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Encyclopedia > Maximinus Thrax
Maximinus Thrax
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Maximinus Thrax
Reign 20 March 235 - April 238
Full name Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus
Born c. 173
Thrace or Moesia
Died April 238
Aquileia
Predecessor Alexander Severus
Successor Gordian III
Issue Gaius Julius Verus Maximus
Father A Goth
Mother An Alan

Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (c. 173238), also known as Maximinus Thrax (i.e. Maximinus the Thracian) and Maximinus I, was a Roman Emperor (235238). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax An old, beginning of the 20th century photo plate. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Events During the reign of Lha Thothori Nyantsen, Buddhism, coming from India, is introduced to Tibet . ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. ... Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (217/220-May 238), also incorrectly called Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus or Maximinus the Younger was the son of the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Events During the reign of Lha Thothori Nyantsen, Buddhism, coming from India, is introduced to Tibet . ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ...


Maximinus is conspicuous as the first barbarian who wore the imperial purple and the first emperor never to set foot in Rome. He was the first of the so-called barracks emperors of the 3rd century; his rule is often considered to mark the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century. Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ...

Contents

Rise to power

Maximinus was born in Thrace or Moesia to a Gothic father and an Alanic mother. He joined the army during the reign of Septimius Severus, but did not rise to a powerful position until promoted by Alexander Severus. Maximinus was in command of the recruits from Pannonia, who were angered by Alexander's payments to the Alemanni and his avoidance of war. The troops, among which Legio XXII Primigenia, elected the stern Maximinus, killing young Alexander and his mother at Moguntiacum (Mainz) in 235. The Praetorian Guard acclaimed him emperor, and their choice was grudgingly confirmed by the Senate, who were displeased to have a peasant as emperor. His son Maximus became caesar. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The Alamanni, Allemanni or Alemanni, are a Germanic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius, under the year 213. ... Legio XXII Primigenia, was levied by emperor Caligula in 39, for his campaigns in Germania. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (217/220-May 238), also incorrectly called Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus or Maximinus the Younger was the son of the Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ...


Rule

Consolidating his power

Maximinus hated the nobility and was ruthless towards those he suspected of plotting against him. He began by eliminating the close advisors of Alexander. His suspicions may have been justified; two plots against Maximinus were foiled. The first was during a campaign across the Rhine, during which a group of officers, supported by influential senators, plotted the destruction of a bridge across the river, to leave Maximinus stranded on the other side. Afterwards they planned to elect senator Magnus emperor; however the plot was discovered and the conspirators executed. The second plot involved Mesopotamian archers who were loyal to Alexander. They planned to elevate Quartinus, but their leader Macedo changed sides and murdered Quartinus instead, although this was not enough to save his own life. It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Magnus (d. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ...


Defending the frontiers

Maximinus' first campaign was against the Alamanni, whom Maximinus defeated despite heavy Roman casualties in a swamp near what is today Baden-Württemberg. After the victory, Maximinus took the title Germanicus Maximus, raised his son Maximus to the rank of Caesar and Prince of Youths, and deified his late wife Paulina. Securing the German frontier, at least for a while, Maximinus then set up a winter encampment at Sirmium in Pannonia, and from that supply base fought the Dacians and the Sarmatians during the winter of 235236. area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, land that is today part of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... Events Pope Fabian succeeds Pope Anterus Births Deaths Pope Anterus Categories: 236 ...


Gordian I and Gordian II

Year of the Six Emperors - 238
Maximinus Thrax
Gordian I and
Gordian II
Pupienus and Balbinus, nominally with Gordian III
Gordian III

Early in 238, in the province of Africa, a treasury official's extortions through false judgments in corrupt courts against some local landowners ignited a full-scale revolt in the province. The landowners armed their clients and their agricultural workers and entered Thysdrus (modern El Djem), where they murdered the offending official and his bodyguards and proclaimed the aged governor of the province, Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus (Gordian I), and his son, Gordian II, as co-emperors. The senate in Rome switched allegiance, gave both Gordian and Gordian II the title of Augustus, and set about rousing the provinces in support of the pair. Maximinus immediately assembled his army and advanced on Rome, the Pannonian legions leading the way. The Year of the Six Emperors refers to AD192-193, in which there were six claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co-emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co-emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. ... Events Carpians invade Moesia, Maximinus Thrax campaigns against them. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... El Djem: the amphitheatre of Thysdrus El Djem (Latin Thysdrus) is a town in Mahdia governorate, Tunisia, population 18,302 (2004 census). ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ...


Meanwhile, in Africa, the revolt had not gone as planned. The province of Africa was bordered on the west by the province of Numidia, whose governor, Capellianus, nursed a long-standing grudge against the Gordians and controlled the only legionary unit (III Augusta) in the area. He marched on Carthage and easily overwhelmed the local militias defending the city. Gordian II was killed in the fighting and, on hearing this, Gordian I hanged himself with his belt. Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... Legio III Augusta was a Roman legion levied by Augustus in 43 BC. Activity of this legion in the African Roman provinces, its principal theatre of operations, is still mentioned in late 4th century, early 5th century. ...


