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Encyclopedia > Maximilian von Spee
Maximilian von Spee
22 June 1861 – 8 December 1914

Maximilian von Spee
Place of birth Copenhagen, Denmark
Place of death Falkland Islands
Allegiance Naval flag of German Empire Kaiserliche Marine
Years of service 1878-1914
Rank Admiral
Battles/wars World War I
*Battle of Coronel
*Battle of the Falkland Islands

Maximilian Graf von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German admiral, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. In 1887–88 he commanded the Kamerun ports, in German West Africa. Before World War I he held a number of senior positions relating to weapons development, before being appointed Chief of Staff of the North Sea Command in 1908, rising to Rear Admiral on 27 January 1910. Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page; see the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir Christopher Cradock† Graf Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 armoured cruisers 2 light cruisers 2 armoured cruisers 3 light cruisers Casualties 1,654 men killed 2 armoured cruisers lost 3 wounded The World War I naval Battle of Coronel took place on 1 November... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... German West African colonies shown in blue. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


He was given command of the German East Asia Squadron in 1912 with the rank of Vice-Admiral, based at Tsingtao within the German concession in China. His officers had been handpicked by Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, while his armored cruisers were among the newest in the fleet, his ships would soon be made obsolete by the creation of the battlecruiser. The German East Asia squadron was a German Kaiserliche Marine (naval) cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the 1870s and 1914. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Jiaozhou Bay (, ) was a 552km² German colonial Concession, which existed from 1898 to 1914. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... Schematic section of a typical armoured cruiser with an armoured upper and middle deck and side belt (red), lateral protective coal bunkers (grey) and a double-bottom of watertight compartments. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ...

Contents

First World War

From the outbreak of the First World War his command concentrated on destroying Allied commercial and troop shipping, with considerable success. However Spee was wary of the Allies' strength, especially the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Royal Australian Navy — in fact he described the latter's flagship, the battlecruiser HMAS Australia, as being superior to his entire force by itself. Consequently to avoid it being trapped within Tsingtao Spee's squadron moved towards South America. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... HMAS Australia was an Indefatigable class battlecruiser laid down by John Brown and Company of Clydebank at Glasgow in Scotland on 26 June 1910, launched on 25 October 1911 by Lady Reid, wife of Sir George Reid, the Australian High Commissioner in London and former Prime Minister. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


At the Battle of Coronel, off the coast of Chile, on 1 November 1914, Spee's force engaged and sank two British armored cruisers commanded by Sir Christopher Cradock: HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth were outclassed in both gunnery and seamanship. Admiral Spee's report of action off Coronel, Chile on November 2, 1914, can be found in the World War I document archive maintained by Richard Hacken at Brigham Young University. [1] Combatants United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Sir Christopher Cradock† Graf Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 armoured cruisers 2 light cruisers 2 armoured cruisers 3 light cruisers Casualties 1,654 men killed 2 armoured cruisers lost 3 wounded The World War I naval Battle of Coronel took place on 1 November... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock Rear Admiral Sir Christopher George Francis Maurice Craddock KCVO RN (2 July 1862 - 1 November 1914), was a British admiral. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Good Hope. ... The sixth HMS Monmouth of the British Royal Navy was the name ship of her class of armored cruiser of 9,800 tons displacement. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On 8 December 1914, Spee's force attempted a raid on the coaling station at Stanley in the Falkland Islands, unaware that the previous month the British had sent two modern fast battlecruisers HMS Inflexible and HMS Invincible to protect the islands and avenge the defeat at Coronel, and there were also five cruisers, HMS Carnarvon, HMS Cornwall, HMS Kent, HMS Bristol and HMS Glasgow, at the Stanley naval base. In the ensuing Battle of the Falkland Islands, Spee's flagship, SMS Scharnhorst, together with SMS Gneisenau, SMS Nürnberg and SMS Leipzig were all lost, together with some 2,200 German sailors, including Admiral von Spee and his two sons. Only SMS Dresden managed to escape, though she was eventually hunted down and destroyed. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... HMS Inflexible was the second of three Invincible-class battlecruisers built for the Royal Navy in 1906-08. ... The fifth Invincible of the Royal Navy was a battlecruiser, the lead ship of her class of three, and the first battlecruiser to be built by any country in the world. ... HMS Carnarvon was a Devonshire-class armoured cruiser (10,850 tons displacement) of the Royal Navy, named after the town of Caernarfon in Wales. ... HMS Cornwall was a 9,000-ton Monmouth-class armoured cruiser of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Kent was a Monmouth-class armoured cruiser of 9,800 tons displacement, of the British Royal Navy. ... The fifth HMS Bristol was a Town-class light cruiser of the Royal Navy, displacing 4,800 tons, with a crew of 376, and capable of 27 knots. ... HMS Glasgow, the sixth ship of that name, was launched on the Clyde at Govan in 1909 and was a Town-class light cruiser of 4800 tons, capable of around 26 knots. ... Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... Combatants British Empire German Empire Commanders Doveton Sturdee Maximilian von Spee Strength 2 battlecruisers, 3 armoured cruisers, 2 light cruisers and 1 grounded pre-dreadnought 2 armoured cruisers, 3 light cruisers, 3 transports Casualties 10 killed, 19 wounded No ships lost 1,871 killed, 215 captured 2 armoured cruisers, 2... SMS Scharnhorst was an 11,616 ton armored cruiser of the Imperial German Navy, built at the Blohm & Voss Shipyard in Hamburg, Germany. ... This article is about the WWI armored cruiser Gneisenau; for the World War II battlecruiser of the same name, see German battlecruiser Gneisenau. ... SMS Nürnberg, named after the town of Nuremberg, was a German light cruiser launched in 1907. ... SMS Leipzig was a German light cruiser, of the Bremen class. ... The SMS Dresden was a German Kaiserliche Marine light cruiser of the Dresden class, commissioned in 1908. ...


