayor of the palace", also variously known as the gubernator ('helmsman'; the root of Governor), rector (also a gubernatorial title), moderator (idem) or praefectus palatii, was so powerful that one of their number would evict his master and successfully reunite the realms which his heir Charlemagne would turn into the Holy Roman Empire. The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... A governor is a governing official, usually the executive (at least nominally, to different degrees also politically and administratively) of a non-sovereign level of government, ranking under the head of state; furthermore the title applies to officials with a similar mandate as representatives of a chartered company which has... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... Moderator, a Latin word for he who moderates, can refer to: Moderator provinciae was the title of certain Roman provincial governors Moderator is a Scots, and Scottish English, gender-neutral word that approximates chairman or convener. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger,greater) is in modern times the title of the highest ranking municipal officer, who discharges certain judicial and administrative functions, in many systems an elected politician, who serves as chief executive and/or ceremonial official of many types of municipalities. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


It came into use in the large entourages that followed the barbarian leaders who succeeded to the power of the Emperor of the West. The male officer who governed a king's or duke's peripatetic household was the major domus, the "major domo". In the households of the Merovingian Frankish kings, the major domus, or praefectus palatii ("prefect of the palace"), nominally a majordomo comparable to a British household's trusted butler, became the de facto head of government and even tended to become semi-hereditary, gaining such power (compare an oriental Vizier) that, in the person of Pippin of Herstal, he ended up evicting his master. He was the "mayor of the palace". For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nobility title. ... A majordomo is the head (major) person of a domestic staff (domo), one who acts on behalf of a usually absent owner of a typically large residence. ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... A majordomo is the head (major) person of a domestic staff (domo), one who acts on behalf of a usually absent owner of a typically large residence. ... For other uses, see Butler (disambiguation). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Pippin of Herstal (or Pepin; Pépin), also known as Pippin the Middle, Pippin the Younger (as with his grandson), or Pippin II, (635 or 640–December 16, 714, Jupille) was the grandson of Pippin (I) the Elder through the marriage of Ansegisel and Begga, the daughter of the Elder. ...


Municipal Mayoral types and titles

Anglo-Saxon mayors and counterparts

Lord Mayor of London in his coronation robes. (1821)
Lord Mayor of London in his coronation robes. (1821)

In England the mayor is the modern descendant of the feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (see Borough). The chief magistrate of London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Conquest. This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John. By the beginning of the ninth century the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London. The adoption of the title by other boroughs followed at various intervals. Lord Mayor of London in his coronation robes. ... Lord Mayor of London in his coronation robes. ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chief Magistrate is a generic designation for a Magistrate whose office -individual or collegial- is the highest in his class, in either of the fundamental meanings of Magistrate (which often overlapped in the Ancient régime): as a major political and administrative office (in a republican form of government, at... This article refers to the political appointment portreeve; for the town in Canada see Portreeve, Saskatchewan. ...


In England and America a mayor is now the official head of a municipal government. In the nineteenth century, in the United Kingdom, the Municipal Corporations Act, 1882, section 15, regulated the election of mayors. He was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or persons qualified to be such. His term of office was one year, but he is eligible for re-election. He may appoint a deputy to act during illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or councillor. A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two months becomes disqualified and vacates his office. A mayor is ex officio a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of office and the next year. He receives such remuneration as the council thinks reasonable. These provisions have now been repealed.


The office of mayor in most modern English boroughs and towns does not entail any important administrative duties. It is generally regarded as an honour conferred for local distinction, long service on the Council, or for past services. The mayor (who must be a serving elected councillor) is expected to devote much of his time to civic, ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over meetings which have for their object the advancement of the public welfare. His or her administrative duties are to act as returning officer at municipal elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the council. However, reforms recently introduced mean that 12 English boroughs now have directly-elected mayors who combine the 'civic' mayor role with that of Leader of the Council and have significantly greater powers than either. In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor (Provost and Lord Provost in Scotland) had long been ceremonial posts, with little or no duties attached to it. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... The principal purposes of the Local Government Act 2000 are: to give powers to local authorities to promote economic, social and environmental well-being within their boundaries to require local authorities to shift from their traditional committee-based system of decision-making to an executive model, possibly with a directly... Direct election In 2000 the Labour government led by Tony Blair passed a local government reform which changed this somewhat. ...


