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Encyclopedia > Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre

Anonymous Portrait c. 1793 engraving of Robespierre scanned from 19th century book This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...


Deputy for the Third Estate of the Estates-General
In office
5 May 1789 – 17 June 1789
Monarch Louis XVI
Constituency Artois

Born 6 May 1758
Arras, France
Died 28 July 1794
Paris, France
Nationality French
Political party Jacobin
Alma mater Lycée Louis-le-Grand
Profession Politician and Lawyer
Religion Deism (Cult of the Supreme Being)

Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: [maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi odenthalɛiz izidɔʁ də ʁɔbəspjɛʁ]; 6 May 175828 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. He studied at College of Louis-le-Grand in Paris and became a lawyer. His supporters called him "The Incorruptible". He was an influential member of the Committee of Public Safety and was instrumental in the period of the Revolution commonly known as the Reign of Terror that ended with his arrest and execution in 1794. In France of the ancien régime and the age of the French Revolution, the term Third Estate (tiers état) indicated the generality of people which were not part of the clergy (the First Estate) nor of the nobility (the Second Estate). ... The Estates-General (or States-General) of 1789 (French: Les États-Généraux de 1789) was the first meeting since 1614 of the French Estates-General, a general assembly consisting of representatives from all but the poorest segment of the French citizenry. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... The Cult of the Supreme Being was a religion based on deism created by Maximilien Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror. ...


Politically, Robespierre was a disciple of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, among other Enlightenment philosophes, and a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wing bourgeoisie. He was described as physically unimposing and immaculate in attire and personal manners. Rousseau redirects here. ... The philosophes (French for philosophers) were a group of intellectuals of the 18th century Enlightenment. ... Left wing redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Early life

Maximilien Robespierre was born in Arras, France. His family, long rumored to have been of Irish descent,[2] has actually been traced as far as the 12th century in northern France,[3] and his direct ancestors in the male line had been notaries in the little village of Carvin near Arras from the beginning of the 17th century. Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Patrilineality (a. ... Carvin is a commune and chief town of the canton in northern France, in the départment of Pas-de-Calais, in the arrondissement of Lens. ...


His paternal grandfather established himself in Arras as a lawyer. His father, also a lawyer, married Jacqueline Marguerite Carraut, the daughter of a brewer, in 1758. Maximilien was the eldest of four children, he was conceived out of wedlock. To hide the deed as well as they could, his father and mother had a rushed wedding (at which the grandfather refused to attend.) In 1764 Madame de Robespierre, as the name was then spelled, died in childbirth. Her husband left Arras and wandered around Europe until his death in Munich in 1777, leaving the children to be raised by their maternal grandfather and aunts. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Maximilien attended the collège (high school) of Arras. In October of 1769, on the recommendation of the bishop, he obtained a scholarship at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris. Here he learned to admire the idealized Roman Republic and the rhetoric of Cicero, Cato, and other classic figures. His fellow pupils included Camille Desmoulins and Stanislas Fréron. The Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in Paris is one of the most famous lycées providing preparatory classes for grandes écoles. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... // Cato may refer to: Romans, in the family Porcii: Cato the Elder or the Censor (Marcus Porcius Cato 234BC–149BC), Roman statesman Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus, son of Cato the Elder by his first wife Licinia, jurist Marcus Porcius Cato, son of Cato Licinianus, consul 118 BC, died in Africa... Portrait of Camille Desmoulins Lucie Simplice Camille Benoist Desmoulins (March 2, 1760 – April 5, 1794) was a French journalist and politician who played an important part in the French Revolution. ... Louis Marie Stanislas Fréron (August 17, 1754 - 1802), was a French Revolutionary. ...


Shortly after his coronation, Louis XVI visited Louis-le-Grand. After waiting several hours in the rain for the king and queen to arrive, Robespierre, then 17 years old, delivered a speech welcoming the king, during which the king and queen remained in their coach. Ironically, Robespierre would be one of those who would eventually work towards the death of the king, though it is not clear he or others bore animosity as a result of this particular incident.[4] Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


Early politics

After having completed the law studies, Robespierre was admitted to the Arras bar in 1781. The bishop of Arras, Louis François Marc Hilaire de Conzié, appointed him criminal judge in the diocese of Arras in March 1782. This appointment, which he soon resigned to avoid pronouncing a sentence of death, did not prevent his practicing at the bar. He quickly became a successful avocat. He then turned to literature and society and came to be regarded as one of the best writers and well-liked young men of Arras. Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ...


