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Encyclopedia > Maya calendar

Maya civilization

Languages | Peoples
Architecture | Calendar
Human sacrifice | Mythology
Peoples | Religion
Society | Textiles
Pre-Columbian Music
Trade | Writing Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 467 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1326 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Maya women be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Celebratory Mural in the halls of Bonampak The Music that was central to pre-Columbian Maya culture still remains a bit of a mystery today. ... During the height of the Maya civilization, trade was a crucial factor in maintaining cities. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...

Maya history

Classic Maya collapse
Spanish conquest of Yucatán This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Spanish Conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities, particularly in the northern and central Yucatán Peninsula but also involving the Maya polities of the Guatemalan highlands region. ...

The Maya calendar is a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ... Calendarium cracoviense, an almanac for the year 1474. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... This article is about the culture area. ...


These calendars can be synchronized and interlocked in many ways, their combinations giving rise to further, more extensive cycles. The essentials of the Maya calendric system are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 6th century BCE. It shares many aspects with calendars employed by other earlier Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Zapotec and Olmec, and contemporary or later ones such as the Mixtec and Aztec calendars. Although the Mesoamerican calendar did not originate with the Maya, their subsequent extensions and refinements of it were the most sophisticated. Along with those of the Aztecs, the Maya calendars are the best-documented and most completely understood. Extent of the Zapotec civilization The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca of southern Mesoamerica. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ...


By the Maya mythological tradition, as documented in Colonial Yucatec accounts and reconstructed from Late Classic and Postclassic inscriptions, the deity Itzamna is frequently credited with bringing the knowledge of the calendar system to the ancestral Maya, along with writing in general and other foundational aspects of Maya culture.[1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In Yucatec Maya mythology, Itzamna was the name of an upper god and creator deity thought to be residing in the sky. ... Writing systems of the world today. ...

Contents

General overview

Calendars
v  d  e
(list)
Wide use Astronomical · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected use Assyrian · Armenian · Attic · Aztec (TonalpohualliXiuhpohualli) · Babylonian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Celtic · Chinese · Coptic · Egyptian · Ethiopian · Calendrier Républicain · Germanic · Hebrew · Hellenic · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Julian · Korean · Lithuanian · Malayalam · Maya (Tzolk'inHaab') · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Pawukon · Pentecontad calendar · Rapa Nui · Roman · Soviet · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Burmese . Vietnamese· Xhosa · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Runic · Mesoamerican (Long CountCalendar Round)
Christian variants
Julian calendar · Calendar of saints · Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar · Liturgical year
Rarely used Darian calendar · Discordian calendar
Display types and applications Perpetual calendar · Wall calendar · Economic calendar

The most important of these calendars is one with a period of 260 days. This 260-day calendar was prevalent across all Mesoamerican societies, and is of great antiquity (almost certainly the oldest of the calendars). It is still used in some regions of Oaxaca, and amongst the Maya communities of the Guatemalan highlands. The Maya version is commonly known to scholars as the Tzolkin, or Tzolk'in in the revised orthography of the Academia de las Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala.[2] The Tzolk'in is combined with another 365-day calendar (known as the Haab, or Haab' ), to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haabs, called the Calendar Round. Smaller cycles of 13 days (the trecena) and 20 days (the veintena) were important components of the Tzolk'in and Haab' cycles, respectively. A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. ... A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... The Assyrian calender is a lunar-based calender that begins in the year 4750 BC, marking the finishing of the first temple build by the Assyrians for the God Ashur. ... The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... The Xiuhpohualli was a calendar cycle constructed from a count of 365 days, used by the Aztecs and other Nahua peoples from the central Mexican region during the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. ... In the Babylonian calendar a year consisted of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: ) or Bangla calendar is a traditional solar calendar used in Bangladesh and Indias eastern states of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The term Celtic calendar is used to refer to a variety of calendars used by Celtic-speaking peoples at different times in history. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious purposes. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar still in use by the Javanese people of Indonesia concurrently with two other important calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sidereal calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Pawukon is a 210 day calendar that has its origins in the Hindu religion in Bali, Indonesia. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Page of the Soviet revolutionary calendar showing December 12, 1937 The Soviet revolutionary calendar was in use in the USSR from 1929 to 1940. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán (Sino-Vietnamese for Feast of the First Morning, derived from Hán nôm 節元旦), more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important holiday in Vietnam. ... By the traditional Xhosa calendar, the year began in June and ended in May, when Canopus, a large star visible in the Southern Hemisphere, signalled the time for harvesting. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Runic calendar - Norwegian - carved wood. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ... Long Count redirects here. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... The Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar describes and dictates the rhythm of the life of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... The Darian Calendar is a system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars. ... The Discordian calendar is an alternative calendar used by some adherents of Discordianism. ... A perpetual calendar is a calendar which is good for a span of many years, such as the Runic calendar. ... A wall calendar is a calendar intended for placement on a wall. ... Economic calendar is a type of calendar that is intended to inform financiers and traders about the scheduled major economic numbers (like CPI, PMI, Jobless Claims), government reports and speeches of the most influential persons of the financial world. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ... A trecena is a 13-day period used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars, which divides the 260-day calendar into 20 trecena of 13 days each. ... A veintena is a subdivision used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars, consisting of a 20-day period. ...