The mayor of a town council is officially known as town mayor (although in popular parlance, the word "town" is often dropped). In the United Kingdom, town councils are civil parish councils, where the civil parish is a town. ...


Mayors are not appointed to District Councils which have not adopted the title of Borough. Their place is taken by the Chairman of Council, who undertakes exactly the same functions and is, like a Mayor, the civic head of the district concerned. Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The mayor in contemporary Italy

In Italy mayors (sindaci, singular sindaco) are directly elected by the citizens of their communes. The term of office is five years. A sindaco cannot normally serve for more than two consecutive terms. Italy has in excess of 8000 communes, some of which are very much larger than others: accordingly their political importance can range from the national to the very local. The apposite legal frameworks can be found in the Italian constitution and the Testo unico delle leggi sull’ordinamento degli enti locali (Italian). A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... The Constitution of Italy (Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) is the supreme law of Italy. ...


Other counterparts

In Germany and the Netherlands (see below) the chief town magistrate is called burgomaster 'Chief of the Bürger viz. burgers/citoyens, i.e. Burgesses, citizens' (see that article G. Bürgermeister, Dutch burgemeester; Luxemburgish buergermeeschter; French-speaking parts of Belgium use bourgmestre). Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgomeister, literally translated meaning master of the citizens) is the English form, rendering (often the Anglo-Saxon equivalent Mayor is substituted) various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate and/or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Luxembourgish or Luxembourgian (in French, Luxembourgeois; in German, Luxemburgisch; in Luxembourgish Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ...


The equivalent in Italy is sindaco (historical titles include podestà), in Greece δήμαρχος 'demarkhos' (the "archon of the deme"), in France Maire, in Argentina intendente, in Bohemia starosta, in Brazil prefeito 'prefect', in Romania primar and in Spain alcalde, a term derived from a Moorish post's Arabic name. The Palace of the Podestà in Florence, known as the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo della Signoria Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later middle ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state (like otherwise styled counterparts in other cities... Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Primar, from the Latin Primarius, is the Romanian title for a communal mayor. ... For other uses, see moor. ...


In Canada municipal titles vary from province, but the highest official of a First Nation community holds the title of chief. In addition provinces which have rural municipalities in place of counties refer to their elected official as reeve. First Nations is the current title used by Canada to describe the various societies of the indigenous peoples, called Native Americans in the U.S. They have also been known as Indians, Native Canadians, Aboriginal Americans, Amer-Indians, or Aboriginals, and are officially called Indians in the Indian Act, which...


In the early 20th century, and for the most still, the English method of selecting a mayor by the council was followed[citation needed] for the corresponding functionaries in France (except Paris) and the more important cities of Italy. Direct appointment by the central government exists in Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. As a rule, too, the term of office is longer in other countries than in the United Kingdom. In France election is for six years, in The Netherlands for six, in Belgium for an indefinite period. In France the maire, and a number of experienced members termed adjoint au maire 'mayoral adjunct', who assist him as an executive committee, are elected directly by the municipal council from among their own number. Most of the administrative work is left in the hands of the maire and his adjuncts, the full council meeting comparatively seldom. The adjuncts receive no salary.


In Finland, there are no mayors, although plans have been floated to institute the office in Tampere. The highest executive official is not democratically elected, but appointed to a public office by the city council, and is called simply kaupunginjohtaja "city manager" or kunnanjohtaja "municipal manager", depending on whether the municipality defines itself as a city. The term pormestari "mayor", from Swedish borgmästare "master of the castle" confusingly refers to the highest official in the registry office, not the city manager. In addition, pormestari is also a title, which may be given for distinguished service in the post of the city manager. The city manager of Helsinki is called ylipormestari, which translates to "Chief Mayor", for historical reasons. Furthermore, the term "city manager" may be seen translated as "mayor". Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ...