In December 1783 he was elected a member of the academy of Arras, the meetings of which he attended regularly. In 1784 he obtained a medal from the academy of Metz for his essay on the question of whether the relatives of a condemned criminal should share his disgrace. He and Pierre Louis de Lacretelle, an advocate and journalist in Paris, divided the prize. Many of his subsequent essays were less successful, but Robespierre was compensated for these failures by his popularity in the literary and musical society at Arras, known as the "Rosati," of which Lazare Carnot, who would be his colleague on the Committee of Public Safety, was also a member. Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Louis de Lacretelle (October 9, 1751 - 1824), was a French politician and writer. ... Lazare Carnot Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (May 13, 1753—August 2, 1823) was a French politician, engineer, and mathematician. ...


In 1788 he took part in the discussion of the way that the Estates-General should be elected, showing clearly and forcibly in his Adresse à la nation artésienne that if the former mode of election by the members of the provincial estates were again adopted, the new Estates-General would not represent the people of France. In France under the Ancien Regime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: états généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ...


Although the leading members of the corporation were elected, Robespierre, their chief opponent, succeeded in getting elected with them. In the assembly of the bailliage rivalry ran still higher, but Robespierre had begun to make his mark in politics with the Avis aux habitants de la campagne (Arras, 1789). With this he secured the support of the country electors, and although only 30, comparatively poor and lacking patronage, he was elected fifth deputy of the Third Estate of Artois to the Estates-General.


While the Constituent Assembly occupied itself with drawing up a constitution, Robespierre turned from the assembly of provincial lawyers and wealthy bourgeois to the people of Paris. He was a frequent speaker in the Constituent Assembly; often with great success. He was eventually recognized as second only to Pétion de Villeneuve - if second he was - as a leader of the small body of the extreme left; "the thirty voices" as Mirabeau contemptuously called them. Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve (1756 - 1794) was a French writer and politician. ... Mirabeau can refer to: Honoré Mirabeau Mirabeau, a commune of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence département, in southeastern France Mirabeau, a commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France Les Pennes-Mirabeau, a commune of the Bouches-du-Rhône département, in southern France the Cours Mirabeau...


Robespierre soon became involved with the new Society of the Friends of the Constitution, known eventually as the Jacobin Club. This had consisted originally of the Breton deputies only. After the Assembly moved to Paris the Club began to admit various leaders of the Parisian bourgeoisie to its membership. As time went on, many of the more intelligent artisans and small shopkeepers became members of the club. Among such men Robespierre found a sympathetic audience. As the wealthier bourgeois of Paris and right-wing deputies seceded to the Club of 1789, the influence of the old leaders of the Jacobins, such as Barnave, Duport, Alexandre de Lameth, diminished. When they, alarmed at the progress of the Revolution, founded the club of the Feuillants in 1791, the left, including Robespierre and his friends dominated the Jacobin Club. It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth (October 20, 1760 – March 18, 1829), was a French soldier and politician. ... Feuillant, a French word derived from the Latin for leaf, has been used as a tag by two different groups. ...


On May 15, 1791, Robespierre proposed and carried the motion that no deputies who sat in the Constituent could sit in the succeeding Assembly, his only successful proposition in this assembly. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The flight of Louis XVI and his family on June 20 and his subsequent arrest at Varennes resulted in Robespierre declaring himself at the Jacobin Club to be "ni monarchiste ni républicain" ("neither monarchist nor republican"). But this was not unusual; very few at this point were avowed republicans. Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Look up republican in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the massacre of the Champ de Mars on July 17, 1791, in order to be nearer to the Assembly and the Jacobins, he moved to live in the house of Maurice Duplay, a cabinetmaker residing in the Rue Saint-Honoré and an ardent admirer of Robespierre's. Robespierre lived there (with two short intervals excepted) until his death. In fact, according to some sources, including his doctor, Souberbielle, Vilate, a juror on the Revolutionary Tribunal, and his host's youngest daughter (who would later marry Philippe Le Bas of the Committee of General Security), he became engaged to the eldest daughter of his host, Éléonore Duplay. View of Champ de Mars from the top of the Eiffel Tower The Champ_de_Mars is a vast public area in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the cole Militaire to the southeast. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ... The Committee of General Security (French: Comité de sûreté générale) was the committee set up by National Convention during the French Revolution for surveillance of the police force. ... Pastel of Éléonore Duplay by Regnault from the Musée Carnavalet Éléonore Duplay, called Cornélie, after Cornelia Africana of Ancient Rome, was the daughter of Maurice Duplay, a master carpenter, and Françoise-Éléonore Vaugeois. ...


