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Encyclopedia > Maya civilization

Maya civilization

Maya languages | Maya peoples The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... Maya may refer to: // The Maya, Native American peoples of southern Mexico and northern Central America Maya peoples, the contemporary indigenous peoples Maya civilization, their historical pre-Columbian civilization Mayan languages, the family of languages spoken by the Maya Yucatec Maya language, specific and most widespread Mayan language, frequently referred... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1326 pixel, file size: 1. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ...

architecture | calendar | writing
mythology | religion | human sacrifice| society As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ...

Maya history

Maya collapse
Spanish conquest of Yucatán This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...

The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. Initially established during the Preclassic period, many of these reached their apogee of development during the Classic period (c. 250 to 900), and continued throughout the Postclassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its peak, it was one of the most densely populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world. This article is about the culture area. ... Central New York City. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about building architecture. ... Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ...


The Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region. Advances such as writing, epigraphy, and the calendar did not originate with the Maya; however, their civilization fully developed them. Maya influence can be detected as far as central Mexico, more than 1000 km (625 miles) from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to result from trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. The Maya peoples never disappeared, neither at the time of the Classic period decline nor with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores and the subsequent Spanish colonization of the Americas. Today, the Maya and their descendants form sizable populations throughout the Maya area and maintain a distinctive set of traditions and beliefs that are the result of the merger of pre-Columbian and post-Conquest ideologies (and structured by the almost total adoption of Roman Catholicism). Many different Mayan languages continue to be spoken as primary languages today; the Rabinal Achí, a play written in the Q'eqchi' language, was declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005. Mesoamerica is the region extending from central Mexico south to the northwestern border of Costa Rica that gave rise to a group of stratified, culturally related agrarian civilizations spanning an approximately 3,000-year period before the European discovery of the New World by Columbus. ... In anthropology, cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies (Wintrop 1991:82) Since cultures have never been completely isolated from each other, diffusion has happened throughout history, and continues on today. ... Write redirects here. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... “km” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Maya art is considered by many to be the most sophisticated and beautiful of the ancient New World. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... Actors representing the Rabinaleb Prince and Princess, in a street of the in Rabinal, Guatemala The Rabinal Achí is a Maya theatrical play performed in Rabinal, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, its original name is Xajooj Tun meaning, Tun (drum) Dance. ... The Qeqchi language is spoken in Belize and Guatemala. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents

Geographical position

Extent of the Maya civilization
Extent of the Maya civilization

The geographic extent of the Maya civilization, known as the Maya area, extended throughout the southern Mexican states of Chiapas, Tabasco, and the Yucatán Peninsula states of Quintana Roo, Campeche and Yucatán. The Maya area also extended throughout the northern Central American region, including the present-day nations of Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and western Honduras. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x789, 1010 KB) Summary Map showing the extent of the Maya civilization, adopted from Image:Mayas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1074x789, 1010 KB) Summary Map showing the extent of the Maya civilization, adopted from Image:Mayas. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005... This article is about the Mexican state of Tabasco. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Campeche is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


As the largest sub-region in Mesoamerica, it encompassed a vast and varied landscape, from the mountainous regions of the Sierra Madre to the semi-arid plains of northern Yucatán. Climate in the Maya region can vary tremendously, as the low-lying areas are particularly susceptible to the hurricanes and tropical storms that frequent the Caribbean. This is a list of mountain ranges organized alphabetically by continent. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


The Maya area is generally divided into three loosely defined zones: the southern Maya highlands, the southern (or central) Maya lowlands, and the northern Maya lowlands. The southern Maya highlands include all of elevated terrain in Guatemala and the Chiapas highlands. The southern lowlands lie just north of the highlands, and incorporate the Petén of the Mexican states of Campeche and Quintana Roo and northern Guatemala, Belize and El Salvador. The northern lowlands cover the remainder of the Yucatán Peninsula, including the Puuc hills.[1] In the southern most state of Chiapas in Mexico. ... The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, located in the northern portion of the modern-day nation of Guatemala, and essentially contained within the department of El Petén. ... General boundaries of the Puuc region. ...


History

Preclassic

While the Maya area was initially inhabited around the 10th millennium BC, the first clearly “Maya” settlements were established in approximately 1800 BC in Soconusco region of the Pacific Coast. This point in time, known as the Early Preclassic, [2] was characterized by sedentary communities and the introduction of pottery and fired clay figurines.[3] See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... (Redirected from 1800 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766... Soconusco refers to the region of rich lowlands and foothills along the Pacific coast of southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. ... i am vegeta ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized figurines found in modern-day Israel A figurine (a diminutive form of the word figure) is a statuette that represents a human, deity, or animal. ...


Archaeological evidence suggests the construction of ceremonial architecture in Maya area by approximately 1000 BC. The earliest configurations of such architecture consist of simple burial mounds, which would be the precursors to the stepped pyramids subsequently erected in the Late Preclassic. Prominent Middle and Late Preclassic settlement zones are located in the southern Maya lowlands, specifically in the Mirador and Petén Basins. Important sites in the southern Maya lowlands include Nakbe, El Mirador, Cival, and San Bartolo. In the Guatemalan Highlands, Kaminal Juyú, emerges around 800 BC, this site will control for centuries the Jade and Obsidian sources for the Petén and Pacific Lowlands, with the early sites of Izapa, Takalik Abaj and Chocolá that were sites of importance, around 600 BC and the main producers of Cacao. Mid-sized Maya communities also began to develop in the northern Maya lowlands during the Middle and Late Preclassic, though these lacked the size, scale, and influence of the large centers of the southern lowlands. Two important Preclassic northern sites include Komchen and Dzibilchaltun. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... This December 2006 does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Mirador Basin is a geographically defined elevated basin found in the remote rain forest of the northern department of Petén , Guatemala. ... The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, located in the northern portion of the modern-day nation of Guatemala, and essentially contained within the department of El Petén. ... // Overview Nakbe is an ancient lowland Mayan city that is located in the Peten region of Guatemala. ... El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala. ... Cival is an archaeological site in the Petén department of Guatemala, formerly a major city of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... San Bartolo is a municipality in the Totonicapán department of Guatemala. ... Kaminaljuyu is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, in highland Guatemala, now within modern Guatemala City. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ... // Overview Izapa was a very large pre-Columbian site located in Chiapas, Mexico, often placed in the Late Formative period. ... Takalik Abaj is an archeological site, formerly a site of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Chocolá was a Late Preclassic site (400 BC to 200 AD), a complex of more than 100 structures that was discovered before the turn of the last century but, until now, no one had undertaken systematic and comprehensive excavations. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... Komchen is pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site located in the northwestern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Dzibililchaltùn is a maya ruin in the Yucatan Province of Mexico, approximately 10 miles north of Merida. ...


There is some disagreement about the boundaries which differentiate the physical and cultural extent of the early Maya and neighboring Preclassic Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec culture of the Tabasco lowlands and the Mixe-Zoque– and Zapotec–speaking peoples of Chiapas and southern Oaxaca, respectively. Many of the earliest significant inscriptions and buildings appeared in this overlapping zone, and evidence suggests that these cultures and the formative Maya influenced one another.[4] Takalik Abaj in the Pacific slopes of Guatemala, is the only site were Olmec and then Maya features, have been found. Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Mixe-Zoque languages are a language family spoken in and around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ...


Classic

The ruins of Palenque.
The ruins of Palenque.

