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Encyclopedia > Maxime Weygand
General Maxime Weygand
General Maxime Weygand

Maxime Weygand (January 21, 1867 - January 28, 1965) was a French military commander in both World War I and World War II. photo of Maxime Weygand. ... photo of Maxime Weygand. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...

Contents

Early years

Weygand was born in Brussels. It has been alleged that he was the illegitimate son of either Empress Carlota of Mexico or of her brother, the notorious Leopold II, King of the Belgians. Weygand refused to confirm or deny these rumours. He was educated in Marseille by the jewish Cohen de Léon family. Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 797 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ... Carlota of Mexico (also spelled Carlotta; sometimes rendered as Charlotte) (June 7, 1840 – January 19, 1927) was the wife of regime largely dependent on French troops under the orders of Napoleon III. The only daughter of Leopold I, King of the Belgians (1790–1865) by his second wife... Leopold II can refer to: Leopold II of Austria (1050-1095) Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1797-1870) Léopold II of Belgium (1835-1909) Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747-1792) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, Marseille shines in the world Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban Community of...


In his bulky memoirs he says practically nothing of his youth, devoting to it only 4 pages out of 651. He mentions the gouvernante and the aumônier of his college, who instilled in him a strong Roman Catholic faith. His memoirs essentially begin with his entry into the preparatory class of Saint-Cyr Military School in Paris, as if he had wished to erase his connection with the Jewish family that took him in and ensured his education. Indeed, he expressed extreme antisemitism, especially during the Second World War. (It is not known under what conditions or for what reasons M. Cohen de Léon became his tutor.) The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Saint-Cyr can refer to: École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, a French military academy. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... The Eternal Jew (German: Der ewige Jude): 1937 German poster advertising an antisemitic Nazi movie. ...


He was admitted to the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr, under the name of "Maxime de Nimal", as a foreign cadet (Belgian). Successfully graduating in 1887, he was posted to a cavalry regiment. He was then legally aknowledged ['reconnu'] as his illegitimate son by an accountant under the employ of M. Cohen de Léon, François-Joseph Weygand, from whom he thus received both surname and, most importantly, French nationality...becoming an instructor at Saumur. Cadets parading in dress uniform A cadet in formal uniform The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, Special Military School of St Cyr) is the foremost French military academy. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Saumur is a small city and commune in the Maine-et-Loire département of France on the Loire River, with an approximate population of 30,000 (in 2001). ...


At the time of the Dreyfus affair, he was one of the most antidreyfusard officers of his regiment, supporting the widow of Colonel Henry, who had committed suicide after the discovery of the falsification of the charges against Captain Dreyfus. The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ...


Once promoted to Captain, Weygand chose not to attempt the difficult preparation to the Advanced War College ('Haute Ecole de Guerre') because of his desire, he said, to keep contact with the troops. This did not prevent him from later becoming an instructor at the aristocratic Cavalry School at Saumur.


Weygand during World War I

Weygand passed the war of 1914-18 as a Staff Officer. At the outbreak, he satisfied his taste for contact with the troops while spending 26 days with the 5ème Hussards. On 28 August, he became a Lieutenant-Colonel on the staff of Marshall Ferdinand Foch. He was promoted to Brigadier General in 1916 and Major General in 1918, serving in the Supreme War Council from 1917. He remained on Foch's staff when the marshall was appointed Supreme Allied Commander. In 1918 he served on the armistice negotiations, and it was Weygand who read out the armistice conditions to the Germans at Compiègne, in the famous railway carriage. Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in British English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Supreme War Council was a central command created by David Lloyd George to coordinate Allied military strategy during World War I. It was founded in 1917. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Supreme Allied Commander is the title given to the most senior commander of some multinational organisations. ... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Tourists in a vis-a-vis, Prague The classic definition of a carriage is a four-wheeled horse-drawn private passenger vehicle with leaf springs or leather strapping for suspension, whether light, smart and fast or large and comfortable. ...


Inter-war period

Weygand in Poland

After the war his career continued well despite the retirement of Ferdinand Foch. Weygand was briefly sent as an advisor to Poland in 1920 during the Polish-Soviet War, trying without much success to aid Józef Piłsudski. The mission also included French diplomat Jean Jules Jusserand and the British diplomat Lord Edgar Vincent D'Abernon. It achieved little; indeed, the crucial Battle of Warsaw was fought and won by the Poles before the mission could return and make its report. Subsequently, for many years, the myth that the timely arrival of Allied forces saved Poland was begun, a myth in which Weygand occupies the central role. Ferdinand Foch (October 2, 1851 - March 20, 1929) was a French soldier. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Jean Adrien Antoine Jules Jusserand (February 18, 1855 - July 18, 1932) was a French author and diplomatist. ... Edgar Vincent DAbernon, was a French nobleman, writer and soldier. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ...