On September 30, on the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, the people of Paris crowned Pétion and Robespierre as the two incorruptible patriots. A constituent assembly is a body elected with the purpose of drafting, and in some cases, adopting a constitution. ...


With the dissolution of the Assembly he returned for a short visit to Arras, where he met with a triumphant reception. In November he returned to Paris.


Opposition to war with Austria

Terracotta bust of Robespierre by Louis-Pierre Deseine, 1792 (Musée de la Révolution française)
Terracotta bust of Robespierre by Louis-Pierre Deseine, 1792 (Musée de la Révolution française)

On February, 1792, Jacques Pierre Brissot, one of the leaders of the Girondist party in the Legislative Assembly, urged that France should declare war against Austria. Marat and Robespierre opposed him, because they feared the possibility of militarism, which might then be turned to the advantage of the reactionary forces. This opposition from expected allies irritated the Girondins and political rivalry arose between them. Image File history File links MRobespierre. ... Image File history File links MRobespierre. ... Louis-Pierre Deseine (1749 — 1822) was a French sculptor, who was born and died in Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Pierre Brissot. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or Baguettes), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ...


In April 1792, Robespierre resigned the post of public prosecutor of Versailles, which he had officially held, but never practiced, since February, and started a journal, Le Défenseur de la Constitution, in his own defense. This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution in countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system. ...



Because of his popularity, his reputation for virtue and his influence over the Jacobin Club, the strongmen of the Commune were glad to have Robespierre's aid. On 16 August, Robespierre presented the petition of the Commune of Paris to the Legislative Assembly, demanding the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal and the summoning of a Convention. Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... A strongperson is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ...


Robespierre has often been reproached with failing to stop the September Massacres, but neither he nor any other individual were in any position to have done so. He was popular enough, however, to be elected first deputy for Paris to the National Convention. Robespierre and his allies took the benches high at the back of the hall, giving them the label 'the Montagnards'; below them were the Manège of the Girondins and then 'the Plain' of the independents. The September Massacres were a wave of violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ...


At the Convention, the Girondins immediately attacked Robespierre. As early as 26 September the Girondin Marc-David Lasource accused Robespierre of wanting to form a dictatorship. He later heard a rumor that Marat, Danton and himself were plotting to become triumvirs. On 29 October, Louvet de Couvrai attacked Robespierre in a speech, possibly written by Madame Roland. Robespierre easily rebutted the false accusation in this attack on 5 November when he denounced the federalist plans of the Girondins, is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Marat redirects here. ... According to a biographer, Dantons height was colossal, his make athletic, his features strongly marked, coarse, and displeasing; his voice shook the domes of the halls.[1] Georges Jacques Danton (October 26, 1759 – April 5, 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai (June 12, 1760 - August 25, 1797), was a French writer and politician. ... Mme Roland in a portrait by Adelaide Labille-Guiard, 1787 Viscountess Jeanne Marie Roland de la Platiere, born Manon Jeanne Philipon (March 17, 1754 – November 8, 1793), became the wife of Jean Marie Roland de la Platiere and is better known simply as Madame Roland. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ...


The execution of Louis XVI

In December 1792 personal disputes were overshadowed by the question of the king's trial. Here Robespierre took the position that the king must be executed. In his speech on December 3rd he said:

"This is no trial; Louis is not a prisoner at the bar; you are not judges; you are — you cannot but be — statesmen, and the representatives of the nation. You have not to pass sentence for or against a single man, but you have to take a resolution on a question of the public safety, and to decide a question of national foresight. It is with regret that I pronounce, the fatal truth: Louis ought to perish rather than a hundred thousand virtuous citizens; Louis must die, so that the country may live."

Robespierre argued that the king, having betrayed the people when he tried to flee the country—and indeed, as Robespierre said, in having been a King in the first place—was a danger to the state as a unifying symbol for the enemies of the Republic,


Destruction of the Girondins

After the king's execution, the influence of Robespierre, Danton, and the pragmatic politicians increased at the expense of the Girondins. The Girondins refused to have anything more to do with Danton and the government became more divided.


In May 1793 Desmoulins, at the behest of Robespierre and Danton, published his Histoire des Brissotins, an elaboration on the earlier article Jean-Pierre Brissot, démasqué, a scathing attack on Brissot and the Girondins. Maximin Isnard declared that Paris must be destroyed if it came out against the provincial deputies. Robespierre preached a moral "insurrection against the corrupt deputies" at the Jacobin Club. On June 2, a large crowd of armed men from the Commune of Paris came to the Convention and arrested 32 Girondin deputies on charges of counter-revolutionary activities. Maximin Isnard (1758 - 1825), French revolutionist, was a dealer in perfumery at Draguignan when he was elected deputy for the départment of the Var to the Legislative Assembly, where he joined the Girondists. ... The Paris Commune during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795, and especially from 1792 until 1795. ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ...