The Classic period (c. 250900) witnessed the peak of large-scale construction and urbanism, the recording of monumental inscriptions, and a period of significant intellectual and artistic development, particularly in the southern lowland regions.[5] They developed an agriculturally intensive, city-centered empire consisting of numerous independent city-states. This includes the well-known cities of Tikal, Palenque, Copán and Calakmul, but also the lesser known Dos Pilas, Uaxactun, Altun Ha, and Bonampak, among others. The Early Classic settlement distribution in the northern Maya lowlands is not as clearly known as the southern zone, but does include a number of population centers, such as Oxkintok, Chunchucmil, and the early occupation of Uxmal. The Palace, Palenque Ruins. ... The Palace, Palenque Ruins. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... Urbanism is the study of cities - their geographic, economic, political, social and cultural environment, and the imprint of all these forces on the built environment. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... For other uses, see Tikal (disambiguation). ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... Calakmul is the name of both a municipality and a major archeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, in the central part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Dos Pilas is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in what is now Peten, Guatemala. ... Uaxactun (pronounced Wash-ak-toon) is an ancient ruin of the Maya civilization, located in the Peten department of Guatemala, some 40 km (25 miles) north of Tikal. ... Altun Ha is the name given ruins of an ancient Maya city in Belize, located in the Belize District about 30 miles (50 km) north of Belize City and about 6 miles (10 km) west of the shore of the Caribbean Sea. ... Bonampak. ... Map of NW Yucatan, showing major ecological zones and the location of Oxkintok Oxkintok is a pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site on the Yucatán Peninsula, located at the northern tip of the Puuc hills - a few kilometers to the east of the modern town of Maxcanú, Yucatán, Mexico. ... Map of Northwest Yucatan, showing major ecological zones and archaeological sites related to Chunchucmil Chunchucmil was a large, sprawling pre-Columbian Maya city located in the western part of what is now the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Panorama of Uxmal Uxmal (, ) is a large Pre-Columbian ruined city of the Maya civilization in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ...


The most notable monuments are the pyramids they built in their religious centers and the accompanying palaces of their rulers. The palace at Cancuen is the largest in the Maya area, though the site, interestingly, lacks pyramids. Other important archaeological remains include the carved stone slabs usually called stelae (the Maya called them tetun, or "tree-stones"), which depict rulers along with hieroglyphic texts describing their genealogy, military victories, and other accomplishments.[6] For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ... Cancuén is an archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the Pasión subregion of the central Maya lowlands in the present-day Guatemalan Department of El Petén. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... Hieroglyphics redirects here. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...


The Maya participated in long distance trade with many of the other Mesoamerican cultures, including Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, and other groups in central and gulf-coast Mexico, as well as with more distant, non-Mesoamerican groups. For example, archaeologists found gold from Panama in the Sacred Cenote of Chichen Itza.[7] Important trade goods included cacao, salt, sea shells, jade and obsidian. Teotihuacan was the largest Pre-Columbian known city in the Americas, and the name Teotihuacan is used to refer to the civilization this city dominated, which at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... Sacred Cenote at Chichén Itzá Sacred Cenote (Well of Sacrifice) is a noted cenote at the Mayan site of Chichen Itza. ... For the town in French Guiana, see Cacao, French Guiana. ... This article is about common table salt. ... Various seashells A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, of certain animals. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about a type of volcanic glass. ...


The Maya collapse

Main article: Maya collapse

For reasons that are still debated, the Maya centers of the southern lowlands went into decline during the 8th and 9th centuries and were abandoned shortly thereafter. This decline was coupled with a cessation of monumental inscriptions and large-scale architectural construction.[8] Although there is no universally accepted theory to explain this “collapse,” current theories fall into two categories: non-ecological and ecological. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Non-ecological theories of Maya decline are divided into several subcategories, such as overpopulation, foreign invasion, peasant revolt, and the collapse of key trade routes. Ecological hypotheses include environmental disaster, epidemic disease, and climate change. There is evidence that the Mayan population exceeded carrying capacity of the environment including exhaustion of agricultural potential and overhunting of megafauna.[9] Some scholars have recently theorized that an intense 200 year drought led to the collapse of Mayan civilization.[10] The drought theory originated from research performed by physical scientists studying lake beds, ancient pollen, and other data, not from the archaeological community. Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Peasant revolt is a term with broad application, typically meaning uprisings of rural or agricultural people against an existing order or establishment. ... A trade route is a commonly used path of travel for those (e. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The equilibrium maximum of the population of an organism is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ...


Postclassic period

Early Postclassic temple at Topoxte. Note the straight walls and flat ceiling, typical of Postclassic Maya architecture

During the succeeding Postclassic period (from the 10th to the early 16th century), development in the northern centers persisted, characterized by an increasing diversity of external influences. The Maya cities of the northern lowlands in Yucatán continued to flourish for centuries more; some of the important sites in this era were Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Edzná, and Coba. After the decline of the ruling dynasties of Chichen and Uxmal, Mayapan ruled all of Yucatán until a revolt in 1450. (This city's name may be the source of the word "Maya", which had a more geographically restricted meaning in Yucatec and colonial Spanish and only grew to its current meaning in the 19th and 20th centuries). The area then degenerated into competing city-states until the Yucatán was conquered by the Spanish. Image File history File links Topoxte. ... Image File history File links Topoxte. ... Topoxté is a site of the Maya civilization in what is now El Petén, Guatemala. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Temple of the Warriors Chichen Itza is the largest of the Pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Yucat n, Mexico. ... Panorama of Uxmal Uxmal (, ) is a large Pre-Columbian ruined city of the Maya civilization in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Edzná is a ruined city of the Maya civilization in the state of Campeche, Mexico. ... Coba (Cobá in the Spanish language) is a large ruined city of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. ... Mayapan (in Spanish Mayapán) is a Pre-Columbian Maya site in the state of Yucatán, Mexico, about 40 km south-east of Mérida and 100 km west of Chichen Itza. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Yucatec Maya is a Maya language spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...


The Itza Maya, Ko'woj, and Yalain groups of Central Peten survived the "Classic Period Collapse" in small numbers and by 1250 reconstituted themselves to form competing city-states. The Itza maintained their capital at Tayasal (also known as Noh Petén), an archaeological site thought to underlay the modern city of Flores, Guatemala on Lake Petén Itzá. It ruled over an area extending across the Peten Lakes region, encompassing the community of Eckixil on Lake Quexil. The Ko'woj had their capital at Zacpeten. Postclassic Maya states also continued to survive in the southern highlands. One of the Maya kingdoms in this area, them Quiché, is responsible for the best-known Maya work of historiography and mythology, the Popol Vuh. The Maya are people of southern Mexico and northern Central America (Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador) with some 3,000 years of history. ... the Kowoj (also recorded as Coguo, Cohuo, Kobow, Kobox, and Kowo) were a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period (ca. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Flores is the capital city of El Petén department of Guatemala. ... Flores is the capital city of El Petén department of Guatemala. ... Lake Petén Itzá is a lake in northern part of Guatemala. ... Zacpetén: This site shows a long occupation, it was most heavily occupied during the Middle Preclassic (1000 BC to 300 BC), and Late Classic through Terminal Classic (AD 600 to AD 950), and a late Late Post Classic occupation by the Kowoj Maya, through Contact (AD 1200 to... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, part of the Maya ethnic group. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... The Popol Vuh (Quiché for Council Book or Book of the Community; Popol Wuj in modern spelling) is the book of scripture of the Quiché, a kingdom of the post classic Maya civilization in highland Guatemala. ...


