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Encyclopedia > Max Planck
Max Planck

Born April 23, 1858(1858-04-23)
Kiel, Holstein
Died October 4, 1947 (aged 89)
Göttingen, West Germany
Nationality Germany
Fields Physicist
Institutions University of Kiel
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft
Alma mater Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Doctoral advisor Alexander von Brill
Doctoral students Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Erich Kretschmann
Walther Meißner
Walter Schottky
Max von Laue
Max Abraham
Moritz Schlick
Walther Bothe
Known for Planck's constant, quantum theory
Notable awards Nobel Prize in Physics (1918)
Notes
He is the father of Erwin Planck.

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck [1] (April 23, 1858October 4, 1947) was a German physicist. He is considered to be the founder of quantum theory, and one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. Max Planck was one of the most important German physicists of the late 19th and early 20th century, and is considered to be the founder of quantum theory. ... Max Planck taken from de:Bild:Max planck. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... The University of Kiel, in full the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (in short: CAU), is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is the second largest university in Germany (surpassed only by the University of Cologne). ... Gustav Ludwig Hertz (July 22, 1887, Hamburg – October 30, 1975, Berlin) was a German physicist, and a nephew of Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Erich Kretschmann (1887-1973) was a German mathematician and Gymnasium (school) teacher. ... Fritz Walther Meißner (December 16, 1882, Berlin - November 16, 1974, Munich) was a German technical physicist. ... Walter H. Schottky (July 23, 1886, Zürich, Switzerland - March 4, 1976, Pretzfeld, West Germany) was a German physicist who invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the tetrode in 1919 while working at Siemens. ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Max Abraham (March 26, 1875 - November 16, 1922) was a German physicist. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 Moritz Schlick ( )(April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891 – February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... A commemoration plaque for Max Planck on his discovery of Plancks constant, in front of Humboldt University, Berlin. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Erwin Planck Erwin Planck (born 12 March 1893; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter in the Third Reich. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ...

Contents

Biography

Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. His paternal great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen, his father was a law professor in Kiel and Munich, and his paternal uncle was a judge. Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Planck was born in Kiel, Holstein, to Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and his second wife, Emma Patzig. He was the sixth child in the family, though two of his siblings were from his father's first marriage. Among his earliest memories was the marching of Prussian and Austrian troops into Kiel during the Danish-Prussian war of 1864. In 1867 the family moved to Munich, and Planck enrolled in the Maximilians gymnasium school, where he came under the tutelage of Hermann Müller, a mathematician who took an interest in the youth, and taught him astronomy and mechanics as well as mathematics. It was from Müller that Planck first learned the principle of conservation of energy. Planck graduated early, at age 17.[2] This is how Planck first came in contact with the field of physics. , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1700+ killed, wounded, or... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Hermann Müller may refer to: Hermann Müller, (1829-1883), German botanist whose work provided important evidence for Darwins theory of evolution, and with whom Darwin corresponded. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ...


Planck was gifted when it came to music. He took singing lessons and played piano, organ and cello, and composed songs and operas. However, instead of music he chose to study physics. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


The Munich physics professor Philipp von Jolly advised Planck against going into physics, saying, "in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes." Planck replied that he did not wish to discover new things, only to understand the known fundamentals of the field, and began his studies in 1874 at the University of Munich. Under Jolly's supervision, Planck performed the only experiments of his scientific career, studying the diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum, but transferred to theoretical physics. Johann Philipp Gustav von Jolly (* September 26, 1809 in Mannheim, † December 24, 1884 in Munich) was a German physicist and mathematician. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ...


In 1877 he went to Berlin for a year of study with physicists Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and the mathematician Karl Weierstrass. He wrote that Helmholtz was never quite prepared, spoke slowly, miscalculated endlessly, and bored his listeners, while Kirchhoff spoke in carefully prepared lectures which were dry and monotonous. He soon became close friends with Helmholtz. While there he undertook a program of mostly self-study of Clausius's writings, which led him to choose heat theory as his field. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhof (March 12, 1824 – October 17, 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß) (October 31, 1815 – February 19, 1897) was a German mathematician who is often cited as the father of modern analysis. // Karl Weierstrass was born in Ostenfelde, Westphalia (today Germany). ... Rudolf Clausius - physicist and mathematician Rudolf Julius Emanuel Clausius (January 2, 1822 – August 24, 1888), was a German physicist and mathematician. ...


