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Encyclopedia > Max Weber
Maximilian Weber

German political economist and sociologist
Born April 21, 1864(1864-04-21)
Erfurt, Germany
Died June 14, 1920

Maximilian Carl Emil Weber (IPA: [maks ˈveːbɐ]) (April 21, 1864June 14, 1920) was a German political economist and sociologist who is considered one of the founders of the modern study of sociology and public administration. He began his career at the University of Berlin, and later worked at Freiburg University, University of Heidelberg, University of Vienna and University of Munich. He was influential in contemporary German politics, being an advisor to Germany's negotiators at the Treaty of Versailles and to the commission charged with drafting the Weimar Constitution. Max Weber (August 2, 1897 - December 2, 1974) was a Swiss politician. ... Max Weber (27 August 1824 – 15 June 1901) was a military officer, most known for serving as a Brigadier General of the Union army during the American Civil War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ...


His major works[1] deal with rationalisation in sociology of religion and government, but he also contributed much in the field of economics. His most famous work is his essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, which began his work in the sociology of religion. In this work, Weber argued that religion was one of the non-exclusive reasons for the different ways the cultures of the Occident and the Orient have developed, and stressed importance of particular characteristics of ascetic Protestantism which led to the development of capitalism, bureaucracy and the rational-legal state in the West. In another major work, Politics as a Vocation, Weber defined the state as an entity which claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force, a definition that became pivotal to the study of modern Western political science. His most known contributions are often referred to as the 'Weber Thesis'. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... Occident has a number of meanings. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... The West can refer to : The U.S. West or the American West The Western world, or Western Civilization. ... Politics as a Vocation (Politik als Beruf) is an 1918 essay written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Weber Thesis can refer to several concepts proposed by Max Weber, among them: Monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Categories: | ...

Contents

Life and career

Weber was born in Erfurt in Thuringia, Germany, the eldest of seven children of Max Weber Sr., a prominent liberal politician and civil servant, and Helene Fallenstein, a moderate Calvinist. [2] Weber Sr.'s engagement with public life immersed the family home in politics, as his salon received many prominent scholars and public figures. The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...


The young Weber and his brother Alfred, who also became a sociologist and economist, thrived in this intellectual atmosphere. Max's 1876 Christmas presents to his parents, when he was thirteen years old, were two historical essays entitled "About the course of German history, with special reference to the positions of the emperor and the pope" and "About the Roman Imperial period from Constantine to the migration of nations".[3] At the age of fourteen, he wrote letters studded with references to Homer, Virgil, Cicero, and Livy, and he had an extended knowledge of Goethe, Spinoza, Kant, and Schopenhauer before he began university studies. It seemed clear that Weber would pursue advanced studies in the social sciences. Alfred Weber (July 30, 1868 in Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany - May 2, 1958 in Heidelberg) was a German economist, sociologist and theoretician of culture whose work was influential in the development of modern economic geography. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in American English or in British English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher born in Gdańsk (Danzig), Poland. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...

Max Weber and his brothers, Alfred and Karl, in 1879

In 1882 Weber enrolled in the University of Heidelberg as a law student.[4] Weber joined his father's duelling fraternity, and chose as his major study Weber Sr.'s field of law. Along with his law coursework, young Weber attended lectures in economics and studied medieval history and theology. Intermittently, he served with the German army in Strasbourg. max weber and brothers 1879 I assume it is current picture is public domain since this is a photo of Max Weber and he died in 1920 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... max weber and brothers 1879 I assume it is current picture is public domain since this is a photo of Max Weber and he died in 1920 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Reichswehr (help· info) (literally National Defense or Imperial Defense) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when the government rebranded it as the Wehrmacht (Defence Force). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...


In the fall of 1884, Weber returned to his parents' home to study at the University of Berlin. For the next eight years of his life, interrupted only by a term at the University of Goettingen and short periods of further military training, Weber stayed at his parents' house; first as a student, later as a junior barrister, and finally as a Dozent at the University of Berlin. In 1886 Weber passed the examination for "Referendar", comparable to the bar association examination in the British and American legal systems. Throughout the late 1880s, Weber continued his study of history. He earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a doctoral dissertation on legal history entitled The History of Medieval Business Organisations.[4] Two years later, Weber completed his "Habilitationsschrift", The Roman Agrarian History and its Significance for Public and Private Law.[5] Having thus become a "Privatdozent", Weber was now qualified to hold a German professorship. There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... British barristers wearing traditional dress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the thesis in dialectics and academia. ... Zur Geschichte der Handelgesellschaften im Mittelalter is a doctoral dissertation written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1889. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... Roman Agrarian History and its Significance for Public and Private Law (in German: Die Römische Agrargeschichte in ihrer Bedeutung für das Staats- und Privatrecht) is a book written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1891. ... Privatdozent (PD or Priv. ...


In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation, Weber took an interest in contemporary social policy. In 1888 he joined the "Verein für Socialpolitik",[6] the new professional association of German economists affiliated with the historical school, who saw the role of economics primarily as the solving of the wide-ranging social problems of the age, and who pioneered large-scale statistical studies of economic problems. He also involved himself in politics, joining the left leaning Evangelical Social Congress.[7] In 1890 the "Verein" established a research program to examine "the Polish question" or Ostflucht, meaning the influx of foreign farm workers into eastern Germany as local labourers migrated to Germany's rapidly industrialising cities. Weber was put in charge of the study, and wrote a large part of its results.[6] The final report was widely acclaimed as an excellent piece of empirical research, and cemented Weber's reputation as an expert in agrarian economics. Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... The Verein für Socialpolitik is an important society of economists in the German-speaking area. ... The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... The Evangelical Social Congress was a social-reform movement of German evangelists founded in Whitsuntide in 1890. ... The Ostflucht (flight from the East) was a movement by residents of the historically eastern German regions, such as East Prussia, West Prussia, Silesia and Province of Posen beginning around 1850, to the more industrialized western German Rhine and Ruhr provinces. ... Eastern Germany refers to: East Germany (communist state) Historical Eastern Germany Eastern provinces of Imperial Germany: East Prussia West Prussia Provinz Posen Silesia (Prussian province) Lower Silesia (Prussian province) Upper Silesia (Prussian province) Pomerania (Prussian province) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Agricultural economics applies the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock. ...