Colonial Period

See also: Spanish conquest of Mexico and Spanish colonization of the Americas

Shortly after their first expeditions to the region, the Spanish initiated a number of attempts to subjugate the Maya and establish a colonial presence in the Maya territories of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Guatemalan highlands. This campaign, sometimes termed "The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán," would prove to be a lengthy and dangerous exercise for the conquistadores from the outset, and it would take some 170 years before the Spanish established substantive control over all Maya lands. The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ...


Unlike the Spanish campaigns against the Aztec and Inca Empires, there was no single Maya political center which once overthrown would hasten the end of collective resistance from the indigenous peoples. Instead, the conquistador forces needed to subdue the numerous independent Maya polities almost one by one, many of which kept up a fierce resistance. Most of the conquistadores were motivated by the prospects of the great wealth to be had from the seizure of precious metal resources such as gold or silver; however, the Maya lands themselves were poor in these resources. This would become another factor in forestalling Spanish designs of conquest, as they instead were initially attracted to the reports of great riches in central Mexico or Peru. Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


The last Maya states, the Itza polity of Tayasal and the Ko'woj city of Zacpeten, were continuously occupied and remained independent of the Spanish until late in the 17th century. They were finally subdued by the Spanish in 1697. the Kowoj (also recorded as Coguo, Cohuo, Kobow, Kobox, and Kowo) were a Maya group and polity, from the Late Postclassic period (ca. ... Zacpetén: This site shows a long occupation, it was most heavily occupied during the Middle Preclassic (1000 BC to 300 BC), and Late Classic through Terminal Classic (AD 600 to AD 950), and a late Late Post Classic occupation by the Kowoj Maya, through Contact (AD 1200 to... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher...


Political structures

A typical Classic Maya polity was a small hierarchical state (ajawil, ajawlel, or ajawlil) headed by a hereditary ruler known as an ajaw (later k’uhul ajaw).[11] Such kingdoms were usually no more than a capital city with its neighborhood and several lesser towns, although there were greater kingdoms, which controlled larger territories and extended patronage over smaller polities. For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... AJAW is the title in the Mayan language of the King of a Precolumbian city state of the Maya people on the (now Mexican) Yucatan peninsula (explicitely attested in Palenque and in Tikal) and in neighbouring Central America, in Guatemala and Belize (the former British Honduras). ...


Each kingdom had a name that did not necessarily correspond to any locality within its territory. Its identity was that of a political unit associated with a particular ruling dynasty. For instance, the archaeological site of Naranjo was the capital of the kingdom of Saal. The land (chan ch’e’n) of the kingdom and its capital were called Wakab’nal or Maxam and were part of a larger geographical entity known as Huk Tsuk. Interestingly, despite constant warfare and eventual shifts in regional power, most kingdoms never disappeared from the political landscape until the collapse of the whole system in the 9th century AD. In this respect, Classic Maya kingdoms are highly similar to late Post Classic polities encountered by the Spaniards in Yucatán and Central Mexico: some polities could be subordinated to hegemonic rulers through conquests or dynastic unions and yet even then they persisted as distinct entities. Inscription relating to the reign of king Itzamnaaj Kawil, 784-810. ...


Mayanists have been increasingly accepting a "court paradigm" of Classic Maya societies which puts the emphasis on the centrality of the royal household and especially the person of the king. This approach focuses on Maya monumental spaces as the embodiment of the diverse activities of the royal household. It considers the role of places and spaces (including dwellings of royalty and nobles, throne rooms, temples, halls and plazas for public ceremonies) in establishing power and social hierarchy, and also in projecting aesthetic and moral values to define the wider social realm.


Spanish sources invariably describe even the largest Maya settlements as dispersed collections of dwellings grouped around the temples and palaces of the ruling dynasty and lesser nobles. None of the Classic Maya cities shows evidence of economic specialization and commerce of the scale of Mexican Tenochtitlan. Instead, Maya cities could be seen as enormous royal households, the locales of the administrative and ritual activities of the royal court. They were the places where privileged nobles could approach the holy ruler, where aesthetic values of the high culture were formulated and disseminated, where aesthetic items were consumed. They were the self-proclaimed centers and the sources of social, moral, and cosmic order. The fall of a royal court as in the well-documented cases of Piedras Negras or Copan would cause the inevitable "death" of the associated settlement. Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... Piedras Negras is the modern name for a ruined city of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization located on the north bank of the Usumacinta River in the Petén department of Guatemala. ... The Pre-Columbian city of Cop n is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Cop Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ...


Art

Main article: Maya art
A stucco relief from Palenque depicting Upakal K'inich
A stucco relief from Palenque depicting Upakal K'inich

Many consider Maya art of their Classic Era (c. 200 to 900 AD) to be the most sophisticated and beautiful of the ancient New World. The carvings and the reliefs made of stucco at Palenque and the statuary of Copán are especially fine, showing a grace and accurate observation of the human form that reminded early archaeologists of Classical civilization of the Old World, hence the name bestowed on this era. We have only hints of the advanced painting of the classic Maya; mostly what have survived are funerary pottery and other Maya ceramics, and a building at Bonampak holds ancient murals that survived by serendipity. A beautiful turquoise blue color that has survived through the centuries due to its unique chemical characteristics, is known as Maya Blue or Azul maya, and it is present in Bonampak, Tajín Cacaxtla, Jaina, and even in some Colonial Convents. The use of Maya Blue survived until the XVI century when the technique was lost. Some Pre Classic murals have been recently discovered at San Bartolo, and are by far the finest in style and Iconogrphy, they were defined as the Sistine Chappel of the Maya. With the decipherment of the Maya script it was discovered that the Maya were one of the few civilizations where artists attached their name to their work.
Maya art is considered by many to be the most sophisticated and beautiful of the ancient New World. ... Download high resolution version (1116x2272, 707 KB) A painted stucco relief in the museum at Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico, from one of the recently excavated buildings. ... Download high resolution version (1116x2272, 707 KB) A painted stucco relief in the museum at Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico, from one of the recently excavated buildings. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Charlie Chaplin Statue A statue is a sculpture depicting a specific entity, usually a person, event, animal or object. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Maya ceramics are important in the study of the Pre-Columbian Maya culture of Mesoamerica. ... Bonampak. ... Salle des illustres, ceiling painting, by Jean André Rixens. ... A warrior with Azul Maya on the background Maya Blue (Spanish: ) is a unique bright blue to greenish-blue pigment manufactured by cultures of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, such as the Maya and Aztec. ... Bonampak. ... El Tajín is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site near the city of Papantla, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. ... The Gran Basamento, protected by its sheet-metal roof View over the top of the Gran Basamento Cacaxtla is an archaeological site located near the southern border of the Mexican state of Tlaxcala. ... San Bartolo is a municipality in the Totonicapán department of Guatemala. ... Decipherment is the analysis of documents written in ancient languages, where the language is unknown, or knowledge of the language has been lost. ...


Architecture

Main article: Maya architecture

As unique and spectacular as Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years; yet, often the most dramatic and easily recognizable as Maya are the fantastic stepped pyramids from the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond. As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... This is about the polyhedron. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: Paleo-Indian Period c. ...


There are also cave sites that are important to the Maya. These cave sites include Jolja Cave, the cave site at Naj Tunich, the Candelaria Caves, and the Cave of the Witch. There are also cave-origin myths among the Maya. Some cave sites are still used by the modern Maya in the Chiapas highlands. A cave site in the Chiapas highlands. ... The discovery of Naj Tunich caves, in Poptún southern Petén, Guatemala, in 1980 initiated the interest for Cave Archeology among the Mayanist. ... An origin belief is any story or explanation that describes the beginnings of humanity, earth, life, and the universe (cosmogony). ... In the southern most state of Chiapas in Mexico. ...


