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Encyclopedia > Maximilian Francis of Austria, Elector of Cologne

Maximilian Francis (or Franz) of Austria, Elector of Cologne (1756 - 1801) was the youngest of sixteen children born into the imperial household of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa, whose more famous progeny included Marie Antoinette and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. He was the last Elector of Cologne and an early patron of Ludwig van Beethoven. The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I Francis I (December 8, 1708 – August 18, 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770; died March 26, 1827) was a German composer of classical music, who predominantly lived in Vienna, Austria. ...

Maximilian Franz succeeded to the title of Elector of Cologne and the related Archbishopric of Munster and maintained his noble court in Bonn. A keen patron of music, Maximilian Franz maintained a court orchestra where Ludwig van Beethoven's father was a tenor in the court chapel. The court organist was Christian Gottlob Neefe, who became an early mentor and teacher to Ludwig van Beethoven. Recognising his young pupil's remarkable gift both as a performer and a composer, Neefe brought Beethoven into the court, convincing Maximilian Franz to appoint him as assistant organist. Maximilian, too, recognised the extraordinary abilities of the young Beethoven. In 1787, he gave Beethoven leave to visit Vienna to study with Mozart, a visit cut short by the illness and death of Beethoven's mother. In 1792, Maximilian again agreed to let Beethoven depart for Vienna in order to pursue studies with Joseph Haydn, Antonio Salieri and others, where he continued to pay Beethoven's court salary. Maximilian Franz maintained an interest in Beethoven's progress, and several letters from Haydn to Maximilian detailing his student's progress remain extant. For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation). ... A royal or noble court as an instrument of government broader than a monarchical court of justice comprises an extended household centered on a patron who may hold imperial, royal, grand ducal, electoral or other rank. ... Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2004 est): 313,605 ; the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine. ... In music, a tenor is a male singer with a high voice (although not as high as a countertenor). ... An organist is a musician who plays the organ, whether pipe or electronic. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... W. A. Mozart, 1790 portrait by Johann Georg Edlinger Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Franz Joseph Haydn, (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. Although he has come to be popularly known as Franz Joseph Haydn (with many published scores and recordings... Antonio Salieri Antonio Salieri (August 18, 1750 – May 7, 1825), born in Legnago, Italy, was a composer and conductor, as well as one of the most important and famous musicians of his time. ...

During the Napoleonic Wars, Cologne and Bonn were both occupied by the French army, in October and November of 1794. As the French approached, Maximilian left Bonn never to return and the territories eventually passed to France under the terms of the Treaty of LunĂ©ville (1801). The dismantling of the court made Beethoven's relocation to Vienna permanent, and his stipend was terminated. The Napoleonic Wars was a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule of France. ... Cologne skyline at night with river Rhine in the foreground and famous Cologne Cathedral on the right. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9, 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel, respectively. ... 1801 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Plagued by corpulence and ill-health, Maximilian Franz took up residence in Vienna after the loss of his territories until his death at age 45 in 1801. He was the last Elector of Cologne, since his successor, Anthony, Archduke of Austria, was never able to assume the title. (In 1803, the electorate was secularized altogether.) 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Beethoven planned to dedicate his First Symphony to his former patron, but Maximilian Franz died before it was completed. Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ...



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