Max Weber and his wife Marianne in 1894

In 1893 he married his distant cousin Marianne Schnitger, later a feminist and author in her own right,[8] who was instrumental in collecting and publishing Weber's journal articles as books after his death. The couple moved to Freiburg in 1894, where Weber was appointed professor of economics at Freiburg University,[5] before accepting the same position at the University of Heidelberg in 1896.[5] Next year, Max Weber Sr. died, two months after a severe quarrel with his son that was never resolved.[9] After this, Weber became increasingly prone to nervousness and insomnia, making it difficult for him to fulfill his duties as a professor.[5] His condition forced him to reduce his teaching, and leave his last course in the fall of 1899 unfinished. After spending months in a sanatorium during the summer and fall of 1900, Weber and his wife traveled to Italy at the end of the year, and did not return to Heidelberg until April 1902. max and marienne weber 1894. ... max and marienne weber 1894. ... Photo of Marianne Weber. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ...

Max Weber in 1917
Max Weber in 1917

After Weber's immense productivity in the early 1890s, he did not publish a single paper between early 1898 and late 1902, finally resigning his professorship in fall 1903. Freed from those obligations, in that year he accepted a position as associate editor of the Archives for Social Science and Social Welfare[10] next to his colleagues Edgar Jaffé and Werner Sombart.[11] In 1904, Weber began to publish some of his most seminal papers in this journal, notably his essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. It became his most famous work,[12] and laid the foundations for his later research on the impact of cultures and religions on the development of economic systems.[13] This essay was the only one of his works that was published as a book during his lifetime. Also that year, he visited United States and participated in the Congress of Arts and Sciences held in connection with the World's Fair (Louisiana Purchase Exposition) at St. Louis. Despite his successes, Weber felt that he was unable to resume regular teaching at that time, and continued on as a private scholar, helped by an inheritance in 1907.[10] In 1912, Weber tried to organise a left-wing political party to combine social-democrats and liberals. This attempt was unsuccessful, presumably because many liberals feared social-democratic revolutionary ideals at the time.[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... The Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik was a journal for the social sciences in Germany between 1904 and 1933. ... Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (January 19, 1863-May 18, 1941) was a German economist and sociologist, the head of the Youngest Historical School and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century. ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... Culture (Culture from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate,) generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... Entrance to Creation Exhibit on the Pike Map of the St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country United States State Missouri County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ...


During the First World War, Weber served for a time as director of the army hospitals in Heidelberg.[15][10] In 1915 and 1916 he sat on commissions that tried to retain German supremacy in Belgium and Poland after the war. Weber's views on war, as well as on expansion of the German empire, changed throughout the war.[15][14][16] He became a member of the worker and soldier council of Heidelberg in 1918. In the same year, Weber became a consultant to the German Armistice Commission at the Treaty of Versailles and to the commission charged with drafting the Weimar Constitution.[10] He argued in favour of inserting Article 48 into the Weimar Constitution.[17] This article was later used by Adolf Hitler to institute rule by decree, thereby allowing his government to suppress opposition and obtain dictatorial powers. Weber's contributions to German politics remain a controversial subject to this day. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A workers council is a council, or deliberative body, composed of working class or proletarian members. ... The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... Article 48 was a measure in the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) that allowed the President to rule by decree without the consent of the Reichstag (parliament). ... The Weimar Constitution in booklet form. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Weber resumed teaching during this time, first at the University of Vienna, then in 1919 at the University of Munich.[10] In Munich, he headed the first German university institute of sociology, but ultimately never held a personal sociology appointment. Weber left politics due to right-wing agitation in 1919 and 1920. Many colleagues and students in Munich argued against him for his speeches and left-wing attitude during the German Revolution of 1918 and 1919, with some right-wing students holding protests in front of his home.[14] Max Weber died of pneumonia in Munich on June 14, 1920. The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten Statue of a revolutionary soldier, memorial to the German Revolution of 1918-1919 in East Berlin. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Achievements

Along with Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim,[18] Weber is regarded as one of the founders of modern sociology, although in his times he was viewed primarily as a historian and an economist.[18][19] Whereas Durkheim, following Comte, worked in the positivist tradition, Weber created and worked – like Werner Sombart, his friend and then the most famous representative of German sociology – in the antipositivist tradition.[20] Those works started the antipositivistic revolution in social sciences, which stressed the difference between the social sciences and natural sciences,[20] especially due to human social actions (which Weber differentiated into traditional, affectional, value-rational and instrumental[21]). Weber's early work was related to industrial sociology, but he is most famous for his later work on the sociology of religion and sociology of government. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Emile Durkheim. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... This article describes the term positivism as used in social sciences, especially within the science of sociology. ... Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (January 19, 1863-May 18, 1941) was a German economist and sociologist, the head of the Youngest Historical School and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century. ... Antipositivism is the view in sociology that social sciences need to create and use different scientific methods than those used in the field of natural sciences. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... -1... Traditional action is a social action taken because it was done in the past. ... Affectional action (or emotional action) is a social action caused by an emotion (revenge, love, loyalty, etc. ... Rational action (or value-rational action) is a social action pursued after evaluating its consequences and consideration of the various means to achieve it. ... Instrumental action is a social action which is taken because it leads to a valued goal, but with no thought of its consequences and often without consideration of the appropriateness of the means chosen to achieve it. ... Industrial sociology (also known as sociology of industrial relations or sociology of work) is both a study of the interaction of people within industry (e. ... // The sociology of religion is primarily the study of the practices, social structures, historical backgrounds, development, universal themes, and roles of religion in society. ... Political sociology is the study of sociology within the area of politics. ...