It has been suggested that, in conjunction to the Maya Long Count Calendar, every fifty-two years, or cycle, temples and pyramids were remodeled and rebuilt. It appears now that the rebuilding process was often instigated by a new ruler or for political matters, as opposed to matching the calendar cycle. However, the process of rebuilding on top of old structures is indeed a common one. Most notably, the North Acropolis at Tikal seems to be the sum total of 1,500 years of architectural modifications. In Tikal and Yaxhá, there are the Twin Pyramid complexes (7 in Tikal and 1 in Yaxhá, that commemorate the end of a Baktún The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Tikal Temples I, II and III Tikal Temple II Tikal (or Tik’al, according to the more current orthography) is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Tikal (disambiguation). ... Restored temple-pyramid structure at the site, designated Yaxha Temple 216 Yaxha (or Yaxhá in Spanish orthography) is a Mesoamerican archaeological site in the northeast of the Petén Basin region, and a former ceremonial center and city of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Through observation of the numerous consistent elements and stylistic distinctions, remnants of Maya architecture have become an important key to understanding the evolution of their ancient civilization.


Urban design

North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala
North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala

As Maya cities spread throughout the varied geography of Mesoamerica, site planning appears to have been minimal. Maya architecture tended to integrate a great degree of natural features, and their cities were built somewhat haphazardly as dictated by the topography of each independent location. For instance, some cities on the flat limestone plains of the northern Yucatán grew into great sprawling municipalities, while others built in the hills of Usumacinta utilized the natural loft of the topography to raise their towers and temples to impressive heights. However, some semblance of order, as required by any large city, still prevailed. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub ...


Classic Era Maya urban design could easily be described as the division of space by great monuments and causeways. Open public plazas were the gathering places for people and the focus of urban design, while interior space was entirely secondary. Only in the Late Post-Classic era did the great Maya cities develop into more fortress-like defensive structures that lacked, for the most part, the large and numerous plazas of the Classic.


At the onset of large-scale construction during the Classic Era, a predetermined axis was typically established in a cardinal direction. Depending on the location of natural resources such as fresh-water wells, or cenotes, the city grew by using sacbeob (causeways), (singular: Sacbé) to connect great plazas with the numerous platforms that created the sub-structure for nearly all Maya buildings. As more structures were added and existing structures re-built or remodeled, the great Maya cities seemed to take on an almost random identity that contrasted sharply with other great Mesoamerican cities such as Teotihuacan and its rigid grid-like construction. A Cenote or Cenotes (plural)is the name given in the south part of Mexico and centro-america for a large, subacuatic cave, (or series of) usually a Cenote has a mayan-linkage, because these was a important part of their rites. ... Sacbeobs, or white ways were white, long and straight roads built by the Mayans to connect temples, plazas, and cities. ...

Ballcourt at Tikal, Guatemala
Ballcourt at Tikal, Guatemala

At the heart of the Maya city were large plazas surrounded by the most important governmental and religious buildings, such as the royal acropolis, great pyramid temples and occasionally ball-courts. Though city layouts evolved as nature dictated, careful attention was placed on the directional orientation of temples and observatories so that they were constructed in accordance with Maya interpretation of the orbits of the heavenly bodies. Immediately outside of this ritual center were the structures of lesser nobles, smaller temples, and individual shrines; the less sacred and less important structures had a greater degree of privacy. Outside of the constantly evolving urban core were the less permanent and more modest homes of the common people. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Acropolis (Gr. ... Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ...


Building materials

A surprising aspect of the great Maya structures is their lack of many advanced technologies seemingly necessary for such constructions. Lacking draft animals necessary for wheel-based modes of transportation, metal tools and even pulleys, Maya architecture required abundant manpower. Yet, beyond this enormous requirement, the remaining materials seem to have been readily available. All stone for Maya structures appears to have been taken from local quarries. They most often used limestone which remained pliable enough to be worked with stone tools while being quarried and only hardened once removed from its bed. In addition to the structural use of limestone, much of their mortar consisted of crushed, burnt and mixed limestone that mimicked the properties of cement and was used as widely for stucco finishing as it was for mortar. Later improvements in quarrying techniques reduced the necessity for this limestone-stucco as the stones began to fit quite perfectly, yet it remained a crucial element in some post and lintel roofs. In the case of the common Maya houses, wooden poles, adobe and thatch were the primary materials; however, instances of what appear to be common houses of limestone have been discovered as well. Also notable throughout Maya architecture is the corbel arch (also known as a "false arch"), whose limitations kept their structures generally weighty rather than airy. For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Buildings and structures stubs ... Renewal of the surface coating of an adobe wall in Chamisal, New Mexico Adobe is a natural building material composed of sand, sandy clay and straw or other organic materials, which is shaped into bricks using wooden frames and dried in the sun. ... A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method which uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. ...


Notable constructions

  • Ceremonial platforms were commonly limestone platforms of typically less than four meters in height where public ceremonies and religious rites were performed. Constructed in the fashion of a typical foundation platform, these were often accented by carved figures, altars and perhaps tzompantli, a stake used to display the heads of victims or defeated Mesoamerican ballgame opponents.
  • Palaces were large and often highly decorated, and usually sat close to the center of a city and housed the population's elite. Any exceedingly large royal palace, or one consisting of many chambers on different levels might be referred to as an acropolis. However, often these were one-story and consisted of many small chambers and typically at least one interior courtyard; these structures appear to take into account the needed functionality required of a residence, as well as the decoration required for their inhabitants stature.
  • E-Groups are specific structural configurations present at a number of centers in the Maya area. These complexes are oriented and aligned according to specific astronomical events (primarily the sun’s solstices and equinoxes) and are thought to have been observatories. These structures are usually accompanied by iconographic reliefs that tie astronomical observation into general Maya mythology. The structural complex is named for Group E at Uaxactun, the first documented in Mesoamerica.
Temple of the Cross at Palenque. Note the intricate roof comb and corbeled arch.
Temple of the Cross at Palenque. Note the intricate roof comb and corbeled arch.
  • Pyramids and temples. Often the most important religious temples sat atop the towering Maya pyramids, presumably as the closest place to the heavens. While recent discoveries point toward the extensive use of pyramids as tombs, the temples themselves seem to rarely, if ever, contain burials. Residing atop the pyramids, some of over two-hundred feet, such as that at El Mirador, the temples were impressive and decorated structures themselves. Commonly topped with a roof comb, or superficial grandiose wall, these temples might have served as a type of propaganda. As they were often the only structure in a Maya city to exceed the height of the surrounding jungle, the roof combs atop the temples were often carved with representations of rulers that could be seen from vast distances.
  • Observatories. The Maya were keen astronomers and had mapped out the phases of celestial objects, especially the Moon and Venus. Many temples have doorways and other features aligning to celestial events. Round temples, often dedicated to Kukulcan, are perhaps those most often described as "observatories" by modern ruin tour-guides, but there is no evidence that they were so used exclusively, and temple pyramids of other shapes may well have been used for observation as well.
  • Ball courts. As an integral aspect of the Mesoamerican lifestyle, the courts for their ritual ball-game were constructed throughout the Maya realm and often on a grand scale. Enclosed on two sides by stepped ramps that led to ceremonial platforms or small temples, the ball court itself was of a capital "I" shape and could be found in all but the smallest of Maya cities.