A different form of calendar was used to track longer periods of time, and for the inscription of calendar dates (i.e., identifying when one event occurred in relation to others). This form, known as the Long Count, is based upon the number of elapsed days since a mythological starting-point.[3] According to the correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars accepted by the great majority of Maya researchers (known as the GMT correlation), this starting-point is equivalent to 11 August 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or 6 September in the Julian calendar (−3113 astronomical). The Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation was chosen by Thompson in 1935 based on earlier correlations by Joseph Goodman in 1905 (11 August), Juan Martínez Hernández in 1926 (12 August), and John Eric Sydney Thompson in 1927 (13 August).[4][5] By its linear nature, the Long Count was capable of being extended to refer to any date far into the future (or past). This calendar involved the use of a positional notation system, in which each position signified an increasing multiple of the number of days. The Maya numeral system was essentially vigesimal (i.e., base-20), and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it. An important exception was made for the second place value, which instead represented 18 × 20, or 360 days, more closely approximating the solar year than would 20 × 20 = 400 days. It should be noted however that the cycles of the Long Count are independent of the solar year. A date in a calendar is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. ... Long Count redirects here. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Varna nekropol: The oldest gold in the world found near Varna lake. ... The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian Calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... Multiple is a comic book superhero in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Mayan numerals. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ...


Many Maya Long Count inscriptions are supplemented by what is known as the Lunar Series, another calendar form which provides information on the lunar phase and position of the Moon in a half-yearly cycle of lunations. Moon phase redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Lunation is the mean time for one lunar phase cycle (i. ...


A 584-day Venus cycle was also maintained, which tracked the appearance and conjunctions of Venus as the morning and evening stars. Many events in this cycle were seen as being inauspicious and baleful, and occasionally warfare was timed to coincide with stages in this cycle. Conjunction is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...


Other, less-prevalent or poorly-understood cycles, combinations and calendar progressions were also tracked. An 819-day count is attested in a few inscriptions; repeating sets of 9- and 13-day intervals associated with different groups of deities, animals and other significant concepts are also known. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Maya concepts of time

With the development of the place-notational Long Count calendar (believed to have been inherited from other Mesoamerican cultures), the Maya had an elegant system with which events could be recorded in a linear relationship to one another, and also with respect to the calendar ("linear time") itself. In theory, this system could readily be extended to delineate any length of time desired, by simply adding to the number of higher-order place markers used (and thereby generating an ever-increasing sequence of day-multiples, each day in the sequence uniquely identified by its Long Count number). In practice, most Maya Long Count inscriptions confine themselves to noting only the first 5 coefficients in this system (a b'ak'tun-count), since this was more than adequate to express any historical or current date (with an equivalent span of approximately 5125 solar years). Even so, example inscriptions exist which noted or implied lengthier sequences, indicating that the Maya well understood a linear (past-present-future) conception of time.


However, and in common with other Mesoamerican societies, the repetition of the various calendric cycles, the natural cycles of observable phenomena, and the recurrence and renewal of death-rebirth imagery in their mythological traditions were important and pervasive influences upon Maya societies. This conceptual view, in which the "cyclical nature" of time is highlighted, was a pre-eminent one, and many rituals were concerned with the completion and re-occurrences of various cycles. As the particular calendaric configurations were once again repeated, so too were the "supernatural" influences with which they were associated. Thus it was held that particular calendar configurations had a specific "character" to them, which would influence events on days exhibiting that configuration. Divinations could then be made from the auguries associated with a certain configuration, since events taking place on some future date would be subject to the same influences as its corresponding previous cycle dates. Events and ceremonies would be timed to coincide with auspicious dates, and avoid inauspicious ones.[6] For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ...