Pupienus, Balbinus, and Gordian III

When the African revolt collapsed, the senate found itself in great jeopardy. Having shown clear support for the Gordians, they could expect no clemency from Maximinus when he reached Rome. In this predicament, they determined to defy Maximinus and elected two of their number, Pupienus and Balbinus, as co-emperors. When the Roman mob heard that the Senate had selected two men from the Patrician class, men whom the ordinary people held in no great regard, they protested, showering the imperial cortège with sticks and stones. A faction in Rome preferred Gordian's grandson (Gordian III), and there was severe street fighting. The emperors had no option but to compromise, and, sending for the grandson of the elder Gordian they appointed him Caesar. Pupienus. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225 - February 11, 244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. ...


Defeat and death of Maximinus

Maximinus marched on Rome, but at Aquileia Maximinus's troops, suffering from famine and disease, bogged down in an unexpected siege of the city, which had closed its gates when they approached, became disaffected. In April 238 Praetorian guards in his camp assassinated him, his son and his chief ministers. Their heads were cut off, placed on poles, and carried to Rome by cavalrymen. Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ...


The Senate elected the thirteen year-old Gordian III emperor.


Politics

Maximinus coin, with Greek legend.
Maximinus coin, with Greek legend.

Maximinus doubled the pay of soldiers; this act, along with virtually continuous warfare, required higher taxes. Tax-collectors began to resort to violent methods and illegal confiscations, further alienating the governing class. Image File history File links Bronze_Maximinus_I-Paris-Tarsos_AE36_SNGFr_1587. ... Image File history File links Bronze_Maximinus_I-Paris-Tarsos_AE36_SNGFr_1587. ...


Maximinus reversed Alexander's policy of clemency towards the Christians, who were viewed as unsupportive enemies of the state. He persecuted Christians ruthlessly, and the bishop of Rome, Pontian, as well as his successor, Anterus, are said to have been martyred. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Pontian (or Pontianus), was pope from July 21, 230 to September 28, 235. ... Pope Anterus, the 19th Pope (Reign: November 21, 235 - January 3, 236), succeeded Pope Pontian, who had been deported from Rome along with the antipope Hippolytus to Sardinia. ... Look up Martyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Appearance

Maximinus is noted in the Historia Avgvsta as being significantly taller than his contemporaries; "He was of such size, so Cordus reports, that men said he was six inches over eight feet in height"[1]. It is likely however that this is one of the many 'tall tales' in the Historia Augusta, and is immediately suspect due to its citation of 'Cordus', one of the several fictitious authorities the work cites.


Bibliography

  • A. Bellezza: Massimino il Trace, Geneva 1964.
  • H. Börm: Die Herrschaft des Kaisers Maximinus Thrax und das Sechskaiserjahr 238. Der Beginn der Reichskrise?, in: Gymnasium 114, 2007.
  • J. Burian: Maximinus Thrax. Sein Bild bei Herodian und in der Historia Augusta, in: Philologus 132, 1988.
  • L. de Blois: The onset of crisis in the first half of the third century A.D., in: K.-P. Johne et. al. (eds.), Deleto paene imperio Romano, Stuttgart 2006.
  • K. Dietz: Senatus contra principem. Untersuchungen zur senatorischen Opposition gegen Kaiser Maximinus Thrax, Munich 1980.
  • F. Kolb: Der Aufstand der Provinz Africa Proconsularis im Jahr 238 n.Chr.: die wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Hintergründe, in: Historia 26, 1977.
  • A. Lippold: Kommentar zur Vita Maximini Dua der Historia Augusta, Bonn 1991.
  • X. Loriot: Les premières années de la grande crise du IIIe siècle: De l'avènement de Maximin le Thrace (235) à la mort de Gordien III (244), in: ANRW II/2, 1975.

References

  1. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Historia_Augusta/Maximini_duo*.html

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Maximinus Thrax
  • Life of Maximinus (Historia Augusta at LacusCurtius: Latin text and English translation)
  • "Roman Emperors": Maximinus Thrax
  • Maximinus coinage
Preceded by
Alexander Severus
Roman Emperor
235–238
Gordian I, Gordian II, Pupienus and Balbinus, Gordian III
(all 238)
Succeeded by
Gordian III
Persondata
NAME Maximinus, Gaius Iulius Verus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Thrax, Maximinus
SHORT DESCRIPTION Roman emperor and soldier
DATE OF BIRTH 173
PLACE OF BIRTH Thrace or Moesia
DATE OF DEATH 238
PLACE OF DEATH Aquileia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maximinus Thrax (445 words)
Maximinus I, also known as Maximinus Thrax and Caius Julius Verus Maximinus, was Roman emperor in AD He was conspicuous as the first barbarian who wore the imperial purple, and as one of the emperors whose names are connected with the ten persecutions recorded by ecclesiastical historians.
When that emperor lost the support of his troops, Maximinus seized his opportunity and organized a conspiracy which ended in the murder of Alexander and his mother at Mainz in 235.
The hostility of Maximinus to his Christian subjects probably arose because of the favour they had enjoyed from the eclectic or syncretic sympathies of Alexander Severus.
Maximinus I, Roman Imperial Coinage of, Thumbnail Index - WildWinds.com (2773 words)
Maximinus I Æ 33mm of Anemurium in Cilicia.
Maximinus I Æ 39mm of Cremna in Pisidia.
Maximinus Thrax Æ 28mm of Ninica-Claudiopolis in Cilicia.
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