Max Weber began his studies of rationalisation in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he shows how the aims of certain ascetic Protestant denominations, particularly Calvinism,[22] shifted towards the rational means of economic gain as a way of expressing that they had been blessed. The rational roots of this doctrine, he argued, soon grew incompatible with and larger than the religious, and so the latter were eventually discarded.[23] Weber continues his investigation into this matter in later works, notably in his studies on bureaucracy and on the classifications of authority. In these works he alludes to an inevitable move towards rationalization. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... A religious denomination (also simply denomination) is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ...


It should be noted that many of his works famous today were collected, revised, and published posthumously. Significant interpretations of Weber's writings were produced by such sociological luminaries as Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills. Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Charles Wright Mills (August 27, 1916, Waco, Texas – March 20, 1962, Nyack, New York) was an American sociologist. ...


Sociology of religion

Weber's work on the sociology of religion started with the essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism and continued with the analysis of The Religion of China: Confucianism and General Taoism, The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism, and Ancient Judaism. His work on other religions was interrupted by his sudden death in 1920, which prevented him from following Ancient Judaism with studies of Psalms, Book of Jacob, Talmudic Jewry, early Christianity and Islam.[24] His three main themes were the effect of religious ideas on economic activities, the relation between social stratification and religious ideas, and the distinguishable characteristics of Western civilization.[25] The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Budhism also known as just the The Religion of India is a book written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist in the early twentieth century. ... Ancient Judaism (book) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Jacob is the third book of the Book of Mormon. ... The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes, and strata within a society. ...


His goal was to find reasons for the different development paths of the cultures of the Occident and the Orient, although without judging or valuing them, like some of contemporary thinkers who followed the social Darwinist paradigm; Weber wanted primarily to explain the distinctive elements of the Western civilization.[25] In the analysis of his findings, Weber maintained that Calvinist (and more widely, Christian) religious ideas had had a major impact on the social innovation and development of the economic system of Europe and the United States, but noted that they were not the only factors in this development. Other notable factors mentioned by Weber included the rationalism of scientific pursuit, merging observation with mathematics, science of scholarship and jurisprudence, rational systematisation of government administration, and economic enterprise.[25] In the end, the study of the sociology of religion, according to Weber, merely explored one phase of the freedom from magic, that "disenchantment of the world" that he regarded as an important distinguishing aspect of Western culture.[25] Occident has a number of meanings. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Social Innovation refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds - from working conditions and education to community development and health - and that extend and strengthen civil society. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, for many a symbol of the changes of the Western culture during the Renaissance Western culture or Western civilization is a term used to generally refer to most of the cultures of European origin and most of their descendants. ...


The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

Cover of the original German edition of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Cover of the original German edition of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

Weber's essay The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is his most famous work.[12] It is argued that this work should not be viewed as a detailed study of Protestantism, but rather as an introduction into Weber's later works, especially his studies of interaction between various religious ideas and economic behaviour. In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber puts forward the thesis that Calvinist ethic and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. This theory is often viewed as a reversal of Marx's thesis that the economic "base" of society determines all other aspects of it. [22] Religious devotion has usually been accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs, including economic pursuit.[26] Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses that paradox in his essay. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (753x1124, 286 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (753x1124, 286 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Max Weber The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


He defines "the spirit of capitalism" as the ideas and habits that favour the rational pursuit of economic gain.[27] Weber points out that such a spirit is not limited to Western culture, when considered as the attitude of individuals, but that such individuals – heroic entrepreneurs, as he calls them – could not by themselves establish a new economic order (capitalism). Among the universal tendencies identified by Weber that those individuals had to fight were the desire to profit with minimum effort, the idea that work was a curse and a burden to be avoided, especially when it exceeded what was enough for modest life. "In order that a manner of life well adapted to the peculiarities of capitalism could come to dominate others," wrote Weber, "it had to originate somewhere, and not in isolated individuals alone, but as a way of life common to whole groups of man." It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. ... In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian Man, for many a symbol of the changes of the Western culture during the Renaissance Western culture or Western civilization is a term used to generally refer to most of the cultures of European origin and most of their descendants. ... Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. ...


After defining the spirit of capitalism, Weber argues that there are many reasons to look for its origins in the religious ideas of the Reformation. Many observers like William Petty, Montesquieu, Henry Thomas Buckle, John Keats, and others have commented on the affinity between Protestantism and the development of the commercial spirit.[27] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... Sir William Petty (May 27, 1623 – December 16, 1687) was an English economist, scientist and philosopher. ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... Henry Thomas Buckle (November 24, 1821 - May 29, 1862) was an English historian, author of a History of Civilization. ... Keats grave in Rome (left). ...


Weber showed that certain types of Protestantism – notably Calvinism – favoured rational pursuit of economic gain and worldly activities which had been given positive spiritual and moral meaning.[22] It was not the goal of those religious ideas, but rather a byproduct – the inherent logic of those doctrines and the advice based upon them both directly and indirectly encouraged planning and self-denial in the pursuit of economic gain. A common illustration is in the cobbler, hunched over his work, who devotes his entire effort to the praise of God. In addition, the Reformation view "calling" dignified even the mundanest professions as being those that added to the common good and were blessed by God, as much as any "sacred" calling could. This Reformation view, that all the spheres of life were sacred when dedicated to God and His purposes of nurturing and furthering life, profoundly affected the view of work.