The completion of significant calendar cycles ("period endings"), such as a k'atun-cycle, were often marked by the erection and dedication of specific monuments such as twin-pyramid complexes such those in Tikal and Yaxha, but (mostly in stela inscriptions) commemorating the completion, accompanied by dedicatory ceremonies. A katun or katun-cycle is a unit of time in the Maya calendar equal to 20 tuns or 7,200 days. ... For other uses, see Tikal (disambiguation). ... Yaxhá is a site of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in what is now Guatemala. ... Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ...


A cyclical interpretation is also noted in Maya creation accounts, in which the present world and the humans in it were preceded by other worlds (one to five others, depending on the tradition) which were fashioned in various forms by the gods, but subsequently destroyed. The present world also had a tenuous existence, requiring the supplication and offerings of periodic sacrifice to maintain the balance of continuing existence. Similar themes are found in the creation accounts of other Mesoamerican societies.[7]


Tzolk'in

Main article: Tzolk'in

Some Mayanists employ the name Tzolk'in (in modern Mayan orthography; also and formerly commonly written tzolkin) for the Maya Sacred Round or 260-day calendar. Tzolk'in is a neologism coined in Yukatek Maya, to mean "count of days" (Coe 1992). The actual names of this calendar as used by Precolumbian Maya peoples are still debated by scholars. The Aztec calendar equivalent was called Tonalpohualli, in the Nahuatl language. Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... Mayanist is a term which has been in widespread use from the late 19th century onwards, to refer to scholars who have specialised in research and study of the Central American pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Tzolkin (in the revised Guatemala Mayan languages Academy orthography which is now preferred, formerly and commonly tzolkin) is the name bestowed by Mayanist scholars upon the version of the 260-day Mesoamerican calendar which was used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Yukatek Maya (in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, now preferred by scholars; also frequently Yucatec) is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ...


The Tzolk'in calendar combines twenty day names with the thirteen numbers of the trecena cycle to produce 260 unique days. It is used to determine the time of religious and ceremonial events and for divination. Each successive day is numbered from 1 up to 13 and then starting again at 1. Separately from this, each day is given a name in sequence from a list of 20 day names: A trecena is a 13-day period used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars, which divides the 260-day calendar into 20 trecena of 13 days each. ...

Tzolk'in calendar: named days and associated glyphs
Seq.
No. 1
Day
Name 2
Glyph
example 3
16th C.
Yucatec 4
reconstructed
Classic Maya 5
Seq.
No. 1
Day
Name 2
Glyph
example 3
16th C.
Yucatec 4
reconstructed
Classic Maya 5
01 Imix' Imix Imix (?) / Ha' (?) 11 Chuwen Chuen (unknown)
02 Ik' Ik Ik' 12 Eb' Eb (unknown)
03 Ak'b'al Akbal Ak'b'al (?) 13 B'en Ben (unknown)
04 K'an Kan K'an (?) 14 Ix Ix Hix (?)
05 Chikchan Chicchan (unknown) 15 Men Men (unknown)
06 Kimi Cimi Cham (?) 16 K'ib' Cib (unknown)
07 Manik' Manik Manich' (?) 17 Kab'an Caban Chab' (?)
08 Lamat Lamat Ek' (?) 18 Etz'nab' Etznab (unknown)
09 Muluk Muluc (unknown) 19 Kawak Cauac (unknown)
10 Ok Oc (unknown) 20 Ajaw Ahau Ajaw
NOTES:
  1. The sequence number of the named day in the Tzolk'in calendar
  2. Day name, in the standardised and revised orthography of the Guatemalan Academia de Lenguas Mayas[2]
  3. An example glyph (logogram) for the named day. Note that for most of these several different forms are recorded; the ones shown here are typical of carved monumental inscriptions (these are "cartouche" versions)
  4. Day name, as recorded from 16th century Yukatek Maya accounts, principally Diego de Landa; this orthography has (until recently) been widely used
  5. In most cases, the actual day name as spoken in the time of the Classic Period (ca. 200–900) when most inscriptions were made is not known. The versions given here (in Classic Maya, the main language of the inscriptions) are reconstructed based on phonological evidence, if available; a '?' symbol indicates the reconstruction is tentative.[8]