Founding the Committee of Public Safety

On March 11, a Revolutionary Tribunal was established in Paris. On April 6, the nine-member Committee of Public Safety replaced the larger Committee of General Defense. On July 27, 1793 the Convention elected Robespierre to the Committee, although he had not sought the position. The Committee of General Security began to manage the country's internal police. The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Committee of General Security (French: Comité de sûreté générale) was the committee set up by National Convention during the French Revolution for surveillance of the police force. ...


The Terror

Main article: Reign of Terror

Historians disagree on Robespierre's role in the Terror. Some say that he was a minor player in the Committee of Public Safety. Babeuf and Philippe Buonarroti have tried to absolve him by saying he acted only for reasons of practical expediency. However, Robespierre's role as a leader and mouthpiece of the Terror is clear. Robespierre is usually regarded as the dominant force on the committee. Louis-Sébastien Mercier coined the term "Sanguinocrat" to describe Robespierre. However, after his death many of his colleagues tried to save themselves by blaming him. For other uses of terror, see Terror. ... François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 _ May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the revolutionary period. ... Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti more usually referred to as Philippe Buonarroti (1761 - 1837), Italian egalitarian revolutionary, writer, proponent of subversion, and freemason. ... Louis-Sébastien Mercier (6 June 1740 - 25 April 1814) was a French dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ...


He was one of the most popular orators in the Convention and his carefully prepared speeches often made a deep impression. His panegyrics on revolutionary government and his praise of virtue demonstrate his belief that the Terror was necessary, laudable and inevitable. It was Robespierre's belief that political terror and virtue were of necessity inseparable. For example, in a speech he delivered to the Convention in early February 1794, Robespierre stated, A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ...


"If virtue be the spring of a popular government in times of peace, the spring of that government during a revolution is virtue combined with terror: virtue, without which terror is destructive; terror, without which virtue is impotent. Terror is only justice prompt, severe and inflexible; it is then an emanation of virtue; it is less a distinct principle than a natural consequence of the general principle of democracy, applied to the most pressing wants of the country. … The government in a revolution is the despotism of liberty against tyranny."[5] This does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the winter of 1793–1794, a majority of the Committee decided that the Hébertist party must perish or its opposition within the Committee would overshadow the other factions due to its influence in the Commune of Paris. Robespierre also had personal reasons for disliking the Hébertists for their "atheism" and bloodthirstiness. On Danton's suggestion, Camille Desmoulins protested the Terror in his third issue of Le Vieux Cordelier (Robespierre had read and approved of the first two issues). The Hébertists were the partisans of Jacques Hébert, the radical revolutionary journalist, in the Legislative Assembly and National Convention during the French Revolution. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


From February 13 to March 13, 1794 Robespierre withdrew from active business on the Committee due to illness. During that time, he decided that the end of the Terror would mean the loss of political power he hoped to use to create the Republic of Virtue. He broke with Danton and joined in attacks of Danton and the Hébertists. Robespierre charged his opponents with complicity with foreign powers. is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


On March 15 Robespierre reappeared in the Convention; on March 19 Hébert and 19 of his followers were arrested and on March 24 they were guillotined. On March 30 Danton, Desmoulins and their friends were arrested, tried on April 2 and guillotined on April 5. This article is about the decapitation device. ...


After Danton's execution, Robespierre worked to develop his own policies. He used his influence over the Jacobin Club to dominate the Commune of Paris through his followers. Two of them, Jean-Baptiste Fleuriot-Lescot and Claude-François de Payan, were elected mayor and procurer of the Commune respectively. Robespierre tried to influence the army through his follower Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just, whom he sent on a mission to the frontier. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just Antoine Louis Léon de Richebourg de Saint-Just (August 25, 1767 - July 28, 1794), usually referred to simply as Saint-Just, was a French revolutionary leader. ...


The Great Terror

In Paris, Robespierre increased the activity of the Terror: no one could accuse him of being a moderate. He hoped that the Convention would pass whatever measures he might dictate. To secure his aims, another ally on the Committee, Couthon, introduced and carried on June 10 the drastic Law of 22 Prairial. Under this law, the Tribunal became a simple court of condemnation without need of witnesses. The result of this was that until Robespierre's death, 1,285 victims were guillotined in Paris. Georges August Couthon (1755 - July 28, 1794) was a French revolutionary. ... The Law of 22 Prairial, also known as the loi de la Grande Terreur, the law of the Reign of Terror, was enacted on June 10, 1794 (22 Prairial of the Year II under the French Revolutionary Calendar). ...