A stake used to display the heads of victims or defeated Mesoamerican ball game opponents. ... Ballcourt at Monte Alban Ballcourt at Uaxactun The Mesoamerican ballgame[1] was a sport with ritual associations played for over 3000 years by the peoples of Mesoamerica in Pre-Columbian times. ... E-Groups are unique architectural complexes found among a number of ancient Maya settlements. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... This article is about scientific observatories. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Uaxactun (pronounced Wash-ak-toon) is an ancient ruin of the Maya civilization, located in the Peten department of Guatemala, some 40 km (25 miles) north of Tikal. ... palenque -- temple of the inscriptions. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... A corbel arch (or corbeled / corbelled arch) is an arch-like construction method which uses the architectural technique of corbeling to span a space or void in a structure, such as an entranceway in a wall or as the span of a bridge. ... El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala. ... Maya pyramid at Tikal with prominent roof comb. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... In Maya mythology, Gukumatz (feathered serpent) was a snake god, one of all three groups of gods who created Earth and humanity. ...

Writing and literacy

Writing system

Main article: Maya script

The Maya writing system (often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian writing) was a combination of phonetic symbols and logograms. It is most often classified as a logographic or (more properly) a logosyllabic writing system, in which syllabic signs play a significant role. It is the only writing system of the Pre-Columbian New World which is known to completely represent the spoken language of its community. In total, the script has more than a thousand different glyphs, although a few are variations of the same sign or meaning, and many appear only rarely or are confined to particular localities. At any one time, no more than around 500 glyphs were in use, some 200 of which (including variations) had a phonetic or syllabic interpretation. Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...   Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ...


The earliest inscriptions in an identifiably-Maya script date back to 200–300 BC.[12] However, this is preceded by several other writing systems which had developed in Mesoamerica, most notably that of the Zapotecs, and (following the 2006 publication of research on the recently-discovered Cascajal Block), the Olmecs.[13] There is a pre-Maya writing known as "Epi-Olmec script" (post Olmec) which some researchers believe may represent a transitional script between Olmec and Maya writing, but the relationships between these remain unclear and the matter is unsettled. On January 5, 2006, National Geographic published the findings of Maya writings that could be as old as 400 BCE, suggesting that the Maya writing system is nearly as old as the oldest Mesoamerican writing known at that time, Zapotec.[14] In the succeeding centuries the Maya developed their script into a form which was far more complete and complex than any other that has yet been found in the Americas. This article is about the culture area. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Epi-Olmec (after Olmec) is a Mesoamerican writing system in use in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from perhaps 500 BCE to 500 CE, although there is disagreement on these dates. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


Since its inception, the Maya script was in use up to the arrival of the Europeans, peaking during the Maya Classical Period (c. 200 to 900). Although many Maya centers went into decline (or were completely abandoned) during or after this period, the skill and knowledge of Maya writing persisted amongst segments of the population, and the early Spanish conquistadors knew of individuals who could still read and write the script. Unfortunately, the Spanish displayed little interest in it, and as a result of the dire impacts the conquest had on Maya societies, the knowledge was subsequently lost, probably within only a few generations.


At a rough estimate, in excess of 10,000 individual texts have so far been recovered, mostly inscribed on stone monuments, lintels, stelae and ceramic pottery. The Maya also produced texts painted on a form of paper manufactured from processed tree-bark, in particular from several species of strangler fig trees such as Ficus cotinifolia and Ficus padifolia.[15] This paper, common throughout Mesoamerica and generally now known by its Nahuatl-language name amatl, was typically bound as a single continuous sheet that was folded into pages of equal width, concertina-style, to produce a codex (book) that could be written on both sides. Shortly after the conquest, all of the codices which could be found were ordered to be burnt and destroyed by zealous Spanish priests, notably Bishop Diego de Landa. Only three reasonably intact examples of Maya codices are known to have survived through to the present day. These are now known as the Madrid, Dresden, and Paris codices. A few pages survive from a fourth, the Grolier codex, whose authenticity is sometimes disputed, but mostly is held to be genuine. Further archaeology conducted at Mayan sites often reveals other fragments, rectangular lumps of plaster and paint chips which formerly were codices; these tantalizing remains are, however, too severely damaged for any inscriptions to have survived, most of the organic material having decayed. For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Pre-fabricated, pre-tensioned concrete lintels spanning garage doors. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Fig redirects here. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... Part of the Huexotzinco Codex, printed on amatl Amatl (from the Nahuatl paper) or Amate (Spanish) is a type of paper developed in Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Wheatstone English concertina, circa 1920 This article is about the musical instrument. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ... Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition) Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican paper, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or...


The decipherment and recovery of the now-lost knowledge of Maya writing has been a long and laborious process. Some elements were first deciphered in the late 19th and early 20th century, mostly the parts having to do with numbers, the Maya calendar, and astronomy. Major breakthroughs came starting in the 1950s to 1970s, and accelerated rapidly thereafter. By the end of the 20th century, scholars were able to read the majority of Maya texts to a large extent, and recent field work continues to further illuminate the content. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Mayan numerals. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


In reference to the few extant Maya writings, Michael D. Coe, a prominent linguist and epigrapher at Yale University stated: I dont know anything! ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... Yale redirects here. ...

"[O]ur knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times (as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and 'Pilgrim's Progress')." (Michael D. Coe, The Maya, London: Thames and Hudson, 4th ed., 1987, p. 161.)

Most surviving pre-Columbian Maya writing is from stelae and other stone inscriptions from Maya sites, many of which were already abandoned before the Spanish arrived. The inscriptions on the stelae mainly record the dynasties and wars of the sites' rulers. Also of note are the inscriptions that reveal information about the lives of ancient Maya women. Much of the remainder of Maya hieroglyphics has been found on funeral pottery, most of which describes the afterlife. Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Writing tools

Although the archaeological record does not provide examples, Maya art shows that writing was done with brushes made with animal hair and quills. Codex-style writing was usually done in black ink with red highlights, giving rise to the Aztec name for the Maya territory as the "land of red and black". A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic...


Scribes and Literacy

Scribes held a prominent position in Maya courts. Maya art often depicts rulers with trappings indicating they were scribes or at least able to write, such as having pen bundles in their headdresses. Additionally, many rulers have been found in conjunction with writing tools such as shell or clay inkpots.


Although the number of logograms and syllabic symbols required to fully write the language numbered in the hundreds, literacy was not necessarily widespread beyond the elite classes. Graffiti uncovered in various contexts, including on fired bricks, shows nonsensical attempts to imitate the writing system.


Mathematics

Mayan numerals
Mayan numerals

In common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya used a base 20 (vigesimal) and base 5 numbering system (see Maya numerals). Also, the preclassic Maya and their neighbors independently developed the concept of zero by 36 BC. Inscriptions show them on occasion working with sums up to the hundreds of millions and dates so large it would take several lines just to represent it. They produced extremely accurate astronomical observations; their charts of the movements of the moon and planets are equal or superior to those of any other civilization working from naked eye observation. Image File history File links Maya. ... Image File history File links Maya. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... Mayan numerals. ... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ...