Some systems started the count with 1 Imix', followed by 2 Ik', 3 Ak'b'al, etc. up to 13 B'en. The trecena day numbers then start again at 1 while the named-day sequence continues onwards, so the next days in the sequence are 1 Ix, 2 Men, 3 K'ib', 4 Kab'an, 5 Etz'nab', 6 Kawak, and 7 Ajaw. With all twenty named days used, these now began to repeat the cycle while the number sequence continues, so the next day after 7 Ajaw is 8 Imix'. The repetition of these interlocking 13- and 20-day cycles therefore takes 260 days to complete (that is, for every possible combination of number/named day to occur once). A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D01-Imix. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D11-Chuwen. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D02-Ik. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D12-Eb. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D03-Akbal. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D13-Ben. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D04-Kan. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D14-Ix. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D05-Chikchan. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D15-Men. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D06-Kimi. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D16-Kib. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D07-Manik. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D17-Kaban. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D08-Lamat. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D18-Etznab. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D09-Muluk. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D19-Kawak. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D10-Ok. ... Image File history File links MAYA-g-log-cal-D20-Ajaw. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ... Yukatek Maya (in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas, now preferred by scholars; also frequently Yucatec) is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ... The Classic Maya language is the oldest historically attested member of the Maya language family. ...


Divination

Each day of the Tzolk'in has a Patron Spirit who influences events. Ah K'in, the Mayan shaman-priest, whose title means "Day Keeper", read the Tzolk'in to determine the answers to yes/no questions as well as more complex questions involving health, wealth and family. The Sacred Calendar is also used to set the most auspicious dates for household, lineage, and community rituals. The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


When a child is born, the day keeper interprets the Tzolk'in cycle to identify the baby’s character (similarly done today with a natal chart). For example, a child born on the day of Ak'b'al is thought to be feminine, wealthy, and verbally skillful. The birthday of Ak'b'al (along with several other days) is also thought to give the child the ability to receive messages with the supernatural world through somatic twitches of "blood lightning", so he or she might become a Shaman-priest or a Marriage Spokesman. This natal chart, appearing in Ebenezer Siblys Astrology (1806), was drawn for the speculated birth date of Jesus Christ, midnight, December 25, year 45 in the Julian calendar. ...


There are several forms of Maya Calendar divination employing the sacred coral seeds which each Calendar diviner carries in a small bag with crystals and 'other small things' (Tozzer 1941).


The Precolumbian Maya practiced a form of Bibliomancy, in which they would cast the seeds upon a calendar to determine the good and bad days for the year.


Precolumbian Maya employed and Modern Maya Ah K'in employ Sortilage, in which piles of four or five beans are counted from the current calendar day of the Sacred Round to arrive at the result.


Modern Maya Ah K'in also employ Cartomancy, in which the fifty two cards of the poker deck represent the fifty two Year Bearers of the Maya Calendar Round. In the Mesoamerican calendars, Calendar Round dates are composed by interlacing the dates of the Tzolkin 260 day period (eg the Tzolkin) with that of the 365 day period (known in the Maya language as the Haab). ...


Maya shamans also perform a wide variety of divinatory arts which do not specifically depend upon a mastery of the sacred calendar, including crystal, mirror, and water gazing; and spirit possession, among others.


Origin of the Tzolk'in

The exact origin of the Tzolk'in is not known, but there are several theories. One theory is that the calendar came from mathematical operations based on the numbers thirteen and twenty, which were important numbers to the Maya. The numbers multiplied together equal 260. Another theory is that the 260-day period came from the length of human pregnancy. This is close to the average number of days between the first missed menstrual period and birth, unlike Naegele's rule which is 40 weeks (280 days) between the last menstrual period and birth. It is postulated that midwives originally developed the calendar to predict babies' expected birth dates. Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Naegeles Rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy. ... // Midwifery is the term traditionally used to describe the art of assisting a woman through childbirth. ...


A third theory comes from understanding of astronomy, geography and paleontology. The mesoamerican calendar probably originated with the Olmecs, and a settlement existed at Izapa, in southeast Chiapas Mexico, before 1200 BCE. There, at a latitude of about 15° N, the Sun passes through zenith twice a year, and there are 260 days between zenithal passages, and gnomons (used generally for observing the path of the Sun and in particular zenithal passages), were found at this and other sites. The sacred almanac may well have been set in motion on August 13, 1359 BCE, in Izapa. Vincent H. Malmström, a geographer who suggested this location and date, outlines his reasons: This article describes the unit of angle. ... The cantilever spar of this cable-stay bridge, the Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, forms the gnomon of a large garden sundial The gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. ...