Robespierre's desire for revolutionary change was not limited to the political realm. He sought to instill a spiritual resurgence in the French nation based on Deist beliefs. Accordingly, on May 7, 1794 Robespierre had a decree passed by the Convention that established a Supreme Being. The notion of the Supreme Being was based on ideas that Jean-Jacques Rousseau had outlined in The Social Contract. In honor of the Supreme Being, a celebration was held on June 8. Robespierre, as President of the Convention, walked first in the festival procession and delivered a speech. Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Cult of the Supreme Being was a religion based on deism created by Maximilien Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. ... Rousseau redirects here. ... From an early pirated edition possibly printed in Germany [1] The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right (1762) by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is the book in which Rousseau theorised about social contracts. ...


In this speech, Robespierre made it clear that his concept of a Supreme Being was far different from the traditional God of Christianity. Robespierre's Supreme Being was a radical democrat, like the Jacobins, This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ...


"Is it not He whose immortal hand, engraving on the heart of man the code of justice and equality, has written there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not He who, from the beginning of time, decreed for all the ages and for all peoples liberty, good faith, and justice? He did not create kings to devour the human race. He did not create priests to harness us, like vile animals, to the chariots of kings and to give to the world examples of baseness, pride, perfidy, avarice, debauchery, and falsehood. He created the universe to proclaim His power. He created men to help each other, to love each other mutually, and to attain to happiness by the way of virtue."[5]


Downfall

Main article: Thermidorian Reaction
The execution of Robespierre.
The execution of Robespierre.

Robespierre appeared at the Convention on July 26, the 8th of Thermidor according to the Revolutionary calendar, and delivered a two-hour-long speech. He defended himself against charges of dictatorship and tyranny, and then proceeded to warn of a conspiracy against the Republic. Robespierre implied that members of the Convention were a part of this conspiracy, though when pressed he refused to provide any names. Members who felt that Robespierre was alluding to them tried to prevent the speech from being printed, and a bitter debate ensued until Bertrand Berèreput forced an end to it. Later that evening Robespierre delivered the same speech again at the Jacobin Club, where it was very well received.[6][7] The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre, (May 6, 1758–July 28, 1794), known also to his contemporaries as the Incorruptible, is one of the best known of the leaders of the French Revolution. ... Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ...


The next day, Saint-Just began to give a speech in support of Robespierre. However, those who saw him working on his speech the night before expected accusations to arise from it. He only had time to give a small part of his speech before Jean-Lambert Tallien interrupted him. While the accusations began to pile up, Saint-Just remained silent, in an out of character move. Robespierre then attempted to secure the tribune to speak but his voice was shouted down. Robespierre soon found himself at a loss for words after one deputy called for his arrest, and another, Marc Guillaume Valdiergave, gave a mocking impression of him. When one deputy realized Robespierre's inability to respond, the man shouted, "The blood of Danton chokes him!"[8][9] Engraved portrait of Jean-Lambert Tallien Jean-Lambert Tallien (1767 – November 16, 1820), was a French political figure of the revolutionary period. ...


The Convention ordered the arrest of Robespierre, Couthon, Saint-Just, Le Bas, and Hanriot. Troops from the Commune arrived to liberate the prisoners. The Commune troops, under General Coffinhal, then marched against the Convention itself. The Convention responded by ordering troops of its own under Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras to be called out. When the Commune's troops heard the news of this, order began to break down, and Hanriot ordered his remaining troops to withdraw to the Hôtel de Ville. Robespierre and his supporters also gathered at the Hôtel de Ville. The Convention declared them to be outlaws, meaning that upon verification the fugitives could be executed within 24 hours without a trial. As the night went on the Commune forces at the Hôtel de Ville deserted until none of them remained. The Convention troops under Barras approached the Hôtel around 2:00 am on July 28. As they came, Robespierre's brother Augustin threw himself out of a window. Couthon was found lying at the bottom of a staircase, crippled by his fall. Le Bas committed suicide. Robespierre tried to shoot himself, but apparently missed, instead shooting himself in the jaw.[10][11] Despite the general historical consensus that Robespierre shot himself, one gendarme named Merda claimed to have pulled the trigger.[12] Saint-Just made no attempt at suicide or concealment. Hanriot tried to hide in the Hôtel's yard, but the Convention troops quickly discovered him. Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (June 30, 1755 - 1829) was a French revolutionary and the main executive leader of the Directory regime of 1795 - 1799. ... The Hôtel de Ville houses the office of the Mayor of Paris. ... Augustin Bon Joseph de Robespierre (January 21, 1763 - July 28, 1794) was the younger brother of French Revolutionary leader, Maximilien Robespierre. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Gendarme (pronounced ) can mean: Gendarme (historical): a horseman, usually of noble birth, belonging to the cavalry of the French army in the late-Medieval to Early Modern periods of European history A military police officer belonging a gendarmerie. ...


