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Encyclopedia > Maxim Gorky
Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov

Gorky's autographed portrait
Pseudonym: Maxim Gorky
Born: March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868
Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Empire
Died: June 18, 1936
Moscow, USSR
Occupation: writer
Literary movement: socialist realism

Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. From 1906 to 1913 and from 1921 to 1929 he lived abroad, mostly in Capri, Italy; after his return to the Soviet Union he accepted the cultural policies of the time, although he was not permitted to leave the country. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (577x760, 124 KB) Summary Source: [1] Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Maxim Gorky ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   8537. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... ... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in leap years). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922-1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924-1953 Joseph Stalin... Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula. ...

Contents

Life

Gorky became an orphan at the age of eleven and was brought up by his grandmother, an excellent storyteller. Her death deeply affected him, and after an attempt at suicide in December 1887, he travelled on foot across the Russian Empire for five years, changing jobs and accumulating impressions used later in his writing. Orphans, by Thomas Kennington An orphan (from the Greek ορφανός) is a person (or animal), who has lost one or both parents often through death. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897...

1900, Yasnaya Polyana. Leo Tolstoy and Gorky.
1900, Yasnaya Polyana. Leo Tolstoy and Gorky.
1900, Yalta. Anton Chekhov and Gorky.
1900, Yalta. Anton Chekhov and Gorky.

As a journalist working in provincial newspapers, he wrote under the pseudonym Иегудиил Хламида (Jehudiel Khlamida— suggestive of "cloak-and-dagger" by the similarity to the Greek chlamys, "cloak"). He began using the pseudonym Gorky (literally "bitter") in 1892, while working in Tiflis newspaper Кавказ (The Caucasus). The name reflected his simmering anger about life in Russia and a determination to speak the bitter truth. Gorky's first book Очерки и рассказы (Essays and Stories) in 1898 enjoyed a sensational success and his career as a famous writer set off. Gorky wrote incessantly, viewing literature less as an aesthetic practice (though he worked hard on style and form) than as a moral and political act that could change the world. He described the lives of people in the lowest strata and on the margins of society, revealing their hardships, humiliations, and brutalization, but also their inward spark of humanity. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2200x3156, 2750 KB)1900, Yasnaya Polyana. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2200x3156, 2750 KB)1900, Yasnaya Polyana. ... The city of Yasnaya Polyana in the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, (formerly Trakehnen in Prussia) was home to the world famous warmblood Trakehner horse breed stables. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker, and an influential member of the Tolstoy... 1900, Yalta. ... 1900, Yalta. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: IPA: ) was a Russian physician, short story writer, and playwright. ... A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... View of Tiflis from the Grounds of Saint David Church, ca. ...


Gorky’s reputation as a unique literary voice from the lower depths of society and as a fervent advocate of Russia’s social, political, and cultural transformation (by 1899, he was openly associating with the emerging Marxist social-democratic movement) helped make him a celebrity among both the intelligentsia and the growing numbers of “conscious” workers. At the heart of all his work was a belief in the inherent worth and potential of the human person (личность, lichnost'). He counterposed vital individuals, aware of their natural dignity, and inspired by energy and will, to people who succumb to the degrading conditions of life around them. Still, both his writings and his letters reveal a “restless man” (a frequent self-description) struggling to resolve contradictory feelings of faith and skepticism, love of life and disgust at the vulgarity and pettiness of the human world. Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


He publicly opposed the Tsarist regime and was arrested many times. Gorky befriended many revolutionaries and became Lenin's personal friend after they met in 1902. He exposed governmental control of the press (see Matvei Golovinski affair). In 1902, Gorky was elected an honorary Academician of Literature, but Nicholas II ordered this annulled. In protest, Anton Chekhov and Vladimir Korolenko left the Academy. Lenin redirects here. ... Matvei Vasilyevich Golovinski (alternatively Mathieu, Russian: ; 1865-1920) was an operative of Imperial Russian secret service and a writer. ... Zaid II of Russia (May 18, 1868–July 17, 1918)[1] (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[2] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: IPA: ) was a Russian physician, short story writer, and playwright. ... Vladimir Galktionovich Korolenko (Владимир Галактионович Короленко) (July 27, 1853- December 25, 1921) was a Russian short story writer and journalist. ...