Weber stated that he abandoned research into Protestantism because his colleague Ernst Troeltsch, a professional theologian, had initiated work on the book The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches and Sects. Another reason for Weber's decision was that that essay has provided the perspective for a broad comparison of religion and society, which he continued in his later works.[28] The phrase "work ethic" used in modern commentary is a derivative of the "Protestant ethic" discussed by Weber. It was adopted when the idea of the Protestant ethic was generalised to apply to Japanese, Jews and other non-Christians. Ernst Troeltsch ( February 17 1865 – February 1, 1923) was a German Protestant theologian and writer on philosophy of religion and philosophy of history, and an influential figure in German thought before 1914. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... The Protestant work ethic is a biblically based teaching on the necessity of hard work, perfection and the goodness of manual labor. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism

The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism was Weber's second major work on the sociology of religion. Weber focused on those aspects of Chinese society that were different from those of Western Europe and especially contrasted with Puritanism, and posed a question why capitalism did not develop in China. In Hundred Schools of Thought Warring States Period, he concentrated on the early period of Chinese history, during which the major Chinese schools of thoughts (Confucianism and Taoism) came to the fore.[29] Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhū zǐ bǎi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By 200 BC, the Chinese state had developed from a loose federation of feudal states into a unified empire with patrimonal rule, as described in the Warring States Period.[29] As in Europe, Chinese cities had been founded as forts or leaders' residences, and were the centres of trade and crafts. However, they never received political autonomy and its citizens had no special political rights or privileges. This is due to the strength of kinship ties, which stems from religious beliefs in ancestral spirits. Also, the guilds competed against each other for the favour of the Emperor, never uniting in order to fight for more rights. Therefore, the residents of Chinese cities never constitute a separate status class like the residents of European cities.[30] A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The sociologist Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification in which he defines status class (also known as a status group) as a group of people (part of a society) that can be differentiated on the basis of non-economical qualities like honour, prestige and religion. ...


Early unification of the state and the establishment of central officialdom meant that the focus of the power struggle changed from the distribution of land to the distribution of offices, which with their fees and taxes were the most prominent source of income for the holder, who often pocketed up to 50% of the revenue. The imperial government depended on the services of those officials, not on the service of the military (knights) as in Europe.[30] Officialdom refers to the group of people that administer a government. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ...


Weber emphasised that Confucianism tolerated a great number of popular cults without any effort to systematise them into a religious doctrine. Instead of metaphysical conjectures, it taught adjustment to the world. The "superior" man (literati) should stay away from the pursuit of wealth (though not from wealth itself). Therefore, becoming a civil servant was preferred to becoming a businessman and granted a much higher status.[31] Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ...


Chinese civilisation had no religious prophecy nor a powerful priestly class. The emperor was the high priest of the state religion and the supreme ruler, but popular cults were also tolerated (however the political ambitions of their priests were curtailed). This forms a sharp contrast with medieval Europe, where the Church curbed the power of secular rulers and the same faith was professed by rulers and common folk alike. This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ...


According to Confucianism, the worship of great deities is the affair of the state, while ancestral worship is required of all, and the multitude of popular cults is tolerated. Confucianism tolerated magic and mysticism as long as they were useful tools for controlling the masses; it denounced them as heresy and suppressed them when they threatened the established order (hence the opposition to Buddhism). Note that in this context, Confucianism can be referred to as the state cult, and Taoism as the popular religion.[32] A belief in magic as a means of influencing the world seems to have been common in all cultures. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


Weber argued that while several factors favoured the development of a capitalist economy (long periods of peace, improved control of rivers, population growth, freedom to acquire land and move outside of native community, free choice of occupation) they were outweighed by others (mostly stemming from religion):

  • technical inventions were opposed on the basis of religion, in the sense that the disturbance of ancestral spirits was argued to lead to bad luck, and adjusting oneself to the world was preferred to changing it.
  • sale of land was often prohibited or made very difficult.
  • extended kinship groups (based on the religious importance of family ties and ancestry) protected its members against economic adversities, therefore discouraging payment of debts, work discipline, and rationalisation of work processes.
  • those kinship groups prevented the development of an urban status class and hindered developments towards legal institutions, codification of laws, and the rise of a lawyer class.[29]

According to Weber, Confucianism and Puritanism represent two comprehensive but mutually exclusive types of rationalisation, each attempting to order human life according to certain ultimate religious beliefs. Both encouraged sobriety and self-control and were compatible with the accumulation of wealth. However, Confucianism aimed at attaining and preserving "a cultured status position" and used as means adjustment to the world, education, self-perfection, politeness and familial piety. Puritanism used those means in order to create a "tool of God", creating a person that would serve the God and master the world. Such intensity of belief and enthusiasm for action were alien to the aesthetic values of Confucianism. Therefore, Weber states that it was the difference in prevailing mentality that contributed to the development of capitalism in the West and the absence of it in China.[33] Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ...


The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism

The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism was Weber's third major work on the sociology of religion. In this work he deals with the structure of Indian society, with the orthodox doctrines of Hinduism and the heterodox doctrines of Buddhism, with modifications brought by the influence of popular religiosity, and finally with the impact of religious beliefs on the secular ethic of Indian society.[34] Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Heterodox literally means pertaining to other doctrines or other worship. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ...


The ancient Indian social system was shaped by the concept of caste. It directly linked religious belief and the segregation of society into status groups. Weber describes the caste system, consisting of the Brahmins (priests), the Kshatriyas (warriors), the Vaisyas (merchants) and the Shudras (labourers). Then he describes the spread of the caste system in India due to conquests, the marginalisation of certain tribes and the subdivision of castes.[34] Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... The sociologist Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification in which he defines status class (also known as a status group) as a group of people (part of a society) that can be differentiated on the basis of non-economical qualities like honour, prestige and religion. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... In the Hindu caste system, a Vaishya (Sanskrit vaiśya, female vaiśyā) is a member of the third of the four major castes of the varna system of traditional Indian society, comprising farmers, herders, merchants, and businessmen. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... http://www. ...


Weber pays special attention to Brahmins and analyses why they occupied the highest place in Indian society for many centuries. With regard to the concept of dharma he concludes that the Indian ethical pluralism is very different both from the universal ethic of Confucianism and Christianity. He notes that the caste system prevented the development of urban status groups.[35] A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


Next, Weber analyses the Hindu religious beliefs, including asceticism and the Hindu world view, the Brahman orthodox doctrines, the rise and fall of Buddhism in India, the Hindu restoration, and the evolution of the guru. Weber asks the question whether religion had any influence upon the daily round of mundane activities, and if so, how it impacted economic conduct. He notes the idea of an immutable world order consisting of the eternal cycles of rebirth and the deppreciation of the mundane world, and finds that the traditional caste system, supported by the religion, slowed economic development; in other words, the "spirit" of the caste system militated against an indigenous development of capitalism.[35] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Guru (Sanskrit: ), is a teacher in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, as well as in many new religious movements. ... Rebirth may refer the following spiritual/religious concepts: Reincarnation Buddhist Rebirth The experience of being born again in Christianity Rebirth may also refer to: Rebirth, an album by Pain Rebirth, an album by Jennifer Lopez Rebirth, an album by Gackt Rebirth, an album by Angra ReBirth RB-338, software synthesizer... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ...