The next day, 10th Thermidor An II (July 28, 1794), Robespierre was not taken before the tribunal, instead he was guillotined without trial in the Place de la Révolution. Couthon, Saint-Just and 14 other followers were also executed.[13][14] His corpse and head both were buried in the common cemetery of Errancis (now the Place de Goubeaux), but were accidentally moved to the Catacombs of Paris. is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... Crypt of the Sepulchral Lamp in the Catacombs of Paris The Catacombs of Paris is a famous burial place in Paris, France. ...


Legacy

Maximillien Robespierre is still a controversial figure. His defenders, such as Albert Soboul, viewed most of the measures of the Committee for Public Safety necessary for the defense of the Revolution and mainly regretted the destruction of the Hébertists and other enragés. Albert Marius Soboul (April 27, 1914–September 11, 1982) was a French historian of the French Revolution of 1789–1799 and of Napoleon. ...


The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica sums up Robespierre as a bright young theorist out of his depth in the matter of experience: Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

"A well-educated and accomplished young lawyer, he might have acquired a good provincial practice and lived a happy provincial life had it not been for the Revolution. Like thousands of other young Frenchmen, he had read the works of Rousseau and taken them as gospel. Just at the very time in life when this illusion had not been destroyed by the realities of life, and without the experience which might have taught the futility of idle dreams and theories, he was elected to the states-general."[2]
"At Paris he was not understood till he met with his audience of fellow disciples of Rousseau at the Jacobin Club. His fanaticism won him supporters; his singularly sweet and sympathetic voice gained him hearers; and his upright life attracted the admiration of all. As matters approached nearer and nearer to the terrible crisis, he failed, except in the two instances of the question of war and of the kings trial, to show himself a statesman, for he had not the liberal views and practical instincts which made Mirabeau and Danton great men. His admission to the Committee of Public Safety gave him power, which he hoped to use for the establishment of his favorite theories, and for the same purpose he acquiesced in and even heightened the horrors of the Reign of Terror. It is here that the fatal mistake of allowing a theorist to have power appeared:
"Billaud-Varenne systematized the Terror because he believed it necessary for the safety of the country; Robespierre intensified it in order to carry out his own ideas and theories. Robespierre's private life was always respectable: he was always emphatically a gentleman and man of culture, and even a little bit of a dandy, scrupulously honest, truthful and charitable. In his habits and manner of life he was simple and laborious; he was not a man gifted with flashes of genius, but one who had to think much before he could come to a decision, and he worked hard all his life."[2]

Fanaticism is an emotion of being filled with excessive, uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. ... In mathematics, theory is used informally to refer to a body of knowledge about mathematics. ... Sporty Parisian dandies of the 1830s: a girdle helped one achieve this silhouette. ...

Cultural depictions

  • Famous British children's series ChuckleVision has featured Robespierre as a villan trying to steal the Countess and defeat the Purple Pimple (who is actually Sir Pircy with a purple headcover in the series). Citizen Robespierre calls himself "the best swordsman of France". He was featured in Series 17 and 18 (2005/2006), where Barry and Paul go back in time during the French Revolution.
  • A highly-idealized Robespierre is featured in the anime and manga series Rose of Versailles by Riyoko Ikeda. He's initially shown in his younger and more idealistic self, prior to the Terror days, and as the series advances he becomes closer to the embittered leader usually portrayed in media. He's voiced by Katsuji Mori.
  • In another novel by Hugo, Quatrevingt-Treize, Robespierre is featured in the "Three Gods" scene, along with Danton and Marat.
  • He appears frequently in The Scarlet Pimpernel by Baroness Emmuska Orczy. He also plays a prominent role in the BBC miniseries version.
  • In the depictions of many artists, especially in urban France, Robespierre is known for his gentle smile. This has led some to refer to him as "le bébé souriant de miracle."
  • In the 1927 silent film Napoléon, he is played by Edmond Van Daële. Although this six-hour long epic is about the rise of Napoleon, it does incorporate some aspects of Robespierre's presence.
  • One of the two primary plot lines of Katherine Neville's 1988 novel The Eight features Robespierre alongside other famous figures of the French Revolution.
  • In the 1989 film La Révolution Française, he is played by Andrzej Seweryn; this film spans six hours, or the entire revolution from 1789 to 1794.
  • In The French Revolution, a 2005 History Channel documentary, he is played by George Ivascu.[15]