The years 1900 to 1905 saw a growing optimism in Gorky’s writings. He became more involved in the opposition movement, for which he was again briefly imprisoned in 1901. Now a financially successful author, editor, and playwright, he gave financial support to the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), though he also supported liberal appeals to the government for civil rights and social reform. The brutal shooting of workers marching to the tsar with a petition for reform on January 9, 1905 (known as the “Bloody Sunday”), which set in motion the Revolution of 1905, seems to have pushed Gorky more decisively toward radical solutions. He now became closely associated with Vladimir Lenin’s Bolshevik wing of the party—though it is not clear whether he ever formally joined and his relations with Lenin and the Bolsheviks would always be rocky. His most influential writings in these years were a series of political plays, most famously The Lower Depths (1902). In 1906, the Bolsheviks sent him on a fund-raising trip to the United States, where in the Adirondack Mountains Gorky wrote his famous novel of revolutionary conversion and struggle, Мать (Mat’, The Mother). His experiences there—which included a scandal over his traveling with his lover rather than his wife—deepened his contempt for the “bourgeois soul” but also his admiration for the boldness of the American spirit. While briefly imprisoned in Peter and Paul Fortress during the abortive 1905 Russian Revolution, Gorky wrote the play Children of the Sun, nominally set during an 1862 cholera epidemic, but universally understood to relate to present-day events. 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... Demonstrators march to the Winter Palace Bloody Sunday (Russian: ) was an incident on 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905 in St. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Eagle Lake, Adirondack region The Adirondack mountain range is a group of mountains in the northeastern part of New York that runs through Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Lewis, and Warren counties. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Children of the Sun (original Russian title Дети солнца, Deti Solntsa) is a 1905 play by Maxim Gorky, written while he was briefly imprisoned in Saint Petersburgs Peter and Paul Fortress during the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905. ... Cholera is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. ...

Portrait of Gorky by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Helsinki, winter 1905-1906.
Portrait of Gorky by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Helsinki, winter 1905-1906.

From 1906 to 1913, Gorky lived on the island of Capri, partly for health reasons and partly to escape the increasingly repressive atmosphere in Russia. He continued to support the work of Russian social-democracy, especially the Bolsheviks, and to write fiction and cultural essays. Most controversially, he articulated, along with a few other maverick Bolsheviks, a philosophy he called “God-Building,” which sought to recapture the power of myth for the revolution and to create a religious atheism that placed collective humanity where God had been and was imbued with passion, wonderment, moral certainty, and the promise of deliverance from evil, suffering, and even death. Though God-Building was suppressed by Lenin, Gorky retained his belief that “culture”—the moral and spiritual awareness of the value and potential of the human self—would be more critical to the revolution’s success than political or economic arrangements. Image File history File links Gallen-Kallela_Gorky. ... Image File history File links Gallen-Kallela_Gorky. ... From the Kalevala, 1896 Akseli Gallen-Kallela (April 26, 1865 _ March 7, 1931) was a Finnish painter who is most of all known for his illustrations of the Kalevala, the Finnish national epic (illustration, right). ... Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrentine Peninsula. ...


An amnesty granted for the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty allowed Gorky to return to Russia in 1913, where he continued his social criticism, mentored other writers from the common people, and wrote a series of important cultural memoirs, including the first part of his autobiography. On returning to Russia, he wrote that his main impression was that “everyone is so crushed and devoid of God’s image.” The only solution, he repeatedly declared, was “culture.” The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ...