Also in common with the other Mesoamerican civilizations, the Maya utilized a highly accurate measure of the length of the solar year, far more accurate than that used in Europe as the basis of the Gregorian Calendar. They did not use this figure for the length of year in their calendar, however. Instead, the Maya calendar(s) were based on a year length of exactly 365 days, which means that the calendar falls out of step with the seasons by one day every four years. By comparison, the Julian calendar, used in Europe from Roman times until about the 16th Century, accumulated an error of one day every 128 years. The modern Gregorian calendar accumulates a day's error in approximately 3257 years. For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


Astronomy

Uniquely, there is some evidence to suggest the Maya appear to be the only pre-telescopic civilization to demonstrate knowledge of the Orion Nebula as being fuzzy, i.e. not a stellar pin-point. The information which supports this theory comes from a folk tale that deals with the Orion constellation's area of the sky. Their traditional hearths include in their middle a smudge of glowing fire that corresponds with the Orion Nebula. This is a significant clue to support the idea that the Maya detected a diffuse area of the sky contrary to the pin points of stars before the telescope was invented.[16] Many preclassic sites are oriented with the Pleiades and Eta draconnis, as seen in La Blanca, Ujuxte, Monte Alto, and Takalik Abaj. The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated south of Orions Belt. ... In common historic and modern usage, a hearth (Har-th) is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace or oven used for cooking and/or heating. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pleiades refers to: Pleiades (star cluster) an open cluster of stars in the constellation Taurus. ... La Blanca is a Pre Columbian and large site of predominately Middle Preclassic (1300-600 BC) date, located on the western Pacific coast of Guatemala, and being the most important polity on the Pacific coast of Mesoamerica until 600 BC when the dominance pass to the Ujuxte, 13 Km north. ... The site of Ujuxte (Ramon tree or breadnut tree) (uh-hush-te) is the largest Pre Classical site to be discovered in Pacific coast, Guatemala. ... Monte Alto is an ancient site in what is now Guatemala. ... Takalik Abaj is an archeological site, formerly a site of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


The Maya were very interested in zenial passages, the time when the sun passes directly overhead. The latitude of most of their cities being below the Tropic of Cancer, these zenial passages would occur twice a year equidistant from the solstice. To represent this position of the sun overhead, the Maya had a god named Diving God.[citation needed] Sol redirects here. ... This article is about the geographical term. ... For the novel by Henry Miller, see Tropic of Cancer (novel). ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ...


The Dresden Codex contains the highest concentration of astronomical phenomena observations and calculations of any of the surviving texts (it appears that the data in this codex is primarily or exclusively of an astronomical nature). Examination and analysis of this codex reveals that Venus was the most important astronomical object to the Maya, even more important to them than the sun. Maya codices (singular codex) are books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, using the Maya hieroglyphic script. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...


Religion

Main article: Maya religion
Chaac, the god of Rain and thunder
Chaac, the god of Rain and thunder
A jade mask. Its design metaphorically represents the Rain God Chaac, and the Creator God Kukulcán.
A jade mask. Its design metaphorically represents the Rain God Chaac, and the Creator God Kukulcán.

Like the Aztec and Inca who came to power later, the Maya believed in a cyclical nature of time. The rituals and ceremonies were very closely associated with celestial/terrestrial cycles which they observed and inscribed as separate calendars. The Maya priest had the job of interpreting these cycles and giving a prophetic outlook on the future or past based on the number relations of all their calendars. They also had to determine if the "heavens" or celestial matters were appropriate for performing certain religious ceremonies. The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... Chac, from Dresden Codex This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chac, from Dresden Codex This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chaac (also rendered as Chaak or Chac) is the originally Yucatec name of the Maya rain deity. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 574 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2590 × 2705 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 574 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2590 × 2705 pixel, file size: 3. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Chaac (also rendered as Chaak or Chac) is the originally Yucatec name of the Maya rain deity. ... Gukumatz (Alternatively Gucumatz Gugumatz or Kucumatz. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ...


The Maya practiced human sacrifice. In some Maya rituals people were killed by having their arms and legs held while a priest cut the person's chest open and tore out his heart as an offering. This is depicted on ancient objects such as pictorial texts, known as codices (singular: codex). It is believed that children were often offered as sacrificial victims because they were believed to be pure.[17]


Much of the Maya religious tradition is still not understood by scholars, but it is known that the Maya, like most pre-modern societies, believed that the cosmos has three major planes, the underworld, the sky, and the earth. The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apians Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539). ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ...


The Maya Underworld is reached through caves and ball courts. It was thought to be dominated by the aged Maya gods of death and putrefaction. The Sun and Itzamna, both aged gods, dominated the Maya idea of the sky. The night sky was considered a window showing all supernatural doings. The Maya configured constellations of gods and places, saw the unfolding of narratives in their seasonal movements, and believed that the intersection of all possible worlds was in the night sky. For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The outside world viewed from a cave A cave is a natural underground void. ... Putrefaction is the decomposition of proteins, especially by anaerobic microorganisms. ... This article is about the star grouping. ...


Maya gods were not discrete, separate entities like Greek gods. The gods had affinities and aspects that caused them to merge with one another in ways that seem unbounded. There is a massive array of supernatural characters in the Maya religious tradition, only some of which recur with regularity. Good and evil traits are not permanent characteristics of Maya gods, nor is only "good" admirable. What is inappropriate during one season might come to pass in another since much of the Mayan religious tradition is based on cycles and not permanence. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Wheel of time may refer to: The Wheel of time or history, a religious concept predominant in Buddhism and Hinduism The Wheel of Time, a fantasy book series by author Robert Jordan The Wheel of Time (computer game), an action first-person shooter based on the series The Timewheel, a...


The life-cycle of maize lies at the heart of Maya belief. This philosophy is demonstrated on the Maya belief in the Maize God as a central religious figure. The Maya bodily ideal is also based on the form of the young Maize God, which is demonstrated in their artwork. The Maize God was also a model of courtly life for the Classical Maya. This article is about the maize plant. ...


The Maya believed that the universe was flat and square, but infinite in area. They also worshiped the circle, which symbolized perfection or the balancing of forces.


It is sometimes believed that the multiple "gods" represented nothing more than a mathematical explanation of what they observed. Each god was literally just a number or an explanation of the effects observed by a combination of numbers from multiple calendars. Among the many types of Maya calendars which were maintained, the most important included a 260-day cycle, a 365-day cycle which approximated the solar year, a cycle which recorded lunation periods of the Moon, and a cycle which tracked the synodic period of Venus. The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... Solar year The period of time required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, measured from one vernal equinox to the next. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...


Philosophically, the Maya believed that knowing the past meant knowing the cyclical influences that create the present, and by knowing the influences of the present one can see the cyclical influences of the future.


Even in the 19th century, there was Maya influence in the local branch of Christianity followed in Chan Santa Cruz. Among the K'iche's in the western highlands of Guatemala these same nine months are replicated, until this very day, in the training of the ajk'ij, the keeper of the 260-day-calendar called ch'olk'ij. Areas under the Mayas control, approximately 1870 Chan Santa Cruz or U Noh Kah Balam Nah Chan Santa Cruz is the Maya town now known as Felipe Carrillo Puerto in what is now the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. ... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, one of the Maya ethnic groups. ...


Agriculture

See also: Agriculture in Mesoamerica

The ancient Maya had diverse and sophisticated methods of food production. It was formerly believed that shifting cultivation (swidden) agriculture provided most of their food but it is now thought that permanent raised fields, terracing, forest gardens, managed fallows, and wild harvesting were also crucial to supporting the large populations of the Classic period in some areas. Indeed, evidence of these different agricultural systems persist today: raised fields connected by canals can be seen on aerial photographs, contemporary rainforest species composition has significantly higher abundance of species of economic value to ancient Maya, and pollen records in lake sediments suggest that corn, manioc, sunflower seeds, cotton, and other crops have been cultivated in association with the deforestation in Mesoamerica since at least 2500 BC. The diet and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya were varied and extensive. ... Agriculture in Mesoamerica dates to the Archaic period of Mesoamerican chronology (8000-2000 BC). ... Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ...