The 1996 Marge Piercy Novel; City of Darkness, City of Light, features Robespierre as one of six first-person characters. ChuckleVision is a popular British childrens television series, shown on CBBC, first shown in 1987. ... ChuckleVision is a popular British childrens television series. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 - February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ... “Animé” redirects here. ... This article is about the comics published in East Asian countries. ... The Rose of Versailles (ベルサイユのばら Berusaiyu no bara), by Riyoko Ikeda, is one of the best-known titles in shōjo manga. ... Riyoko Ikeda (æ± ç”° 理代子 Ikeda Riyoko, born 1947) is a Japanese mangaka. ... Mori Katsuji(森 功至,né Tanaka Yukiya or 田中 雪弥) is a veteran seiyu who was born on July 10, 1945 in Tokyo. ... Tow Ubukata is a Japanese anime writer and novelist. ... This article is about the anime series based on a historical figure. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Takahiro Sakurai , born June 13, 1974) is a seiyÅ« who was born in Aichi. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Thermidor was the eleventh month in the French Revolutionary Calendar, which was used only in France and only for thirteen years. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... For other uses, see Sandman (comics). ... Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just (25 August 1767 – 28 July 1794), usually known as Saint-Just, was a French revolutionary leader. ... Robert Stanton Pierre is a fictional character in David Weber´s Honorverse series of novels. ... Map of the Honorverse. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (IPA: ) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... This article is about the original 1862 novel. ... Rousseau is a French surname. ... Quatrevingt-treize (Ninety-Three) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo. ... For the eponymous flower, see Scarlet pimpernel. ... Baroness Emma (Emmuska) Orczy (September 23, 1865 – November 12, 1947) was a British novelist, playwright and artist of Hungarian origin. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Napoléon is an epic (1927) silent French film directed by Abel Gance that tells the story of the rise of Napoleon I of France. ... // Directors Józef Arkusz StanisÅ‚aw Bareja Aleksander Ford Wojciech Has Agnieszka Holland Jerzy Hoffman Jerzy Kawalerowicz Krzysztof KieÅ›lowski -- The Three Colors trilogy, The Decalogue Jan Jakub Kolski Kazimierz Kutz Juliusz Machulski Andrzej Munk Marek Piwowski Roman PolaÅ„ski Ladislas Starevich Wladyslaw Starewicz Andrzej Wajda Krzysztof Zanussi Andrzej Zulawski... Danton is a 1983 French language film about the last months of Georges Danton, starring Gérard Depardieu in the title role and Anne Alvaro, directed by Andrzej Wajda. ... Wojciech Pszoniak (born in 1942 in Lwów, Poland) is a movie and theatrical actor. ... Stanislawa Przybyszewska (1901 - 1935) was a Polish dramatist who wrote exclusively about the French Revolution. ... The Eight, published December 27, 1988, is Katherine Nevilles debut novel. ... Andrzej Seweryn (born April 25, 1946 in Heilbronn, Germany) is a Polish actor. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ...