During World War I, his apartment in Petrograd was turned into a Bolshevik staff room, but his relations with the Communists turned sour. Two weeks after the October Revolution of 1917 he wrote: "Lenin and Trotsky don't have any idea about freedom or human rights. They are already corrupted by the dirty poison of power, this is visible by their shameful disrespect of freedom of speech and all other civil liberties for which the democracy was fighting." After his newspaper Novaya Zhizn (Новая Жизнь, "New Life") fell prey to Bolshevik censorship, Gorky published a collection of essays critical of the Bolsheviks called Untimely Thoughts in 1918. (It would not be published in Russia again until the end of the Soviet Union.) The essays call Lenin a tyrant for his senseless arrests and repression of free discourse, and an anarchist for his conspiratorial tactics; Gorky compares Lenin to both the Tsar and Nechayev. Lenin's 1919 letters to Gorky contain threats: "My advice to you: change your surroundings, your views, your actions, otherwise life may turn away from you." Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Red October redirects here. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (&#1051... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... Novaya Zhizn (Russian: , New Life) was the first legal newspaper of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. ... Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (also Sergei Nechaev, Сергей Геннадиевич Нечаев), born October 2, 1847, died either November 21 or December 3, 1882. ...


In August 1921, Nikolai Gumilyov, his friend, fellow writer and Anna Akhmatova's husband, was arrested by the Petrograd Cheka for his monarchist views. Gorky hurried to Moscow, obtained an order to release Gumilyov from Lenin personally, but upon his return to Petrograd he found out that Gumilyov had already been shot. In October, Gorky returned to Italy on health grounds: he had tuberculosis. Nikolai Gumilev during his senior years in gymnasium Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (Russian: , April 15 NS 1886 - August 1921) was an influential Russian poet who founded the acmeism movement. ... Akhmatova in the 1920s Anna Akhmatova (Russian: , real name А́нна Андре́евна Горе́нко) (June 23, 1889 [O.S. June 11] — March 5, 1966) was the pen name of Anna Andreevna Gorenko, the leader and the heart and soul of St Petersburg tradition of Russian poetry in the course of half a century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones, joints, and even the...

1931. Voroshilov, Gorky, Stalin (left to right)
1931. Voroshilov, Gorky, Stalin (left to right)

According to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Gorky's return to the Soviet Union was motivated by material needs. In Sorrento, Gorky found himself without money and without fame. He visited the USSR several times after 1929, and in 1932 Joseph Stalin personally invited him to return for good, an offer he accepted. In June 1929, Gorky visited Solovki (cleaned up for this occasion) and wrote a positive article about that Gulag camp, which had already gained ill fame in the West. Stalin, Gorky, Voroshilov in 1931 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Stalin, Gorky, Voroshilov in 1931 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Voroshilov Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov () (January 23, 1881 - December 2, 1969) was a Soviet military commander and politician. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (Russian: , IPA:  ; born December 11, 1918) is a Russian novelist, dramatist and historian. ... Sorrento is the name of many cities and towns: Sorrento,_Italy Sorrento,_Florida, United States of America Sorrento, suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Sorrento, suburb of Perth, Western Australia, Australia Sorrento, Hong Kong, the largest residential development on Kowloon Station This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Solovki is located in the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...

Gorky, Kaganovich, Molotov, Voroshilov, Stalin and Kalinin at the podium of Lenin's mausoleum.
Gorky, Kaganovich, Molotov, Voroshilov, Stalin and Kalinin at the podium of Lenin's mausoleum.

Gorky's return from fascist Italy was a major propaganda victory for the Soviets. He was decorated with the Order of Lenin and given a mansion (formerly belonging to the millionaire Ryabushinsky, now the Gorky Museum) in Moscow and a dacha in the suburbs. One of the central Moscow streets, Tverskaya, was renamed in his honor, as was the city of his birth. The largest fixed-wing aircraft in the world in the mid-1930s, the Tupolev ANT-20 ( photo), was also named Maxim Gorky. It was used for propaganda purposes and often demonstratively flew over the Soviet capital. Image File history File links On Lenins masoleum: Gorky, Kaganovich, Molotov, Voroshilov, Stalin, Kalinin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links On Lenins masoleum: Gorky, Kaganovich, Molotov, Voroshilov, Stalin, Kalinin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lazar Kaganovich Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Ла́зарь Моисе́евич Кагано́вич) (November 22, 1893–July 25, 1991) was a Soviet politician and a supporter of Joseph Stalin. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Kalinin A 1919 image showing Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin (right) Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: ) (November 19 [O.S. November 7] 1875 – June 3, 1946) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... Fascism is a political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and/or historical terms, above all other sources of loyalty, and to create a mobilized national community. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. ... The Order of Lenin (ru: Орден Ленина), named after the leader of the Russian Revolution, was the second highest national order of the Soviet Union (Highest was the Order of Victory). ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... ANT-20 Maxim Gorky propaganda aircraft in the Moscow sky The Tupolev ANT-20 (also known as the Maxim Gorky) (Туполев АНТ-20 Максим Горький in Russian) was a Soviet 8-engine aircraft, the largest in the 1930s. ... ANT-20 Maxim Gorky 1930s. ...