(1) Astronomically, it lay at the only latitude in North America where a 260-day interval (the length of the "strange" sacred almanac used throughout the region in pre-Columbian times) can be measured between vertical sun positions -- an interval which happens to begin on the 13th of August -- the day the peoples of the Mesoamerica believed that the present world was created; (2) Historically, it was the only site at this latitude which was old enough to have been the cradle of the sacred almanac, which at that time (1973) was thought to date to the 4th or 5th centuries B.C.; and (3) Geographically, it was the only site along the required parallel of latitude that lay in a tropical lowland ecological niche where such creatures as alligators, monkeys, and iguanas were native -- all of which were used as day-names in the sacred almanac.[9]

Malmström also offers strong arguments against both of the former explanations.


A fourth theory is that the calendar is based on the crops. From planting to harvest is approximately 260 days.


Haab'

Haab' Months[10]
Name Meaning
Pop mat
Wo black conjunction
Sip red conjunction
Sotz' bat
Sek  ?
Xul dog
Yaxk'in new sun
Mol water
Ch'en black storm
Yax green storm
Sac white storm
Keh red storm
Mak enclosed
K'ank'in yellow sun
Muwan owl
Pax planting time
K'ayab' turtle
Kumk'u granary
Wayeb' five unlucky days
Jones 1984
Main article: Haab'

The Haab' was the Maya solar calendar made up of eighteen months of twenty days each plus a period of five days ("nameless days") at the end of the year known as Wayeb' (or Uayeb in 16th C. orthography). Bricker (1982) estimates that the Haab' was first used around 550 BCE with the starting point of the winter solstice. The Maya Haab calendar is a 365-day solar calendar whose dates indicate the position of the Sun at noon relative to the zenith over the Yucatan peninsula. ... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ...


The Haab' month names are known today by their corresponding names in colonial-era Yukatek Maya, as transcribed by 16th century sources (in particular, Diego de Landa and books such as the Chilam Balam of Chumayel). Phonemic analyses of Haab' glyph names in pre-Columbian Maya inscriptions have demonstrated that the names for these twenty-day periods varied considerably from region to region and from period to period, reflecting differences in the base language(s) and usage in the Classic and Postclassic eras predating their recording by Spanish sources.[11] Yukatek Maya (in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas, now preferred by scholars; also frequently Yucatec) is a Mayan language spoken in the Yucatán Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ... The Chilam Balam (literally Balam [Jaguar] oracle priest) manuscripts stem from Yucatec towns such as Chumayel, Kaua, Mani and Tizimin, and date back to the 17th and 18th centuries. ... Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ...


Each day in the Haab' calendar was identified by a day number in the month followed by the name of the month. Day numbers began with a glyph translated as the "seating of" a named month, which is usually regarded as day 0 of that month, although a minority treat it as day 20 of the month preceding the named month. In the latter case, the seating of Pop is day 5 of Wayeb'. For the majority, the first day of the year was 0 Pop (the seating of Pop). This was followed by 1 Pop, 2 Pop as far as 19 Pop then 0 Wo, 1 Wo and so on.


As a calendar for keeping track of the seasons, the Haab' was crude and inaccurate, since it treated the year as having 365 days, and ignored the extra quarter day (approximately) in the actual tropical year. This meant that the seasons moved with respect to the calendar year by a quarter day each year, so that the calendar months named after particular seasons no longer corresponded to these seasons after a few centuries. The Haab' is equivalent to the wandering 365-day year of the ancient Egyptians. Some argue that the Maya knew about and compensated for the quarter day error, even though their calendar did not include anything comparable to a leap year, a method first implemented by the Romans. A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ...


Wayeb'

The five nameless days at the end of the calendar called Wayeb' were thought to be a dangerous time. Foster (2002) writes "During Wayeb, portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No boundaries prevented the ill-intending deities from causing disasters." To ward off these evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals they practiced during Wayeb'. For example, people avoided leaving their houses or washing or combing their hair.


Calendar Round

Neither the Tzolk'in nor the Haab' system numbered the years. The combination of a Tzolk'in date and a Haab' date was enough to identify a date to most people's satisfaction, as such a combination did not occur again for another 52 years, above general life expectancy.


Because the two calendars were based on 260 days and 365 days respectively, the whole cycle would repeat itself every 52 Haab' years exactly. This period was known as a Calendar Round. The end of the Calendar Round was a period of unrest and bad luck among the Maya, as they waited in expectation to see if the gods would grant them another cycle of 52 years.