This is similar to Portugal, where the highest municipal authority is the presidente da Câmara Municipal, the 'president of the Municipal Chamber', appointed to his office by the city council.


In Poland the chief executive of a town or city is called burmistrz or, in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or others which traditionally use the title, prezydent. The equivalent title in a rural commune (gmina) is wójt. These are all directly elected posts. The municipality or commune (Polish: gmina, plural: gminy) is the principal unit (lowest level) of territorial division in Poland. ... Wójt is a Polish senior civil administrative officer and the highest representative of the government on a communal level. ...


United States

Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani (right) with former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (left) near the World Trade Center site on November 14, 2001.
Former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani (right) with former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (left) near the World Trade Center site on November 14, 2001.

In the United States, there are several distinct types of mayors. The first type of mayor is the mayor under the council-manager government. In this form, common among medium sized cities from 25,000 to several hundred thousand, the mayor is a first among equals at the city council, analogous to a head of state for the city. However, the mayor does not have any special legislative powers. This system is suited for rural and suburban cities with a part-time mayor and city council. In the second form, under a strong mayor system, the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council functioning with legislative powers. The mayor may select a chief administrative officer to oversee the different departments. This is the system used in most of the United States' large cities, primarily because mayors serve full time and have a wide range of services that they oversee. In a ceremonial mayor system, the mayor has appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the city council. This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England. Charlotte, North Carolina and Minneapolis, Minnesota are two notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor. Download high resolution version (2749x1990, 604 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2749x1990, 604 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The council-manager government is one of two main variations of representative municipal government in the United States. ... First among Equals could refer to Primus inter pares, a political concept or First Among Equals, a novel by Jeffrey Archer ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... A mayor (from the Latin maīor, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... A chief administrative officer (or CAO) is a corporate officer responsible for management of the personnel of the corporation. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... “Charlotte” redirects here. ... “Minneapolis” redirects here. ...


Many American mayors are styled "His/Her Honor" while in office.


Canada

The mayor is the leader in most Canadian municipalities. However, some Canadian provinces still use the term reeve for the elected head of a small village, a township or a rural municipality, performing a similar role to the mayor of a town or city. The town of Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario is the only municipality in Canada whose elected head holds the traditionally British title of Lord Mayor. The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ... A rural municipality, often abbreviated RM, is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, perhaps best comparable to counties or townships in the western United States. ... Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara Region Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara-on-the-Lake (2001 population 13,839) is a town where the Niagara River meets Lake Ontario in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Mayors are styled 'His/Her Worship' while in office. [1]


The chief executives of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec are termed mayors. Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ...


Australia

On Australian councils, the Mayor is generally the member of the Council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as well as carrying the authority of Council between meetings. Mayoral decisions made between meetings are subject to Council and may be confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayors in Australia may be elected either directly through a ballot for the position of Mayor at a local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within the Council at a meeting in September.


Like Canada, mayors have the title of 'His/Her Worship' whilst holding the position.


In councils where Councillors are elected representing political parties, the Mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the most seats on council. A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the U.K. and its former colonies. ...


Japan

Japan's Local-Autonomy Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. It gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America. The titles that are translated as "mayor" by the governments are those of the heads of cities (市長 shichō?), towns (町長 chōchō?), villages (村長 sonchō?), and Tokyo's special wards (区長 kuchō?). (The head of the Tokyo prefecture is the Governor (知事 Chiji?).) A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes held separately from the assembly. He / she can be recalled by a popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments cannot remove him / her from office. Towards the assembly he / she prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds assembly support. He / she can resolve the assembly if the assembly passes a motion of no confidence or he / she thinks the assembly has no confidence in fact. The Local Autonomy Law (地方自治法 Chihō-jichi-hō) of Japan was passed as Law No. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... A city ) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... A town (町 chō) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... A village (村 mura or son) is a local administrative unit in Japan. ... The special wards of Tokyo are 23 municipalities that together make up the core and the most populous part of Tokyo, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