Weber concludes his study of society and religion in India by combining his findings with his previous work on China. He notes that the beliefs tended to interpret the meaning of life as otherworldly or mystical experience, that the intellectuals tended to be apolitical in their orientation, and that the social world was fundamentally divided between the educated, whose lives were oriented toward the exemplary conduct of a prophet or wise man, and the uneducated masses who remained caught in their daily rounds and believed in magic. In Asia, no Messianic prophecy appeared that could have given "plan and meaning to the everyday life of educated and uneducated alike." He argues that it was the Messianic prophecies in the countries of the Near East, as distinguished from the prophecy of the Asiatic mainland, that prevented Western countries from following the paths of China and India, and his next work, Ancient Judaism was an attempt to prove this theory.[36] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... In Abrahamic religions, messianic prophecies describe the coming, acts, authority, personality, nature, etc. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Ancient Judaism (book) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Ancient Judaism

In Ancient Judaism, his fourth major work on the sociology of religion, Weber attempted to explain the "combination of circumstances" which resulted in the early differences between Oriental and Occidental religiosity.[37] It is especially visible when the interworldly asceticism developed by Western Christianity is contrasted with mystical contemplation of the kind developed in India.[37] Weber noted that some aspects of Christianity sought to conquer and change the world, rather than withdraw from its imperfections.[37] This fundamental characteristic of Christianity (when compared to Far Eastern religions) stems originally from ancient Jewish prophecy.[38] Stating his reasons for investigating ancient Judaism, Weber wrote that Ancient Judaism (book) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Occidental means generally western. It is a traditional designation (especially when capitalized) for anything belonging to the Occident or West — the western part of the classical world (Europe) and the New World, and especially of its society. ... Religiosity is a comprehensive sociological term used to refer to the numerous aspects of religious activity, dedication, and belief. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... This article or section seems to describe future events as if they have already occurred. ...

Anyone who is heir to the traditions of modern European civilisation will approach the problems of universal history with a set of questions, which to him appear both inevitable and legitimate. These questions will turn on the combination of circumstances which has brought about the cultural phenomena that are uniquely Western and that have at the same time (…) a universal cultural significance.[37]

Further on he adds:

"For the Jew (…) the social order of the world was conceived to have been turned into the opposite of that promised for the future, but in the future it was to be overturned so that Jewry could be once again dominant. The world was conceived as neither eternal nor unchangeable, but rather as being created. Its present structure was a product of man's actions, above all those of the Jews, and God's reaction to them. Hence the world was a historical product designed to give way to the truly God-ordained order (…). There existed in addition a highly rational religious ethic of social conduct; it was free of magic and all forms of irrational quest for salvation; it was inwardly worlds apart from the path of salvation offered by Asiatic religions. To a large extent this ethic still underlies contemporary Middle Eastern and European ethic. World-historical interest in Jewry rests upon this fact. (…) Thus, in considering the conditions of Jewry's evolution, we stand at a turning point of the whole cultural development of the West and the Middle East".[38]

Weber analyses the interaction between the Bedouins, the cities, the herdsmen and the peasants, including the conflicts between them and the rise and fall of the United Monarchy. The time of the United Monarchy appears as a mere episode, dividing the period of confederacy since the Exodus and the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan from the period of political decline following the Division of the Monarchy. This division into periods has major implications for religious history. Since the basic tenets of Judaism were formulated during the time of Israelite confederacy and after the fall of the United Monarchy, they became the basis of the prophetic movement that left a lasting impression on the Western civilisation.[39] A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ...


Weber discusses the organisation of the early confederacy, the unique qualities of the Israelites' relations to Yahweh, the influence of foreign cults, types of religious ecstasy, and the struggle of the priests against ecstasy and idol worship. He goes on to describe the times of the Division of the Monarchy, social aspects of Biblical prophecy, the social orientation of the prophets, demagogues and pamphleteers, ecstasy and politics, and the ethic and theodicity of the prophets. Weber notes that Judaism not only fathered Christianity and Islam, but was crucial to the rise of modern Occident state, as its influence were as important to those of Hellenistic and Roman cultures. Reinhard Bendix, summarising Ancient Judaism, writes that Tetragrammaton redirects here. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... ASA Presidential Photo Reinhard Bendix (February 25, 1916-February 28, 1991) was an accomplished sociologist born in Berlin, Germany. ...

free of magic and esoteric speculations, devoted to the study of law, vigilant in the effort to do what was right in the eyes of the Lord in the hope of a better future, the prophets established a religion of faith that subjected man's daily life to the imperatives of a divinely ordained moral law. In this way, ancient Judaism helped create the moral rationalism of Western civilisation.[40]

Sociology of politics and government

In the sociology of politics and government, one of Weber's most significant contribution is his Politics as a Vocation essay. Therein, Weber unveils the definition of the state that has become so pivotal to Western social thought: that the state is that entity which possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force,[41] which it may nonetheless elect to delegate as it sees fit. In this essay, Weber wrote that politics is to be understood as any activity in which the state might engage itself in order to influence the relative distribution of force. Politics thus comes to be understood as deriving from power. A politician must not be a man of the "true Christian ethic", understood by Weber as being the ethic of the Sermon on the Mount, that is to say, the injunction to turn the other cheek. An adherent of such an ethic ought rather to be understood to be a saint, for it is only saints, according to Weber, that can appropriately follow it. The political realm is no realm for saints. A politician ought to marry the ethic of ultimate ends and the ethic of responsibility, and must possess both a passion for his avocation and the capacity to distance himself from the subject of his exertions (the governed).[42] Politics as a Vocation (Politik als Beruf) is an 1918 essay written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force designs an essential attribute of the states sovereignty. ... Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with right and wrong in human behaviour. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