In 1933 Gorky edited an infamous book about the Belomorkanal, presented as an example of "successful rehabilitation of the former enemies of proletariat." A map of the White Sea–Baltic Sea Canal. ... The term enemy of the people (Russian language: враг народа, vrag naroda) was a fluid designation under the Bolsheviks rule in regards to their real or suspected political or class opponents, sometimes including former allies. ...

Older Gorky. Artistic rendering.
Older Gorky. Artistic rendering.

With the increase of Stalinist repression and especially after the assassination of Sergei Kirov in December 1934, Gorky was placed under unannounced house arrest in his Moscow house. He was given a daily special edition of the newspaper Pravda, containing no news about arrests or purges [citation needed]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (793x1024, 104 KB)image of russian writer gorki From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (793x1024, 104 KB)image of russian writer gorki From [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Joseph Stalin. ... Sergei Mironovich Kirov (Серге́й Миро́нович Ки́ров) (March 15 O.S. = March 27 N.S., 1886 - December 1, 1934) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist. ... In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... The front page of an issue of Pravda. ...


The sudden death of his son Maxim Peshkov in May 1935 was followed by the death of Maxim Gorky in June 1936. Both died under suspicious circumstances, but speculation that they were poisoned have never been proven. Stalin and Molotov were among those who carried Gorky's coffin during the funeral. For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...


During the Bukharin trials in 1938, one of the charges was that Gorky was killed by Yagoda's NKVD agents. Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9, 1888 [O.S. September 27] – March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Genrikh Yagoda Genrikh Grigorevich Yagoda (Russian: ; born Enokh Gershonovich Yagoda; 1891 – March 15, 1938) was the head of the NKVD, the Soviet secret police, from 1934 to 1936. ... The NKVD (Narodnyi Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del )(Russian: НКВД, Народный комиссариат внутренних дел) or Peoples Commisariat for Internal Affairs was a government department which handled a number of the Soviet Unions affairs of state. ...


In Soviet times, before and after his death, the complexities in Gorky's life and outlook were reduced to an iconic image (echoed in heroic pictures and statues dotting the countryside): Gorky as a great Russian writer who emerged from the common people, a loyal friend of the Bolsheviks, and the founder of the increasingly canonical "socialist realism." In turn, dissident intellectuals dismissed Gorky as a tendentious ideological writer, though some Western writers noted Gorky's doubts and criticisms. Today, greater balance is to be found in works on Gorky, where we see a growing appreciation of the complex moral perspective on modern Russian life expressed in his writings. Some historians have begun to view Gorky as one of the most insightful observers of both the promises and moral dangers of revolution in Russia. Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ...


Gorky's city of birth was renamed back into Nizhny Novgorod in 1990. Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny and also transliterated into English as Nizhniy Novgorod or Nizhni Novgorod or Nizhnii Novgorod, is the fourth largest city of Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ...