Ships

In 1917 a Mackensen-class battlecruiser was named Graf Spee in his honour, but construction of the ship had not been completed by the time of the Armistice in November 1918, and it was subsequently broken up. The Mackensen class was the last class of battlecruisers to be built by Germany in World War I. None of them were ever completed as shipbuilding priorities were concetrated on U-boats and destroyers. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... The Graf Spee was a German Mackensen class battle cruiser that was never finished. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...


In 1934 Germany named the new " pocket battleship" Admiral Graf Spee after him. Coincidentally, in 1939 the Admiral Graf Spee was scuttled by her crew after the Battle of the River Plate, off the coast of Uruguay, only a few hundred miles from where Admiral von Spee and his squadron had met their end in the same month a quarter of a century earlier. Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a pocket battleship (Panzerschiff, later reclassified as heavy cruiser) launched by Germany in 1934 and named after the World War I Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee who died in the first Battle of the Falkland Islands on 8 December 1914. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 heavy cruiser 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 heavy cruiser damaged 36 dead 60 wounded 1 heavy cruiser heavily damaged 2 light cruisers damaged 72 dead 28 wounded For other uses, see The Battle of...


Between 1959 and 1967 the Federal German Bundesmarine operated a training frigate named after him. The German Navy has had several names depending on the political structure of Germany at the time: Deutsche Marine (German Navy) (1848)-(1852) Norddeutsche Bundesmarine (Northern German Federal Navy) (1866_1871) Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) (1872-1918) Vorläufige Reichsmarine (1919-1921) Reichsmarine (State Navy) (1921-1935) Kriegsmarine (War Navy) (1935_1945...


Notes

  • Note regarding personal names: Graf is a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name. The female form is Gräfin.
  • Spee is pronounced as "Shpay" to rhyme with "pay" in English.

Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ...

References

  1. ^ Spee, Maximilian von (1914). "Report on the action off Coronel, Chile" (html). WWI Archive. Retrieved on 2006-04-18.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maximilian von Spee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (301 words)
Count (Graf) Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German naval officer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878.
However Spee was wary of the Allies' strength, especially the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Royal Australian Navy — in fact he described the latter's flagship, the battlecruiser HMAS Australia, as being superior to his entire force by itself.
In the ensuing Battle of the Falkland Islands, Spee's flagship, SMS Scharnhorst, together with SMS Gneisenau, SMS Nürnberg and SMS Leipzig were all lost, together with some 2,200 German sailors, including Admiral von Spee and his two sons.
Battle of the Falkland Islands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (890 words)
Unknown to Spee however, a British squadron, including two fast, modern battle cruisers, HMS Invincible and HMS Inflexible, were at that same time coaling at Stanley.
Spee began his attack on 8 December 1914, intending to subsequently refuel north at the estuary of the River Plate.
Von Spee's decision to head of Stanley was in part to capture its communication center.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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