Weber distinguished three pure types of political leadership, domination and authority: charismatic domination (familial and religious), traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonalism, feudalism), and legal domination (modern law and state, bureaucracy).[43] In his view, every historical relation between rulers and ruled contained such elements and they can be analysed on the basis of this tripartite distinction.[44] He also notes that the instability of charismatic authority inevitably forces it to "routinize" into a more structured form of authority. Likewise he notes that in a pure type of traditional rule, sufficient resistance to a master can lead to a "traditional revolution". Thus he alludes to an inevitable move towards a rational-legal structure of authority, utilising a bureaucratic structure.[45] Thus this theory can be sometimes viewed as part of the social evolutionism theory. This ties to his broader concept of rationalisation by suggesting the inevitability of a move in this direction. Ideal type, also know as pure type, or idealtyp (in the original German), is an typological term invented by sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to the tradition. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Look up patriarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... Social Evolutionism is a athropological and sociological social theory that holds that societies progress through stages of increasing development, i. ... Look up Rationalization on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Rationalization can refer to more than one thing: In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ...


Weber is also well-known for his critical study of the bureaucratisation of society, the rational ways in which formal social organisations apply the ideal type characteristics of a bureaucracy. It was Weber who began the studies of bureaucracy and whose works led to the popularization of this term.[46] Many aspects of modern public administration go back to him, and a classic, hierarchically organised civil service of the Continental type is called "Weberian civil service", although this is only one ideal type of public administration and government described in his magnum opus Economy and Society (1922), and one that he did not particularly like himself – he only thought it particularly efficient and successful. In this work, Weber outlines a description, which has become famous, of rationalisation (of which bureaucratisation is a part) as a shift from a value-oriented organisation and action (traditional authority and charismatic authority) to a goal-oriented organisation and action (legal-rational authority). The result, according to Weber, is a "polar night of icy darkness", in which increasing rationalisation of human life traps individuals in an "iron cage" of rule-based, rational control.[47] Weber's bureaucracy studies also led him to his analysis – correct, as it would turn out, after Stalin's takeover – that socialism in Russia would lead to over-bureaucratisation rather than to the "withering away of the state" (as Karl Marx had predicted would happen in communist society).[48] The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Public administration can be broadly described as the study and implementation of policy. ... The Byzantine civil service in action. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... Iron cage is a concept introduced by Max Weber. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and movements which aim to improve society through collective and egalitarian action; and to a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... World communism has a meaning close in meaning to ‘international communism’, which has usually been equated to the Comintern (Communist International). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Economics

While Max Weber is best known and recognised today as one of the leading scholars and founders of modern sociology, he also accomplished much in other fields, notably economics. During his life no such distinctions really existed, and Weber considered himself a historian and an economist first, sociologist distant second.[18][19] Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


From the point of view of the economists, he is a representative of the "Youngest" German historical school of economics.[49] His most valued contributions to the field of economics is his famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. This is a seminal essay on the differences between religions and the relative wealth of their followers. Weber's work is parallel to Sombart's treatise of the same phenomenon, which however located the rise of Capitalism in Judaism. Weber's other main contribution to economics (as well as to social sciences in general) is his work on methodology: his theories of "Verstehen" (known as understanding or Interpretative Sociology) and of antipositivism (known as humanistic sociology).[49] The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1904 and 1905 that began as a series of essays. ... Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (January 19, 1863-May 18, 1941) was a German economist and sociologist, the head of the Youngest Historical School and one of the leading Continental European social scientists during the first quarter of the 20th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Methodology is defined as the analysis of the // == Headline text == principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline or the development of methods, to be applied within a discipline a particular procedure or set of procedures. [1]. It should be noted that methodology is frequently used when method... Verstehen (also known as Interpretative Sociology, German for understanding, pronounced as though it rhymes with fair-stain) was used by Max Weber to describe a process in which outside observers of a culture (such as anthropologists) relate to an indigenous people on the observers own terms. ... Verstehen (also known as Interpretative Sociology, German for understanding, pronounced as though it rhymes with fair-stain) was used by Max Weber to describe a process in which outside observers of a culture (such as anthropologists) relate to an indigenous people on the observers own terms. ... Antipositivism is the view in sociology that social sciences need to create and use different scientific methods than those used in the field of natural sciences. ...


The doctrine of Interpretative Sociology is one of the main sociological paradigms, with many supporters as well as critics. This thesis states that social, economic and historical research can never be fully inductive or descriptive as one must always approach it with a conceptual apparatus, which Weber termed "Ideal Type".[49] The idea can be summarised as follows: an ideal type is formed from characteristics and elements of the given phenomena but it is not meant to correspond to all of the characteristics of any one particular case. Weber's Ideal Type became one of the most important concepts in social sciences, and led to the creation of such concepts as Ferdinand Tönnies' "Normal Type". Verstehen (also known as Interpretative Sociology, German for understanding, pronounced as though it rhymes with fair-stain) was used by Max Weber to describe a process in which outside observers of a culture (such as anthropologists) relate to an indigenous people on the observers own terms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sociological perspective. ... Induction or inductive reasoning, sometimes called inductive logic, is the process of reasoning in which the premises of an argument support the conclusion, but do not ensure it. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Ideal type, also known as pure type, or idealtyp (in the original German), is a typological term invented by sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920). ... A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ... The typological term normal type (in German: Normaltyp) has been coined by Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936, German sociologist). ...


Weber conceded that employing "Ideal Types" was an abstraction but claimed that it was nonetheless essential if one were to understand any particular social phenomena because, unlike physical phenomena, they involve human behaviour which must be interpreted by ideal types. This, together with his antipositivistic argumentation can be viewed as the methodological justification for the assumption of the "rational economic man" (homo economicus).[49] abstraction in general. ... Homo economicus, or Economic man, is a term used for an approximation or model of homo sapiens that acts to obtain the highest possible well-being for himself given available information about opportunities and other constraints, both natural and institutional, on his ability to achieve his predetermined goals. ... Homo economicus, or Economic man, is the concept in some economic theories of man (that is, a human) as a rational and self-interested actor who desires wealth, avoids unnecessary labor, and has the ability to make judgments towards those ends. ...


Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, with Social class, Social status and party (or politicals) as conceptually distinct elements.[50] Max Weber formulated a three-component theory of stratification, with social class, status class and party class (or politics) as conceptually distinct elements. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...

  • Social class is based on economically determined relationship to the market (owner, renter, employee etc.).
  • Status is based on non-economical qualities like honour, prestige and religion.
  • Party refers to affiliations in the political domain.

All three dimensions have consequences for what Weber called "life chances".[50] Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with rental agreement. ... Alexander Hamilton defending his honour by obliging to duel Aaron Burr. ... Prestige means good reputation or high esteem. ... Life chances (Lebenschancen in German) are the opportunities each individual has to improve their quality of life. ...


Weber's other contributions to economics were several: these include a (seriously researched) economic history of Roman agrarian society, his work on the dual roles of idealism and materialism in the history of capitalism in his Economy and Society (1914) which present Weber's criticisms (or according to some, revisions) of some aspects of Marxism. Finally, his thoroughly researched General Economic History (1923) can be considered the Historical School at its empirical best.[49] Roman Agrarian History and its Significance for Public and Private Law (in German: Die Römische Agrargeschichte in ihrer Bedeutung für das Staats- und Privatrecht) is a book written by Maximilian Weber, a German economist and sociologist in 1891. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Max Webers General Economic History (1923) was composed by his students from lecture notes shortly after his death. ...


See also

Despite, or perhaps because of, Webers influence on modern economics and sociology, aspects of his work have been criticised. ... Max Webers sociological achievements are well known. ... This is a list of people whose leadership has been characterized as based on charismatic authority by listed sources. ... This is the chronological list of Max Weber works. ... Weber influenced on German society and politics in the late 1910s. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... An approach to law stressing the actual social effects of legal institutions, doctrines, and practices and vice versa. ...

References

  1. ^ Weber wrote his books in German. Original titles printed after his death (1920) are most likely compilations of his unfinished works (note the 'Collected Essays...' form in titles). Many translations are made of parts or selections of various German originals, and the names of the translations often do not reveal what part of German work they contain. Weber's work is generally Iquoted according to the critical Gesamtausgabe (collected works edition), which is published by Mohr Siebeck in Tübingen, Germany. For an extensive list of Max Weber's works see list of Max Weber works.
  2. ^ Biography of Max Weber. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  3. ^ Sica, Alan (2004). Max Weber and the New Century. London: Transaction Publishers, p. 24. ISBN 0-7658-0190-6.
  4. ^ a b Bendix, Reinhard (July 1, 1977). Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press, pp. 1. ISBN 0-520-03194-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 2. 
  6. ^ a b Gianfranco Poggi, Weber: A Short Introduction, Blackwell Publishing, 2005, Google Print, p.5
  7. ^ Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (1984). Max Weber and German Politics, 1890–1920. University of Chicago Press, 19. ISBN 0226533999. 
  8. ^ Marianne Weber. Last accessed on 18 September 2006. Based on Lengermann, P., & Niebrugge-Brantley, J.(1998). The Women Founders: Sociology and Social Theory 1830–1930. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  9. ^ Essays in Economic Sociology, Princeton University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-691-00906-6, Google Print, p.7
  10. ^ a b c d e Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 3. 
  11. ^ The Early Academic Career. Last accessed on 18 September 2006. Based on Coser, 1977:237–239.
  12. ^ a b Essays in Economic Sociology, Princeton University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-691-00906-6, Google Print, p.22
  13. ^ Iannaccone, Laurence (1998). "Introduction to the Economics of Religion". Journal of Economic Literature 36, 1465–1496.
  14. ^ a b c Wolfgang J. Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber, University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 0-226-53400-6, Google Print, p.81, p. 60, [1] p. 327.]
  15. ^ a b Kaesler, Dirk (1989). Max Weber: An Introduction to His Life and Work. University of Chicago Press, p. 18. ISBN 0-226-42560-6
  16. ^ Gerth, H.H. and C. Wright Mills (1948). From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. London: Routledge (UK), ISBN 0415175038
  17. ^ Turner, Stephen (ed) (2000). The Cambridge Companion to Weber. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 142.
  18. ^ a b c William Petersen, Against the Stream, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0222-8, 2004, Google Print, p.24
  19. ^ a b Peter R. Baehr, Founders Classics Canons, Transaction Publishers, 2002, ISBN 0-7658-0129-9, Google Print, p.22
  20. ^ a b John K. Rhoads, Critical Issues in Social Theory, Penn State Press, 1991, ISBN 0-271-00753-2, Google Print, p.40
  21. ^ Joan Ferrante, Sociology: A Global Perspective, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005, ISBN 0-495-00561-4, Google Print, p.21
  22. ^ a b c Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 60–61. 
  23. ^ Andrew J. Weigert, Mixed Emotions: Certain Steps Toward Understanding Ambivalence, SUNY Press, 1991, ISBN 0-7914-0600-8, Google Print, p.110
  24. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 285. 
  25. ^ a b c d Bendix. Max Weber, Chapter IX: Basic Concepts of Political Sociology. 
  26. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 57. 
  27. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 54–55. 
  28. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 49. 
  29. ^ a b c Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 98–99. 
  30. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 99–100. 
  31. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 124. 
  32. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 126–127. 
  33. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 135–141. 
  34. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 142–158. 
  35. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 181. 
  36. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 199. 
  37. ^ a b c d Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 200–201. 
  38. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 204–205. 
  39. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 213. 
  40. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 256. 
  41. ^ Daniel Warner, An Ethic of Responsibility in International Relations, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991, ISBN 1-55587-266-2, Google Print, p.9
  42. ^ Randal Marlin, Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion, Broadview Press, 2002, ISBN 1-55111-376-7, Google Print.p155
  43. ^ Wolfgang J. Mommsen, The Political and Social Theory of Max Weber: Collected Essays, University of Chicago Press, 1992, ISBN 0-226-53400-6, Google Print, p.46
  44. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 296. 
  45. ^ Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 303–305. 
  46. ^ Marshall Sashkin, Leadership That Matters, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002, ISBN 1-57675-193-7, Google Print, p.52
  47. ^ George Ritzer, Enchanting a Disenchanted World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption, Pine Forge Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-8819-X, Google Print, p.55
  48. ^ Erik H. Erikson, Childhood and Society, W. W. Norton & Company, 1963, p. 401. ISBN 039331068X.
  49. ^ a b c d e Max Weber, 1864–1920 at the The New School for Social Research
  50. ^ a b Bendix. Max Weber, pp. 85–87. 