See also

Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Maximilien Francois Marie Isidore Robespierre", a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  1. ^ Tucker, Florence. (2005). 999 Little Known Facts. Oxford: Jonathan and Associates. ISBN 0-631-15504-X. 
  2. ^ a b c http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Maximilien_Francois_Marie_Isidore_Robespierre
  3. ^ Généalogie de Robespierre.
  4. ^ (2006) Fatal Purity. 
  5. ^ a b On the Principles of Political Morality, February 1794. Modern History Sourcebook (1997).
  6. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 841. Vintage Books, 1989
  7. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 842. Vintage Books, 1989
  8. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 842. Vintage Books, 1989
  9. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 844. Vintage Books, 1989
  10. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 844. Vintage Books, 1989
  11. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 845. Vintage Books, 1989
  12. ^ The French Revolution A History (2007).
  13. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 845. Vintage Books, 1989
  14. ^ Schama, S: "Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution.", p. 846. Vintage Books, 1989
  15. ^ The French Revolution (2005) (TV)
  • Baker, Keith Michael (ed.) (1987). The Old Regime and the French Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-06935-4.  Very good summary that relies almost entirely on primary source documents with short summarizing essays that explain those documents
  • Carlyle, Thomas (2002). The French Revolution: A History, Volume III: The Guillotine. Cambridge, MA: IndyPublish.com. ISBN 1-4043-0398-7.  A Romantic account more useful for historiographical studies than as accurate history
  • Doyle, William, Haydon, Colin (eds.) (1999 (hardcover), 2006 (paperback)). Robespierre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-59116-3 (hardcover); ISBN 0-521-02605-9 (paperback).  A collection of essays covering not only Robespierre's thoughts and deeds but also the way he has been portrayed by historians and fictional writers alike.
    • Reviewed by Hilary Mantel in the London Review of Books, Vol. 22, No. 7, March 30, 2000.
  • Eagan, James Michael (1978). Maximilien Robespierre: Nationalist Dictator. New York: Octagon Books. ISBN 0-374-92440-6.  Presents Robespierre as the origin of Fascist dictators.
  • Hampson, Norman (1974). The Life and Opinions of Maximilien Robespierre. London: Duckworth. ISBN 0-7156-0741-3.  Presents three contrasting views on him
  • Jordan, David P. (1989). The Revolutionary Career of Maximilien Robespierre. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-41037-4.  Sympathetic but not un-critical left-wing study
  • Lenotre, Georges Robespierre's Rise and Fall, London: Hutchinson & Co. (1927) Critical
  • Linton, Marisa. "Robespierre and the Terror", History Today, August 2006, Volume 56, Issue 8, pp. 23–29
  • Palmer, R.R. (1941). Twelve Who Ruled: The Year of Terror in the French Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05119-4.  A sympathetic study of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • Rudé, George (1976). Robespierre: Portrait of a Revolutionary Democrat. New York: Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-60128-4.  Very sympathetic Marxist analysis that compares him with Lenin and Mao.
  • Schama, Simon (1989). Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-55948-7.  A revisionist account.
  • Scurr, Ruth. Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution. London: Metropolitan Books, 2006 (ISBN 0-8050-7987-4).
    • Reviewed by Hilary Mantel in the London Review of Books, Vol. 28 No. 8, April 20, 2006.
    • Reviewed by Marisa Linton in the History Today, June 2006, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp. 66–66.
    • Reviewed by Sudhir Hazareesingh in the Times Literary Supplement, June 7, 2006.
  • Sobel, Robert, The French Revolution (1967)
  • Soboul, Albert. "Robespierre and the Popular Movement of 1793–4", Past and Present, No. 5. (May, 1954), pp. 54–70.
  • Thompson, James M. (1988). Robespierre. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-15504-X.  Traditional biography with extensive and reliable research.
  • Tucker, Florence. (2005). 999 Little Known Facts. Oxford: Jonathan and Associates. ISBN 0-631-15504-X. 

Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Penguin paperback (2004). ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Hilary Mary Mantel CBE (born 6 July 1952) is an English novelist. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... August 2006 is the eighth month of that year, and has yet to occur. ... Robert Roswell Palmer (January 11, 1909 – June 11, 2002), commonly known as R.R. Palmer, was a distinguished historian of France. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793-4) of the French Revolution. ... George Rudé (February 8, 1910–January 8, 1993) was a British Marxist historian, specializing in the French Revolution and history from below, especially the importance of crowds in history. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Marius Soboul (April 27, 1914–September 11, 1982) was a French historian of the French Revolution of 1789–1799 and of Napoleon. ...

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Encyclopedia4U - Maximilien Robespierre - Encyclopedia Article (3945 words)
The children were taken charge of by their maternal grandfather and aunts, and Maximilien was sent to the college of Arras, whence he was nominated in 1770 through the bishop of his native town to a bursarship at the college of Louis-leGrand at Paris.
Robespierre shared his colleagues fear of the Hébertist opinions, and he had a personal reason for disliking that party of atheists and sansculottes, since he believed in the necessity of religious faith, and detested their imitation of the grossness that belongs to the lowest class of the populace.
Robespierre's private life was always respectable: he was always emphatically a gentleman and man of culture, and even a little bit of a dandy, scrupulously honest, truthful and charitable.
Maximilien Robespierre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5136 words)
It was Robespierre who presented the petition of the Commune of Paris on 16 August to the Legislative Assembly, demanding the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal and the summoning of a Convention.
Robespierre argued that the King, having "betrayed" the people by attempting to flee the country (or indeed, in Robespierre's opinion, in having been a King at all) was not just a criminal but a danger to the state - a threat through the unifying symbol he presented to the enemies of the newborn Republic.
Robespierre was the next day taken before the tribunal, and without trial he was guillotined along with Couthon and Saint-Just and nineteen others of his adherents on the Place de la Révolution on the 10th Thermidor An II (28 July 1794).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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