Germany

In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Nowadays only the burgomasters of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen) are still elected by the respective city or community council. In all the other states the burgomasters are now elected directly by the EU citizens living in that area. The post of burgomaster may be said to be a professional one, the burgomaster being the head of the local government, and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration. In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official title is Oberbürgermeister (chief burgomaster). In these cities a "simple" burgomaster is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e. g. welfare or construction works). Big cities are usually kreisfrei ("free of district"). That means that the city council also has the powers and duties of a rural district council. The leader of a rural district council is called Landrat ("land counsellor"). In that case the chief burgomaster has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. The term Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states (e.g. in Berlin Regierender Bürgermeister ("governing burgomaster") is used). Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the mayor (in Dutch: burgemeester) is the leader of the municipal executive ('College van Burgemeester en Wethouders'). In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are de facto appointed by the national cabinet, de jure by the monarch. They preside both the municipal executive and the legislative ('gemeenteraad'). The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster, to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office. The appointment procedure was recently brought for discussion. The appointment procedure is considered undemocratic. Alternatives are direct election of the mayor by the people or appointment by the gemeenteraad. A constitutional change to allow this failed to pass the Eerste Kamer in May 2005. The cabinet of the Netherlands or council of ministers plans and implements government policy. ... The Netherlands have been an independent monarchy since March 16, 1815, and have been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgomeister, literally translated meaning master of the citizens) is the English form, rendering (often the Anglo-Saxon equivalent Mayor is substituted) various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate and/or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration... The Eerste Kamer (literally First Chamber in Dutch) is the Upper House or Senate of the Netherlands parliament, the States-General. ...


Spain

"Alcalade", the Spanish term for the mayor of a town or city, is derived from Arabic El Qadi - i.e. "The Qadi", Muslim judge who often had administrative as well as judicial functions. This reflects the fact that, at least in the early parts of the reconquista, the Moorish cities in the Iberian Peninsula were far bigger and more sophisticated than the Christian ones. As Spanish Christians took over an increasing part of territory, they adapted Moorish systems and terminology for their own use. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Look up moor, Moor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Taiwan

In the Republic of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of a city's government and is completely distinct from the associated city's council, which is in charge of legislative affairs. The mayor and city council are elected separately by the city's residents. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Multi-tier local government

In several countries, where there is not local autonomy, mayors are often appointed by some branch of the federal or regional government. In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of Paris, Montreal, and Mexico City. In Belgium, the capital, Brussels, is administratively one of the federation's three regions, and is the only city subdivided, without the other regions' provincial level, into 19 rather small municipalities, which each have an elected--formally appointed--Burgomaster (i.e. Mayor, responsible to his / her elected council); while Antwerp, the other major metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities, each under a normal Burgomaster as in Brussels. Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


In the People's Republic of China, the Mayor (市長) may be the administrative head of any municipality, be it provincial-, prefectural, or county-level. The Mayor is usually the most recognized official in cities, although the position is the second-highest ranking official in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. In principle, the Mayor (who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur, frequently causing conflict.


Sources and references

(incomplete)

  • A. Shaw, Municipal Government in Continental Europe
  • J - A. Fairlie, Municipal Administration
  • S. and B. Webb, English Local Government
  • Redlich and Hirst, Local Government in England
  • A. L. Lowell, The Government of England.

See also


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Mayor of London, the London Assembly and the Greater London Authority (0 words)
Mayor of London, the London Assembly and the Greater London Authority
The Mayor has welcomed the Prime Minister's announcement that Crossrail is to go ahead, calling it 'the key to the next 20 years of economic development of London'.
The Mayor is launching a new scheme to give women and people from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic communities, who are under-represented in the taxi industry, new opportunities to train to be a licensed taxi driver.
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