Contemporary Maya peoples still practice many of these traditional forms of agriculture, although they are dynamic systems and change with changing population pressures, cultures, economic systems, climate change, and the availability of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ...


Rediscovery of the Pre-Columbian Maya

False-color IKONOS image of a bajo (lowland area) in Guatemala. The forest covering sites of Mayan ruins appears yellowish, as opposed to the red color of surrounding forest. The more sparsely vegetated bajos appear blue-green.
False-color IKONOS image of a bajo (lowland area) in Guatemala. The forest covering sites of Mayan ruins appears yellowish, as opposed to the red color of surrounding forest. The more sparsely vegetated bajos appear blue-green.
A Middle Preclassic palace structure at Nakbé, the Mirador Basin.
A Middle Preclassic palace structure at Nakbé, the Mirador Basin.

Spanish American Colonies were largely cut off from the outside world, and the ruins of the great ancient cities were little known except to locals. In 1839 United States traveler and writer John Lloyd Stephens, after hearing reports of lost ruins in the jungle, visited Copán, Palenque, and other sites with English architect and draftsman Frederick Catherwood. Their illustrated accounts of the ruins sparked strong interest in the region and the people, and they have once again regained their position as a vital link in Mesoamerican heritage. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x4000, 5168 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Maya civilization Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x4000, 5168 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Maya civilization Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... IKONOS is a commercial earth observation satellite that collects high-resolution imagery at 1- and 4-meter resolution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nakbe_str. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Nakbe_str. ... Map of Mesoamerica During the Classic Period. ... The Mirador Basin is a geographically defined elevated basin found in the remote rain forest of the northern department of Petén , Guatemala. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... John Lloyd Stephens in 1839 John Lloyd Stephens (November 28, 1805–October 13, 1852) was an American explorer, writer, and diplomat. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


However, in many locations, Maya ruins have been overgrown by the jungle, becoming dense enough to hide structures just a few meters away. To help find ruins, researchers have turned to satellite imagery. The best way to find them is to look at the visible and near-infrared spectra. Due to their limestone construction, the monuments affected the chemical makeup of the soil as they deteriorated. Some moisture-loving plants stayed away, while others were killed off or discolored. The effects of the limestone ruins are still apparent today to some satellite sensors.


Much of the contemporary rural population of the Yucatán Peninsula, Chiapas (both in Mexico), Guatemala and Belize is Maya by descent and primary language. The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula, in Southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country  Mexico Capital Tuxtla Gutiérrez Municipalities 118 Largest City Tuxtla Gutiérrez Government  - Governor Juan José Sabines Guerrero ( PRD)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PRD: 5  - Federal Senators PRI: 1 PRD: 1 PVEM: 1 Area Ranked 8th  - State 74,211 km²  (28,653 sq mi) Population (2005...


Maya sites

See also: List of Maya sites

There are hundreds of significant Maya sites, and thousands of smaller ones. The largest and most historically important include: This List of Maya sites is an alphabetical listing of a number of significant archaeological sites associated with the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ...

Cancuén is an archaeological site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the Pasión subregion of the central Maya lowlands in the present-day Guatemalan Department of El Petén. ... Temple of the Warriors Chichen Itza is the largest of the Pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Yucat n, Mexico. ... Dos Pilas is a Pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in what is now Peten, Guatemala. ... Calakmul is the name of both a municipality and a major archeological site in the Mexican state of Campeche, in the central part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Panorama of Uxmal Uxmal (, ) is a large Pre-Columbian ruined city of the Maya civilization in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. ... Coba (Cobá in the Spanish language) is a large ruined city of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. ... The pyramids of Comalcalco Comalcalco is a city and a site of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization about 45 miles (60 km) northeast of Villahermosa in the mexican state of Tabasco. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... El Mirador is a large pre-Columbian site of the Maya civilization, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala. ... For other uses, see Tikal (disambiguation). ... Location of Copán The Pre-Columbian city now known as Copán is a locale in extreme western Honduras, in the Copán Department, near to the Guatemalan border. ... Inscription relating to the reign of king Itzamnaaj Kawil, 784-810. ... Map of Mesoamerica During the Classic Period. ... Quiriguá is an ancient Maya site in the Izabal department of Guatemala. ... Piedras Negras is the name for more than one place. ... Uaxactun (pronounced Wash-ak-toon) is an ancient ruin of the Maya civilization, located in the Peten department of Guatemala, some 40 km (25 miles) north of Tikal. ... Yaxhá is a site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in what is now Guatemala. ... Seibal (sometimes rendered as Ceibal) is a ruined site of the Maya civilization located in the south of the Peten department of Guatemala. ...

See also

This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... [edit] Maya Death Rituals The Maya were a religious people, who lived in fear of the destructive nature of their gods. ... During the height of the Maya civilization, trade was a crucial factor in maintaining cities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Celebratory Mural in the halls of Bonampak The Music that was central to pre-Columbian Maya culture still remains a bit of a mystery today. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya, Sixth edition, New York: Thames & Hudson, p. 31. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. 
  2. ^ See, for example, Drew (2004), p.6.
  3. ^ Coe, Michael D. (2002). The Maya, 6th, Thames & Hudson, p.47. 
  4. ^ Coe, Michael D. (2002). The Maya, 6th, Thames & Hudson, pp. 63-64. 
  5. ^ Coe, Michael D. (2002). The Maya, 6th, Thames & Hudson, p. 81. 
  6. ^ Maya Art Return. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  7. ^ See Coggins (1992).
  8. ^ Coe, Michael D. (2002). The Maya, 6th, New York: Thames & Hudson, pp. 151-155. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. 
  9. ^ University of Florida study: Maya politics likely played role in ancient large-game decline, Nov. 2007
  10. ^ Gill, R. 2000. The Great Maya Droughts. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-826-32194-1.
  11. ^ Both terms appear in early Colonial texts (including Papeles de Paxbolón) where they are used as synonymous to Aztec and Spanish terms for supreme rulers and their domains – tlahtoani (Tlatoani) and tlahtocayotl, rey or magestad and reino, señor and señorío or dominio.
  12. ^ Saturno, WA; Stuart D, Beltran B (Mar 3 2006). "Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala". Science 311 (5765): 1281-3. PMID 16400112. 
  13. ^ Skidmore (2006).
  14. ^ Earliest Maya Writing Found in Guatemala, Researchers Say. NationalGeographic.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-06. The following year saw the publication of research on a tablet containing some 62 glyphs that had been found near the Olmec center of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, which was dated by association to approximately 900 BCE. This would make this putative Olmec script the oldest known for Mesoamerica; see Skidmore (2006, passim)
  15. ^ Miller and Taube (1993, p.131)
  16. ^ As interpreted by Krupp 1999.
  17. ^ Evidence May Back Human Sacrifice Claims. Live Science. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.