Weygand travelled to Warsaw in the expectation of assuming command of the Polish army, yet he met with a very disappointing reception. His first meeting with Piłsudski on 24 July started on the wrong foot, as he had no answer to Piłsudski's opening question, "How many divisions do you bring?" Weygand had no divisions to offer. On 27 July, he was installed as adviser to the Polish Chief of Staff, Rozwadowski, but their cooperation was poor. He was surrounded by officers who regarded him as an interloper and who deliberately spoke in Polish, depriving him not only of a part in their discussions but even of the news from the front. His suggestions for the organization of Poland's defence were systematically rejected. At the end of July he proposed that the Poles hold the line of the Western Bug; a week later he proposed a purely defensive posture along the Vistula. Neither plan was accepted. One of his few contributions was to insist that a system of written staff orders should replace the existing haphazard system of orders passed by word of mouth. He was of special assistance to General Władysław Sikorski, to whom he expounded the advantages of the River Wkra. But on the whole he was quite out of his element, a man trained to give orders yet placed among people without the inclination to obey, a proponent of defence in the company of enthusiasts for the attack. On 18 August, when he met Piłsudski again he was told nothing of the great victory, but was "regaled instead with a Jewish tale". It offended his dignity as a "représentant de la France" and he threatened to leave. Indeed there was nothing to do but leave. The battle was won; armistice negotiations were beginning; the crisis had passed. He urged D'Abernon and Jusserand to pack their bags and make as decent an exit as possible. He was depressed by his failure and dismayed by Poland's disregard for the Entente. On the station at Warsaw on 25 August he was consoled by the award of the medal, the Virtuti Militari; at Cracow on the 26th he was dined by the mayor and corporation; at Paris on the 28th he was cheered by crowds lining the platform of the Gare de l'Est, kissed on both cheeks by the Premier Alexandre Millerand and presented with the grand-croix de la légion d'honneur. He could not understand what had happened and has admitted in his memoirs that "the victory was Polish, the plan was Polish, the army was Polish". He was the first uncomprehending victim, as well as the chief beneficiary, of a legend already in circulation that he, Weygand, was the victor of Warsaw. This legend persisted for more than forty years even in academic circles. Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західн&#1080... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Eugeniusz Sikorski Coat of arms of Kopaszyna, (May 20, 1881 – July 4, 1943; pronounced ) was a Polish military and political leader. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European military alliances in 1915. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Virtuti Militari The Virtuti Militari (Latin: For Military Virtue) is Polands highest military decoration for valor in the face of the enemy. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Alexandre Millerand, French statesman Alexandre Millerand (February 10, 1859 - April 7, 1943 at Versailles, France) was a French socialist and politician. ... Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ...


Weygand in France and the Middle East

Weygand was elected a member of the Académie française (seat #35) in 1931. He also served as high commissioner in Syria and as Inspector-General of the army from 1931 before retiring in 1935. Weygand was recalled to active service by Edouard Daladier in August 1939 to head the French forces in the Middle East. The Académie française In the French educational system an académie The Académie française, or French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Weygand in World War II

Weygand was recalled to active service by Edouard Daladier in August 1939 to head the French forces in the Middle East, where although France had been at war only with Germany, he had prepared his troops for a takeover by force against Soviet oil fields. French politician Édouard Daladier Édouard Daladier (June 18, 1884 - October 10, 1970) was a French politician, and Prime Minister of France at the start of the Second World War. ...


By May 1940 the military disaster in France was such that the Supreme Commander, Maurice Gamelin, was dismissed, and Weygand recalled to replace him. Weygand arrived on May 17 and started by cancelling the side counter-offensive ordered by Gamelin, to cut off the enemy armoured columns which had punched through the French front. Thus he lost 2 crucial days before finally adopting the solution, however obvious, of his predecessor. But it was by then a failed manoeuvre, because during the 48 lost hours, the German infantry had caught up behind their tanks in the breakthrough and had consolidated their gains. Weygand then oversaw the creation of the Weygand line, an early application of the Hedgehog tactic; however, by this point the situation was untenable. After some further vain attempts to contain the enemy advance he then favoured an armistice with Germany. Like the vast majority of French staff officers and antidreyfusards, Weygand was a monarchist who despised the Third Republic, commonly called by them la gueuse—"the beggar-woman". They were delighted to see her fall. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Maurice Gamelin (left) with General Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y, future Marshal of Poland; Warsaw, August 1936. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... Hedgehog defence - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) ( 1870/ 75- 1940/ 46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ...


Under the Vichy Regime

In June, he was appointed to the Bordeaux-Vichy cabinet as Minister for National Defence for three months (June to September 1940), and then Delegate-General to the North African colonies. There: For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... This page is a list of French defence ministers. ... -1...

