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Encyclopedia > Maykop culture

The Maykop culture, ca. 3500 BC2500 BC, is a major bronze age archaeological culture situated in Transcaucasia running from the Taman peninsula at the Kerch Strait nearly to the modern border of Dagestan, centered approximately on the modern Republic of Adygea, (whose capital is Maykop) in the Kuban River valley. The culture takes its name from a royal burial found there. (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... 1. ... Kerch Strait. ... The Republic of Adygea (Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. ... See Maikop culture for the prehistoric culture. ... The Kuban (Куба́нь) is a river in Russia, in the Northern Caucasus region. ...


It is approximately contemporaneous with and is apparently influenced by the Kuro-Araxes culture (3500—2200 BC) which straddles the Caucasus and extends into eastern Anatolia. To the north and west is the similarly contemporaneous Yamna culture and immediately north is the Novotitorovka culture (3300—2700), which it overlaps in territorial extent. Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ...


It is known mainly from its inhumation practices, which were typically in a pit, sometimes stone-lined, topped with a kurgan or (tumulus). Stone cairns replace kurgans in later interments. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ...


The culture is noteworthy for the abundance of bronze artefacts associated with it, unparalleled for the time. There were also gold and silver items.


Because of its burial practices, and in terms of the Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas, it is cited, at the very least, as a kurganized culture with a strong Indo-European ethnic and linguistic element. It has been linked to the Lower Mikhaylovka group and Kemi Oba culture, and more distantly, to the Globular Amphora and Corded Ware cultures, if only in an economic sense. Mallory states: This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 - Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ...

Such a theory, it must be emphasized, is highly speculative and controversial although there is a recognition that this culture may be a product of at least two traditions: the local steppe tradition embraced in the Novosvobodna culture and foreign elements from south of the Caucasus which can be charted through imports in both regions.EEIC, "Maykop Culture".

It should perhaps be noted that the Kuban River is navigable for much of its length, and an easy water-passage via the Sea of Azov into the territory of the Yamna culture, by way of the Don and Donets River systems was available. The Maykop culture was well-situated to exploit the trading possibilities of the central Ukraine area. The Kuban (Куба́нь) is a river in Russia, in the Northern Caucasus region. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... Length 1950 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed 425,600 km² Origin Russia, Ukraine Mouth Sea of Azov Basin countries Russia The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ...


Gamkrelidze and Ivanov, whose views are somewhat controversial, suggest that the Maykop culture (or its ancestor) may have been a way-station for Indo-Europeans migrating from the South Caucusus and/or eastern Anatolia to a secondary Urheimat on the steppe. This would essentially place the Anatolian stock in Anatolia from the beginning, and at least in this instance, agrees with Lord Renfrew's hypothesis. Considering that some attempt has been made to unite Indo-European with the Northwest Caucasian languages, an earlier Caucasian pre-Urheimat is not out of the question (see Proto-Pontic). Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Proto-Pontic is a postulated proto-language. ...


The Maykop culture is a convenient place to explain where some very early Indo-European loan words to and from Semitic took place. Semitic is an adjective referring to the peoples who have traditionally spoken Semitic languages or to things pertaining to them. ...


See also

Bronze figurine, found at Öland Bronze is the traditional name for a broad range of alloys of copper. ...

Source

  • James P. Mallory, "Maykop Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

  Results from FactBites:
 
4th millennium BC - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (703 words)
The Yamna culture ("Kurgan culture"), succeeding the Sredny Stog culture is the locus of the Proto-Indo-Europeans according to the Kurgan hypothesis
The Maykop culture of the Caucasus, contemporary to the Kurgan culture, is a candidate for the origin of bronze production and thus the Bronze Age.
Nok culture, situated at the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers
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