Tübingen, Neckar front Tübingen, a traditional university town of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 20 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between the River Neckar and the Ammer. ... This is the chronological list of Max Weber works. ... ASA Presidential Photo Reinhard Bendix (February 25, 1916-February 28, 1991) was an accomplished sociologist born in Berlin, Germany. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was a left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... Dirk Kaesler is the author of Max Weber:An introduction to his life and work, first published by University of Chicago Press in 1989. ... Charles Wright Mills (August 27, 1916, Waco, Texas – March 20, 1962, Nyack, New York) was an American sociologist. ... William Louis Petersen (born February 21, 1953) is an American actor, best known for playing Gil Grissom on CSI. // Petersen was born in Evanston, Illinois of Danish ancestry. ... Joan Ferrante is a professor at Northern Kentucky University. ... Daniel Warner is composer and professor of music at Hampshire College. ... Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion Randal Marlin is a philosophy professor at Carleton University who specializes in the study of propaganda. ... Wolfgang Justin Mommsen (November 5, 1930-August 11, 2004) was a left-wing German historian and the twin brother of Hans Mommsen. ... George Ritzer (born 1940) is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... Erik Homburger Erikson (June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994) was a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis. Bibliography Major works: Childhood and Society (1950) Young Man Luther. ...

Further reading

  • Korotayev A., Malkov A., Khaltourina D. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics. Moscow: URSS, 2006. ISBN 5-484-00414-4 [2] (Chapter 6: Reconsidering Weber: Literacy and "the Spirit of Capitalism").
  • Bernhard K. Quensel (2007), Max Webers Konstruktionslogik. Sozialökonomik zwischen Geschichte und Theorie. Baden-Baden: Nomos. ISBN 978-3-8329-2517-8 [Revisiting MW's concept of sociology against the background of his juristic and economic provenance within the framework of "social economics".]
  • Roth, Guenther (2001). Max Webers deutsch-englische Familiengeschichte. J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). ISBN 3-16-147557-7
  • Radkau, Joachim (2005). Max Weber The most important Weber-biography on Max Weber's life and torments since Marianne Weber.
  • Richard Swedberg "Max Weber as an Economist and as a Sociologist", American Journal of Economics and Sociology
  • Richard Swedberg, Max Weber and the Idea of Economic Sociology. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07013-X
  • Weber, Marianne (1926/1988). Max Weber: A Biography. New Brunswick: Transaction Books. ISBN 0-471-92333-8

Andrey Korotayev (born in 1961) is an anthropologist, economic historian, and sociologist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Photo of Marianne Weber. ...

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

Texts of Weber works: Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

  • Large collection of the German original texts
  • Large collection of English translations
  • Another collection of English translations
  • A comprehensive collection of English translations and secondary literature
  • English translations of many of Weber's works, unfortunately merged into one very long unformatted file
  • Max Weber Reference Archive

About Weber:

  • Biography entry and link section
  • Weber on Ideal Types
  • Max Weber – The person
  • More of Weber on Ideal Types
  • An essay on Max Weber's View of Objectivity in Social Science
  • Max Weber: On Capitalism As above, but on capitalism
  • Some of Weber concepts in the form of a list
  • Max Weber's HomePage "A site for undergraduates"


This article is a list connected to the template History of economic thought. ... This article is a list connected to the template History of economic thought. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... The English historical school of economics, although not nearly as famous as its German counterpart, sought a return of inductive methods in economics, following the triumph of the deductive approach of David Ricardo in the early 19th century. ... The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... --Duk 06:58, 18 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of human-made institutions in shaping economic behavior. ... The Stockholm School, or Stockholmsskolan, is a school of economic thought. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Austrian School, also known as the Vienna School or the Psychological School, is a school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... The Chicago School of Economics is a school of thought in economics; it refers to the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... It has been suggested that Economic schools of thought be merged into this article or section. ...

Persondata
NAME Weber, Maximilian
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Weber, Max
SHORT DESCRIPTION Founder of modern sociology
DATE OF BIRTH April 21, 1864(1864-04-21)
PLACE OF BIRTH Erfurt, Germany
DATE OF DEATH June 14, 1920
PLACE OF DEATH Munich, Germany

Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Max Weber (1052 words)
Max Weber is best known as one of the leading scholars and founders of modern sociology, but Weber also accomplished much economic work in the style of the "youngest" German Historical School.
Weber's other contributions to economics were several: these include a (seriously researched) economic history of Roman agrarian society (his 1891 habilitiation), his work on the dual roles of idealism and materialism in the history of capitalism in his Economy and Society (1914), present Weber on his anti-Marxian run.
Max Weber's position as an economist has been debated, and indeed, it is generally accepted now that it is in sociology that his impact was greatest.
Max Weber-Programm (832 words)
Weltkriegs 1914 ist Max Weber Disziplinaroffizier der Lazarettkommission in Heidelberg, wo er allerdings schon 1915 ausscheidet.
Weber hat auch wichtige Erkenntnisse zum Gebiet der Ökonomie beigesteuert.
Mit ausführlicher Einleitung, Anmerkungen und Erläuterungen, Zeittafel, Vollständiges Verzeichnis der Publikationen Max Webers und ausgewählter Sekundärliteratur.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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