  • He convinced the young officers, tempted to dissidence, of the justice of the armistice, by letting them hope for a later resumption of combat.
  • He deported opponents to terrible concentration camps in Southern Algeria and Morocco. There, he locked up, with the complicity of Admiral Abrial, adversaries of the Vichy regime (Gaullists, Freemasons, communists, etc.), the foreign volunteers of Légion Etrangère, foreign refugees without employment (but legally admitted into France), etc.
  • He applied Vichy's racist laws against Jews very harshly (see Vichy France). With the complicity of the Recteur (University chancellor) G. Hardy, Weygand instituted, on his own authority, by a mere "note de service n°343QJ" of 30 september 1941, a school "numerus clausus" (quota,) driving out from the colleges and from the primary schools most of the Jewish pupils, including small children aged 5 to 11. Weygand did that without any decree of Marshall Philippe Pétain's, "by analogy," he said, "to the law about Higher Education".


Weygand acquired a reputation as an opponent of collaboration when he protested, in Vichy, against the Protocols of Paris of 28 May 1941 signed by Admiral Darlan, agreements which granted bases to the Axis in Aleppo (Syria), Bizerte and Dakar and envisaged a military collaboration with Axis forces in the event of Allied response. For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Henri-Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain, was a French general, later Head of State of Vichy France, from 1940 to 1944. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... François Darlan, French admiral and politician of Vichy France Admiral of the Fleet François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer and senior figure of the Vichy France regime. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎ meaning he milked, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Bizerte or Bizerta (Arabic: بنزرت; transliterated: Binzart) is a capital city of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ...


The Weygand General Delegation (4th Office) collaborated with Germany by delivering to Rommel's Africa Korps 1200 French trucks and other French army vehicles (Dankworth contract of 1941), as well as heavy artillery pieces accompanied with 1000 shells per gun. Rommel is the family name of Erwin Rommel (German Field Marshal) and his son Manfred Rommel (former Mayor of Stuttgart). ...


Weygand was apparently favourable to collaboration with Germany, but with discretion. Additionally, when he opposed German bases in Africa, he did not intend to be neutral or to help the allied camp. Rather, he only sought to prevent the French from losing prestige with the natives. Nevertheless, since Adolf Hitler wanted full collaboration, he put pressure on the Vichy government to obtain the dismissal and recall of Weygand in November 1941. One year later, in November 1942, following the Allied invasion of North Africa, Weygand was arrested. He remained in confinement until May 1945, when he fell into the hands of the Americans. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... This article is about the year. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham Erwin Rommel François Darlan Strength 73,500 - Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation TORCH (initially called Operation GYMNAST) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Last years

After returning to France, he was held as a collaborator at the Val-de-Grâce but was released in May 1946 and cleared in 1948. He died in Paris at age 98. Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... The Val-de-Grâce (Hôpital dinstruction des armées du Val-de-Grâce) is a military hospital located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France . ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Besides a Member of the French Academy, Maxime Weygand was an officer of the Legion of Honour. French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (in Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ...


References

Polish period

  • Edgar Vincent d'Abernon, The Eighteenth Decisive Battle of the World: Warsaw, 1920, Hyperion Press, 1977, ISBN 0-88355-429-1.
  • Piotr Wandycz, General Weygand and the Battle of Warsaw, Journal of Central European Affairs, 1960
  • Norman Davies, White Eagle, Red Star: the Polish-Soviet War, 1919-20, Pimlico, 2003, ISBN 0-7126-0694-7.

Edgar Vincent DAbernon, was a French nobleman, writer and soldier. ... Piotr Stefan Wandycz is a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences of America, and profesor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history. ... Prof. ...

Second world war

  • Henri Michel, Vichy, année 40, Robert Laffont, Paris, 1967.
  • William Langer, Our Vichy gamble, Alfred Knopf, New York 1947.
  • Yves Maxime Danan, La vie politique à Alger de 1940 à 1944, Librairie générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Paris, 1963.
  • Albert Merglen, Novembre 1942: La grande honte, L'Harmattan, Paris 1993.
Preceded by
Joseph Joffre
Seat 35
Académie française

1931–1965
Succeeded by
Louis Leprince-Ringuet

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maxime Weygand - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1723 words)
Weygand was elected a member of the Académie française (seat #35) in 1931.
Weygand in World War II Weygand was recalled to active service by Edouard Daladier in August 1939 to head the French forces in the Middle East, where although France had been at war only with Germany, he had prepared his troops for a takeover by force against Soviet oil fields.
Weygand has acquired a reputation as an opponent of collaboration, when he protested in Vichy against the Protocols of Paris of 28 May 1941, signed by Admiral Darlan, agreements which alloted bases to the Axis in Alep (Syria), Bizerte and Dakar, and envisaged a military collaboration with Axis forces in the event of Allied response.
Maxime Weygand - definition of Maxime Weygand in Encyclopedia (429 words)
Some sources say that he was the illegitimate son of Empress Carlota of Mexico, which Weygand refused to either confirm or deny.
He was educated in Marseille and Paris before joining the military academy at Saint-Cyr, graduating in 1887 and was posted to a cavalry regiment.
WW II By May 1940 the military disaster in France was such that the Supreme Commander, Maurice Gamelin, was dismissed and Weygand was recalled to replace him.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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