Long Count

Detail showing three columns of glyphs from 2nd century CE La Mojarra Stela 1. The left column gives a Long Count date of 8.5.16.9.9, or 156 CE. The two right columns are glyphs from the Epi-Olmec script.
Detail showing three columns of glyphs from 2nd century CE La Mojarra Stela 1. The left column gives a Long Count date of 8.5.16.9.9, or 156 CE. The two right columns are glyphs from the Epi-Olmec script.

Since Calendar Round dates can only distinguish in 18,980 days, equivalent to around 52 solar years, the cycle repeats roughly once each lifetime, and thus, a more refined method of dating was needed if history was to be recorded accurately. To measure dates, therefore, over periods longer than 52 years, Mesoamericans devised the Long Count calendar. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (615x1107, 216 KB) This is a small section of the gylphs carved into La Mojarra Stela 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (615x1107, 216 KB) This is a small section of the gylphs carved into La Mojarra Stela 1. ... Inscriptions in the Epi-Olmec script on the right side of La Mojarra Stela 1 Left side image of La Mojarra stela 1 showing a person identified by the name Harvester Mountain Lord La Mojarra Stela 1 is an early Mesoamerican carved monument (stela) dating from the 2nd century CE... Epi-Olmec (after Olmec) is a Mesoamerican writing system in use in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec from perhaps 500 BCE to 500 CE, although there is disagreement on these dates. ... Long Count redirects here. ...


The Mayan name for a day was k'in. Twenty of these k'ins are known as a winal or uinal. Eighteen winals make one tun. Twenty tuns are known as a k'atun. Twenty k'atuns make a b'ak'tun.


The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from August 11, 3114 BCE. But instead of using a base-10 (decimal) scheme like Western numbering, the Long Count days were tallied in a modified base-20 scheme. Thus 0.0.0.1.5 is equal to 25, and 0.0.0.2.0 is equal to 40. As the winal unit resets after only counting to 18, the Long Count consistently uses base-20 only if the tun is considered the primary unit of measurement, not the k'in; with the k'in and winal units being the number of days in the tun. The Long Count 0.0.1.0.0 represents 360 days, rather than the 400 in a purely base-20 (vigesimal) count. is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Ancient Egypt: Earliest known Egyptian hieroglyphs Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization Neolithic settlement built at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland New Stone Age people in Ireland build... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ...

Table of Long Count units
Days Long Count period Long Count period Approx solar years
1 = 1 K'in    
20 = 20 K'in = 1 Winal 1/18th
360 = 18 Winal = 1 Tun 1
7,200 = 20 Tun = 1 K'atun 20
144,000 = 20 K'atun = 1 B'ak'tun 395

There are also four rarely-used higher-order cycles: piktun, kalabtun, k'inchiltun, and alautun.


Since the Long Count dates are unambiguous, the Long Count was particularly well suited to use on monuments. The monumental inscriptions would not only include the 5 digits of the Long Count, but would also include the two tzolk'in characters followed by the two haab' characters.


The Mesoamerican Long Count calendar forms the basis for a New Age belief, first forecast by José Argüelles, that a cataclysm will take place on or about 21 December 2012, a forecast that mainstream Mayanist scholars consider a mis-interpretation.[12] Long Count redirects here. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... José Argüelles (b. ... For other uses, see Cataclysm (disambiguation). ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mayanist is a term which has been in widespread use from the late 19th century onwards, to refer to scholars who have specialised in research and study of the Central American pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ...


Venus Cycle

Main article: Transits of Venus

Another important calendar for the Maya was the Venus cycle. The Maya were skilled astronomers, and could calculate the Venus cycle with extreme accuracy. There are six pages in the Dresden Codex (one of the Maya codices) devoted to the accurate calculation of the location of Venus. The Maya were able to achieve such accuracy by careful observation over many years. There are various theories as to why Venus cycle was especially important for the Mayans, including the belief that it was associated with war and used it to divine good times (called electional astrology) for coronations and war. Maya rulers planned for wars to begin when Venus rose. The Maya also possibly tracked other planets’ movements, including those of Mars, Mercury, and Jupiter. This article is about the astronomical phenomenon. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Galileo is often referred to as the Father of Modern Astronomy. ... Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition) Maya codices (singular codex) are folding books stemming from the pre-Columbian Maya civilization, written in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican paper, made from the inner bark of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or... Electional astrology (called Muhurt or Muhurtha in Hindu astrology) concerns itself with finding the best time to do a particular activity. ...