In October 1878 Planck passed his qualifying exams and in February 1879 defended his dissertation, Über den zweiten Hauptsatz der mechanischen Wärmetheorie (On the second fundamental theorem of the mechanical theory of heat). He briefly taught mathematics and physics at his former school in Munich. In the history of science, the theory of heat or mechanical theory of heat was a theory, introduced predominately in 1824 by the French physicist Sadi Carnot, that heat and mechanical work are equivalent. ...


In June 1880 he presented his habilitation thesis, Gleichgewichtszustände isotroper Körper in verschiedenen Temperaturen (Equilibrium states of isotropic bodies at different temperatures). Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ...


Academic career

With the completion of his habilitation thesis, Planck became an unpaid private lecturer in Munich, waiting until he was offered an academic position. Although he was initially ignored by the academic community, he furthered his work on the field of heat theory and discovered one after another the same thermodynamical formalism as Gibbs without realizing it. Clausius's ideas on entropy occupied a central role in his work. In the history of science, the theory of heat or mechanical theory of heat was a theory, introduced predominately in 1824 by the French physicist Sadi Carnot, that heat and mechanical work are equivalent. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 New Haven – April 28, 1903 New Haven) was one of the very first American theoretical physicists and chemists. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ...


In April 1885 the University of Kiel appointed Planck as associate professor of theoretical physics. Further work on entropy and its treatment, especially as applied in physical chemistry, followed. He proposed a thermodynamic basis for Arrhenius's theory of electrolytic dissociation. The University of Kiel, in full the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (in short: CAU), is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... Svante August Arrhenius (February 19, 1859 – October 2, 1927) was a Swedish chemist and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which complexes, molecules, or salts separate or split into smaller molecules, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible manner. ...


Within four years he was named the successor to Kirchhoff's position at the University of Berlin — presumably thanks to Helmholtz's intercession — and by 1892 became a full professor. In 1907 Planck was offered Boltzmann's position in Vienna, but turned it down to stay in Berlin. During 1909 he was the Ernest Kempton Adams Lecturer in Theoretical Physics at Columbia University in New York City. He retired from Berlin on 10 January 1926, and was succeeded by Erwin Schrödinger. Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ...


Family

In March 1887 Planck married Marie Merck (1861-1909), sister of a school fellow, and moved with her into a sublet apartment in Kiel. They had four children: Karl (1888-1916), the twins Emma (1889-1919) and Grete (1889-1917), and Erwin (1893-1945). Erwin Planck Erwin Planck (born 12 March 1893; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter in the Third Reich. ...


After the appointment to Berlin, the Planck family lived in a villa in Berlin-Grunewald, Wangenheimstraße 21. Several other professors of Berlin University lived nearby, among them theologian Adolf von Harnack, who became a close friend of Planck. Soon the Planck home became a social and cultural centre. Numerous well-known scientists, such as Albert Einstein, Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner were frequent visitors. The tradition of jointly performing music had already been established in the home of Helmholtz. Adolf von Harnack, German theologian Adolf von Harnack (May 7, 1851 - June 10, 1930), was a German theologian and science administrator. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ...


After several happy years the Planck family was struck by a series of disasters. In July 1909 Marie Planck died, possibly from tuberculosis. In March 1911 Planck married his second wife, Marga von Hoesslin (1882-1948); in December his third son Hermann was born.


During the First World War Planck's oldest son, Karl, was killed in action at Verdun, and Erwin was taken prisoner by the French in 1914. Grete died in 1917 while giving birth to her first child. Her sister died two years later the same way, after marrying Grete's widower. Both granddaughters survived and were named after their mothers. Planck endured these losses stoically. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Capital Verdun Government Republic Historical era Middle Ages  - Established Uncertain  - Three Bishoprics     annexed by France   1552  - Treaty of Westphalia     recognises annexation   1648 For other uses see Verdun (disambiguation) Verdun (medieval German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast...


In January 1945 his second son, Erwin, to whom he had been particularly close, was sentenced to death by the Volksgerichtshof because of his participation in the failed attempt to assassinate Hitler in July 1944. Erwin was hanged on 23 January 1945. Erwin Planck Erwin Planck (born 12 March 1893; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter in the Third Reich. ... The Peoples Court (German: Volksgerichtshof) was a court established by Adolf Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason against the Third Reich. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...

  • Wives: Marie Merck (m. 1887), Marga von Hoesslin (m. 1910)
  • Children: Karl (1888-1916), twins Emma (1889-1919) and Grete (1889-1917), Erwin (1893-1945), Hermann (b. 1911)

Erwin Planck Erwin Planck (born 12 March 1893; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter in the Third Reich. ...