References

  • Coggins, Clemency (Ed.) (1992). Artifacts from the Cenote of Sacrifice Chichen Itza, Yucatan: Textiles, Basketry, Stone, Shell, Ceramics, Wood, Copal, Rubber (Memoirs of the Peabody Museum). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-873-65694-6. 
  • Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-826-30463-X. 
  • Drew, David (2004). The Lost Chronicles of the Maya Kings, New edition, London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 0-753-80989-3. 
  • Krupp, Edward C. (1999), "Igniting the Hearth", Sky & Telescope (no. February): p.94, <http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/skyandtelescope/access/886319051.html?dids=886319051:886319051&FMT=CITE&FMTS=CITE:PAGE&date=Feb+1999&author=E+C+Krupp&desc=Igniting+the+Hearth>. Retrieved on 2006-10-19
  • Miller, Mary; and Simon Martin (2004). Courtly Art of the Ancient Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05129-1. 
  • Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. 
  • Reyes-Valerio, Constantino (1993). De Bonampak al Templo Mayor: Historical del Azul Maya en Mesoamerica. Siglo XXI editores. ISBN 968-23-1893-9. 
  • Skidmore, Joel (2006). The Cascajal Block: The Earliest Precolumbian Writing (PDF). Mesoweb Reports & News. Mesoweb.
  • Webster, David L. (2002). The Fall of the Ancient Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05113-5. 
  • Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya, Sixth edition, New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28066-5. 
  • Maya Ruins. NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2006-04-28.

External links

 v  d  e 
Pre-Columbian Civilizations and Cultures
North America Ancient Pueblo (Anasazi)FremontMississippian
Mesoamerica HuastecIzapaMixtecOlmecPipilTarascanTeotihuacánToltecTotonacZapotec
South America Norte ChicoChavínChibchaChimorChachapoyaHuariMocheNazcaTaironaTiwanakuMapuche
The Aztec Empire The Maya civilization The Inca Empire
(Inca civilisation)
Language Nahuatl language Mayan languages Quechua
Writing Aztec writing Mayan writing
Religion Aztec religion Maya religion Inca religion
Mythology Aztec mythology Maya mythology Inca mythology
Calendar Aztec calendar Maya calendar
Society Aztec society Maya society Inca society
Infrastructure Chinampas Maya architecture Inca architecture (road system)
Incan agriculture
History Aztec history Inca history
People Moctezuma I
Moctezuma II
Cuitlahuac
Cuauhtémoc
Pacal the Great
Tecun Uman
Manco Capac
Pachacutec
Atahualpa
Conquest Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
(Hernán Cortés)
Spanish conquest of Yucatán
(Francisco de Montejo)
Spanish conquest of Guatemala
(Pedro de Alvarado)
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
(Francisco Pizarro)
See also
Indigenous peoples of the AmericasPopulation history of American indigenous peoples – Pre-Columbian art

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A tlatoani was a member of the Aztec nobility. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Front and side views of Colossal Head 1 now located at Museo de Antropología de Xalapa in Xalapa, Veracruz. ... Olmec hieroglyphs (or Olmec script) refers to the putative writing system associated with the Olmec archaeological culture which flourished in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, ca. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edwin C. Krupp is an American astronomer and the director of the Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles since 1974. ... Mary Miller is the master of Saybrook College at Yale University and the Vincent Scully Professor of the History of Art. ... Mary Miller is the master of Saybrook College at Yale University and the Vincent Scully Professor of the History of Art. ... Karl Andreas Taube is an American Mayanist, anthropologist, epigrapher and ethnohistorian, known for his publications and research into the pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica and the American Southwest. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... NASA Earth Observatory is an online publication of NASA where the public can access satellite imagery and scientific information about our planet for free. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... This article is about the culture area. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... --24. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ... It has been suggested that Huastecs be merged into this article or section. ... // Overview Izapa was a very large pre-Columbian site located in Chiapas, Mexico, often placed in the Late Formative period. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... The Pipil are an indigenous people who live in western El Salvador. ... The Tarascan state was a state in precolumbian Mesoamerica roughly covering the geographic area of the present day mexican state of Michoacan. ... Teotihuacán[1] was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. ... The Atlantes – columns in the form of Toltec warriors in Tula. ... The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. ... Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization) was a complex Pre-Columbian society that included as many as 30 major population centers in what is now the Norte Chico region of north-central coastal Peru. ... The Chavín were an early civilization that existed in present-day Peru. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures Chimu Piece - Imperial Epoch, 1300 A.D. to 1532 A.D.Larco Museum Collection Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture that ruled the northern coast of Peru, beginning around 850 AD and ending around 1470 AD. Chimor was the... The Chachapoyas, also called the Warriors of the Clouds, were an Andean people living in the cloud forests of the Amazonas region of present-day Peru. ... Middle Horizon The Huari (or Wari) was a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the Andes in the south of modern day Peru, from about 500 to 1200 A.D. The capital city of the same name is located near the modern city of Ayacucho, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... Late Intermediate Period Cultures The Nazca culture flourished in the Nazca region between 300 BC and 800 AD. They created the famous Nazca lines and built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. ... Tairona figure pendants Monument in Santa Marta depicting Taironas. ... Area of the Middle Horizon The Gate of the Sun Tiwanaku (Spanish spellings: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. ... Mapuche test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Mapuche (Mapudungun; Che, People + Mapu, of the Land) are the original Amerindian inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... Inca redirects here. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... “Maya language” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... Aztec or Nahuatl writing is a pictographic pre-Columbian writing system used in central Mexico by the Nahua peoples. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... The Sun Temple complex at Písac. ... The Aztec civilization recognized a polytheistic mythology, which contained the many gods and supernatural creatures from their religious beliefs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Inca mythology includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological and helps explain or symbolizes Inca beliefs. ... The Aztec calendar was the calendar of the Aztec people of Pre-Columbian Mexico. ... The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... // Aztec society traditionally was divided into two classes; the macehualli (people) or peasantry and the pilli or nobility. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Women and clothing in Incan Society be merged into this article or section. ... Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... View of Machu Picchu Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... This section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. ... The Inca Empire was an empire centered in what is now Peru from AD 1438 to AD 1533. ... Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, or Moctezuma I (also known as Montezuma I) (the surname meaning solitary one who shoots an arrow into the sky) was born to Huitzilihuitl, the second Aztec Emperor. ... Moctezuma or Montezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (c. ... Cuitláhuac was the Aztec ruler (Tlatoani) of the city of Tenochtitlán from June to October 1520. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Pacal II, also known as Pacal the Great (the most recent work gives his full name as Kinich Janaab Pakal[1] (26 March 603 - 31 August 683), was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque. ... Tecún Umán was the last king of the Quiché people, in the highlands of what is now Guatemala. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Inca emperors ... Pachacuti as drawn by Guaman Poma Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (or Pachacutec; Quechua Pachakutiq, literally world-turner, i. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... Aztec empire The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of America. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ... Francisco de Montejo (c. ... // The Maya civilization thrived throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region for close to 2000 years before the Spanish arrived in the early 16th century. ... Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, c. ... The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca Empire in the early 16th-century. ... “Pizarro” redirects here. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Natives of North America. ... Pre-Columbian art is the art of Central and South America in the time prior to the arrival of European colonizers in the 16th century. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Maya Civilization - MSN Encarta (2023 words)
Maya astronomers observed the movements of the sun, moon, and planets, made astronomical calculations, and devised almanacs (calendars combined with astronomical observations).
Maya rulers, who were often depicted on stelae (carved stone monuments) carrying weapons, attempted to capture and sacrifice one another for ritual and political purposes.
A Maya nobleman wore an embroidered cotton loincloth trimmed with feathers; a robe of cotton, jaguar skin, or feathers; sandals; and an elaborate feather headdress that was sometimes as large as himself.
Maya civilization - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5979 words)
Maya civilization is regarded as the most technologically advanced of all pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas.
Maya civilization also produced numerous texts using the bark of certain trees in a "book-format", called a codex.
The Maya configured constellations of gods and places, saw the unfolding of narratives in their seasonal movements, and believed that the intersection of all possible worlds was in the night sky.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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