See also

This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Pre-Columbian people of Mesoamerica kept track of time with calendars which had ritual and religious meaning. ... The sun stone also called the Aztec calendar on display at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City. ... Tres Zapotes is a Mesoamerican archaeological site located in the south-central Gulf Lowlands of Mexico in the Papaloapan river plain. ... Jose Arguelles (b. ... Mayanism is the native religion of the Mayan people, as it is practiced today. ...

Notes

  1. ^ See entry on Itzamna, in Miller and Taube (1993), pp.99-100.
  2. ^ a b Academia de las Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala. Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala: Documento de referencia para la pronunciación de los nuevos alfabetos oficiales. Guatemala City: Instituto Indigenista Nacional. . Refer citation in Kettunen and Hemke (2005:5) for details and notes on adoption among the Mayanist community.
  3. ^ "Mythological" in the sense that when the Long Count was first devised sometime in the Mid- to Late Preclassic, long after this date; see for e.g. Miller and Taube (1993, p.50).
  4. ^ Finley (2002), Voss (2006, p.138)
  5. ^ Malmström (1997): "Chapter 6: The Long Count: The Astronomical Precision".
  6. ^ Coe (1992), Miller and Taube (1993).
  7. ^ Miller and Taube (1993, pp.68-71).
  8. ^ Classic-era reconstructions are as per Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp.45–46..
  9. ^ Malmström (1997), and http://www.dartmouth.edu/~izapa/izapasite.html
  10. ^ Kettunen and Helmke (2005), pp.47–48
  11. ^ Boot (2002), pp.111–114.
  12. ^ Susan Milbrath, Curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology , Florida Museum of Natural History, quoted in USA Today, Wednesday, March 28, 2007, p. 11D.
    "For the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle," says Sandra Noble, executive director of the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. in Crystal River, Florida. To render December 21, 2012, as a doomsday or moment of cosmic shifting, she says, is "a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in." (Quoted in USA Today, Wednesday, March 28, 2007, p. 11D.)

Mayanist is a term which has been in widespread use from the late 19th century onwards, to refer to scholars who have specialised in research and study of the Central American pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... The Florida Museum of Natural History is located at the University of Florida campus in Gainesville, Florida. ... Crystal River 3 Nuclear Generating Station Crystal River is a city in Citrus County, Florida, United States. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

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Boot, Erik (2002). A Preliminary Classic Maya-English/English-Classic Maya Vocabulary of Hieroglyphic Readings (PDF), Mesoweb. Retrieved on 2006-11-10. 
Bricker, Victoria R. (February 1982). "The Origin of the Maya Solar Calendar". Current Anthropology 23 (1): 101. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, sponsored by Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. doi:10.1086/202782. ISSN 0011-3204. OCLC 62217742. 
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Coe, Michael D. (1992). Breaking the Maya Code. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05061-9. OCLC 26605966. 
Finley, Michael (2002). The Correlation Question. The Real Maya Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices. Maya Astronomy. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
Foster, Lynn V. (2002). Handbook to Life in the Ancient Maya World, with Foreword by Peter Mathews, New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-4148-2. OCLC 50676955. 
Ivanoff, Pierre (1971). Mayan Enigma: The Search for a Lost Civilization, Elaine P. Halperin (trans.), English translation of Découvertes chez les Mayas, New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-440-05528-8. OCLC 150172. 
Jacobs, James Q. (1999). Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy: A Review of Contemporary Understandings of Prehispanic Astronomic Knowledge. Mesoamerican Web Ring. jqjacobs.net. Retrieved on 2007-11-26.
Jones, Christopher (1984). Deciphering Maya Hieroglyphs, Carl P. Beetz (illus.), 2nd edition, prepared for Weekend Workshop April 7 and 8, 1984, Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 11641566. 
Kettunen, Harri; and Christophe Helmke (2005). Introduction to Maya Hieroglyphs: 10th European Maya Conference Workshop Handbook (PDF), Leiden: Wayeb and Leiden University. Retrieved on 2006-06-08. 
Malmström, Vincent H. (1997). Cycles of the Sun, Mysteries of the Moon: The Calendar in Mesoamerican Civilization, online reproduction by author, Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-75197-4. OCLC 34354774. Retrieved on 2007-11-26. 
Miller, Mary; and Karl Taube (1993). The Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya: An Illustrated Dictionary of Mesoamerican Religion. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05068-6. OCLC 27667317. 
Robinson, Andrew (2000). The Story of Writing: Alphabets, Hieroglyphs and Pictograms. London; New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28156-4. OCLC 59432784. 
Schele, Linda; and David Freidel (1990). A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story of the Ancient Maya, Reprint, New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-688-11204-8. OCLC 145324300. 
Tedlock, Barbara (1982). Time and the Highland Maya. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-826-30577-6. OCLC 7653289. 
Tedlock, Dennis (trans.) (1985). Popol Vuh: the Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-45241-X. OCLC 11467786. 
Thomas, Cyrus (1897). "Day Symbols of the Maya Year", in J. W. Powell (ed.): Sixteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1894–1895 (Project Gutenberg EBook online reproduction), Washington DC: Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution; U.S. Government Printing Office, pp.199–266. OCLC 14963920. 
Thompson, J. Eric S. (1971). Maya Hieroglyphic Writing; An Introduction, 3rd edition, Civilization of the American Indian Series, No. 56, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-806-10447-3. OCLC 275252. 
Tozzer, Alfred M.; (ed., notes and trans.) (1941). Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán: a translation, Charles P. Bowditch and Ralph L. Roys (additional trans.), English translation of Diego de Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán [orig. ca. 1566], with notes, commentary, and appendices incorporating translated excerpts of works by Gaspar Antonio Chi, Tomás López Medel, Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, and Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas., Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University vol. 18, Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. OCLC 625693. 
Voss, Alexander (2006). "Astronomy and Mathematics", in Nikolai Grube (ed.): Maya: Divine Kings of the Rain Forest, Eva Eggebrecht and Matthias Seidel (assistant eds.), Cologne, Germany: Könemann Press, pp.130–143. ISBN 3-8331-1957-8. OCLC 71165439. 