Selected works

  • Makar Chudra (Макар Чудра), short story, 1892
  • Chelkash (Челкаш)
  • Petit-Bourgeois (Мещане) (or The Philistines)
  • Malva
  • Creatures That Once Were Men
  • Twenty-six Men and a Girl
  • Foma Gordeyev (Фома Гордеев), novel, 1899
  • Three of Them (Трое), 1900
  • Summerfolk, 1904
  • A Confession (Исповедь), 1908
  • Okurov City (Городок Окуров), novel, 1908
    Gorky Reading to Stalin and Molotov (1940).
    This image has an uncertain copyright status and is pending deletion. You can comment on the removal.
  • The Life of Matvei Kozhemyakin (Жизнь Матвея Кожемякина)
  • Children of the Sun (Дети солнца), drama, 1905
  • Enemies, drama, 1906
  • Mother (Мать), novel, 1907
  • The Lasts, drama, 1908
  • Children, drama, 1910
  • The Lower Depths (На дне), 1902
  • Childhood (Детство), 1913–1914
  • The Old Man, drama, 1915
  • In the World (В людях), 1916
  • Song of a Storm petrel (Песня о Буревестнике)
  • Untimely Thoughts, articles, 1918
  • Song of a Falcon (Песня о Соколе),short story, 1902
  • My Universities (Мои университеты), 1923
  • The Artamonov Business (Дело Артамоновых), 1927
  • Life of Klim Samgin (Жизнь Клима Самгина), epopeia, 1927-36
  • Reminiscences of Tolstoy (1919), Chekhov (1905-21), and Andreyev
  • V.I.Lenin (В.И.Ленин), reminiscence, 1924-31
  • The I.V.Stalin White Sea - Baltic Sea Canal, 1934 (editor-in-chief)

Summerfolk (Russian: ) is theatre play written in 1903 by Maxim Gorky. ... Image File history File links Gorky_Reading_to_Stalin_by_Viktor_Govorov. ... Image File history File links Gorky_Reading_to_Stalin_by_Viktor_Govorov. ... Children of the Sun (original Russian title Дети солнца, Deti Solntsa) is a 1905 play by Maxim Gorky, written while he was briefly imprisoned in Saint Petersburgs Peter and Paul Fortress during the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905. ... The Lower Depths is perhaps Maxim Gorkys best-known play. ... The Song of the Stormy Petrel (Песня о Буревестнике, English translation below) is a short piece of revolutionary literature written by the Russian writer Maksim Gorki in 1901. ... White Sea-Baltic Sea Canal (Russian: Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal (BBK)), opened on August 2, 1933 is a ship canal that joins the White Sea and the Baltic Sea near St. ...

Works about Gorky

  • The Gorky Trilogy is a series of three feature films—The Childhood of Maxim Gorky, My Apprenticeship, and My Universities—directed by Mark Donskoy, filmed in the Soviet Union, released 1938-1940. The trilogy was adapted from Gorky's autobiography.

Mark Donskoi (Russian: ; 6 March [O.S. 21 February] 1901 in Odessa â€“ 21 March 1981) was a Soviet film director. ...

Quotes

  • "Если враг не сдается, его уничтожают" (If the enemy doesn't surrender, he shall be exterminated!)
  • "When work is a pleasure, life is a joy! When work is duty, life is slavery."

See also

ANT-20 Maxim Gorky propaganda aircraft in the Moscow sky The Tupolev ANT-20 (also known as the Maxim Gorky) (Туполев АНТ-20 Максим Горький in Russian) was a Soviet 8-engine aircraft, the largest in the 1930s. ... 2768 Gorky is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by L. V. Zhuravleva in 1978. ... Ekaterina Peshkova Ekaterina Pavlovna Peshkova nee Volzhina (Russian: , 1887-1965) was a Russian human rights activist and humanitarian, first wife of Maxim Gorky. ... Zinovy Alekseyevich Peshkov (Russian: Зиновий Алексеевич Пешков, French: Zinovi Pechkoff or Pechkov, October 16, 1884 — November 27, 1966) was a Russian-born French general and diplomat. ... Gorky Park (Moscow) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Maxim Gorky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (976 words)
Gorky became an orphan at the age of nine and was brought up by his grandmother, an excellent storyteller.
Gorky, Kaganovich, Molotov, Voroshilov, Stalin and Kalinin at the podium of Lenin's mausoleum.
"Anton Chekhov: Fragments of Recollections" by Maxim Gorky
Gorky, Maxim. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (573 words)
Gorky is considered the father of Soviet literature and the founder of the doctrine of socialist realism.
Although philosophically at odds with Lenin, Gorky was able to extract from him aid for many intellectuals and artists in an era of intellectual restriction.
Gorky’s death at 68 has been ascribed to assassination by poison, perpetrated according to one view by an anti-Soviet group.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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