The University of Texas Press is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Current Anthropology, published by University of Chicago Press, is a peer-reviewed journal of Open Peer Commentary founded in 1959 by the anthropologist Sol Tax (1907-1995). ... 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Alfred Marston Tozzer (4 July 1877 - 5 October 1954) was an American anthropologist, archaeologist, linguist, and educator. ... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ... The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is a museum affiliated with Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

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The Hebrew calendar (‎) or Jewish calendar is a lunisolar calendar used by Jews for predominantly religious purposes. ... The missing years in the Hebrew calendar refer to a discrepancy of some 165 years between the traditional Hebrew dating for the destruction of the First Temple (3338 AM) and the modern secular dating for it (586 BCE) that results if the traditional date is interpreted according to the standard... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... For the book by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. ... The Easter controversy is a series of controversies about the proper date to celebrate Easter. ... Quartodecimanism (derived from the Vulgate Latin: quarta decima[1], meaning fourteen) refers to the custom of Christians celebrating Passover on the 14th day of Nisan in the Old Testaments Hebrew Calendar (Lev 23:5). ... The current system for determining the date of Easter has two problems: (1) its date varies from year to year (not considered a problem by many Christians), and (2) Eastern and Western churches use different methods of determining its date, and hence in most years it is celebrated on a... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... This article is about Australian Aboriginal cosmogony, cosmology and spirituality. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Oracle bones (Chinese: 甲骨; pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination from the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what is called oracle bone script. ... This article is about days of the week. ...

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Civilization.ca - Mystery of the Maya - Writing and hieroglyphics (1279 words)
Maya glyphs represented words or syllables that could be combined to form any word or concept in the Mayan language, including numbers, time periods, royal names, titles, dynastic events, and the names of gods, scribes, sculptors, objects, buildings, places, and food.
Maya glyphs were also painted on codices made of either deer hide or bleached fig-tree paper that was then covered with a thin layer of plaster and folded accordion-style.
The few codices which have survived, however, are a valuable source of information about the religious beliefs of the Maya and their ritual cycle, and record information about the gods associated with each day in the Maya calendar as well as astronomical tables outlining the cycles of Venus and other celestial bodies.
CalendarHome.com - Maya calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia (3485 words)
Although the Mesoamerican calendar did not originate with the Maya, their subsequent extensions and refinements to it were the most sophisticated.
The Maya version is commonly known to scholars as the Tzolkin, or Tzolk'in in the revised orthography of the Academia de Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala.
The Maya numeral system was essentially a vigesimal one (i.e., base-20), and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it.
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