Professor at Berlin University

In Berlin, Max Planck joined the local Physical Society. He later wrote about this time: "In those days I was essentially the only theoretical physicist there, whence things were not so easy for me, because I started mentioning entropy, but this was not quite fashionable, since it was regarded as a mathematical spook".[citation needed] Thanks to his initiative, the various local Physical Societies of Germany merged in 1898 to form the German Physical Society (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, DPG); from 1905 to 1909 Planck was the president. The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG) is a worldwide operating physics organization. ...


Planck started a six-semester course of lectures on theoretical physics, "dry, somewhat impersonal" according to Lise Meitner, "using no notes, never making mistakes, never faltering; the best lecturer I ever heard" according to an English participant, James R. Partington, who continues: "There were always many standing around the room. As the lecture-room was well heated and rather close, some of the listeners would from time to time drop to the floor, but this did not disturb the lecture". Planck did not establish an actual "school", the number of his graduate students was only about 20, among them: Lise Meitner ca. ... James Riddick Partington (June 20, 1886 - 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry. ...

Max Abraham 1897 (1875 - 1922)
Moritz Schlick 1904 (1882 - 1936)
Walther Meißner 1906 (1882 - 1974)
Max von Laue 1906 (1879 - 1960)
Fritz Reiche 1907 (1883 - 1960)
Walter Schottky 1912 (1886 - 1976)
Walther Bothe 1914 (1891 - 1957)

Max Abraham (March 26, 1875 - November 16, 1922) was a German physicist. ... Moritz Schlick around 1930 Moritz Schlick ( )(April 14, 1882–June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. ... Fritz Walther Meißner (December 16, 1882, Berlin - November 16, 1974, Munich) was a German technical physicist. ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... Walter H. Schottky (July 23, 1886, Zürich, Switzerland - March 4, 1976, Pretzfeld, West Germany) was a German physicist who invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the tetrode in 1919 while working at Siemens. ... Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891 – February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. ...

Black-body radiation

In 1894 Planck turned his attention to the problem of black-body radiation. He had been commissioned by electric companies to create maximum light from lightbulbs with minimum energy. The problem had been stated by Kirchhoff in 1859: how does the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body (a perfect absorber, also known as a cavity radiator) depend on the frequency of the radiation (e.g., the color of the light) and the temperature of the body? The question had been explored experimentally, but no theoretical treatment agreed with experimental values. Wilhelm Wien proposed Wien's law, which correctly predicted the behaviour at high frequencies, but failed at low frequencies. The Rayleigh-Jeans law, another approach to the problem, created what was later known as the "ultraviolet catastrophe", but contrary to many textbooks this was not a motivation for Planck.[3] As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... As the temperature decreases, the peak of the black body radiation curve moves to lower intensities and longer wavelengths. ... For other uses, see Frequency (disambiguation). ... Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (January 13, 1864 – August 30, 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to compose Wiens displacement law, which relates the maximum emission of a blackbody to its temperature. ... Wiens displacement law is a law of physics that states that there is an inverse relationship between the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body and its temperature. ... Comparison of Rayleigh-Jeans law with Wiens law and Plancks law, for a body of 8 mK temperature. ... The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh-Jeans catastrophe, was a prediction of early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation with infinite power. ...


Planck's first proposed solution to the problem in 1899 followed from what Planck called the "principle of elementary disorder", which allowed him to derive Wien's law from a number of assumptions about the entropy of an ideal oscillator, creating what was referred to as the Wien-Planck law. Soon it was found that experimental evidence did not confirm the new law at all, to Planck's frustration. Planck revised his approach, deriving the first version of the famous Planck black-body radiation law, which described the experimentally observed black-body spectrum well. It was first proposed in a meeting of the DPG on 19 October 1900 and published in 1901. This first derivation did not include energy quantization, and did not use statistical mechanics, to which he held an aversion. In November 1900, Planck revised this first approach, relying on Boltzmann's statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics as a way of gaining a more fundamental understanding of the principles behind his radiation law. As Planck was deeply suspicious of the philosophical and physical implications of such an interpretation of Boltzmann's approach, his recourse to them was, as he later put it, "an act of despair ... I was ready to sacrifice any of my previous convictions about physics."[3] Wiens displacement law is a law of physics that states that there is an inverse relationship between the wavelength of the peak of the emission of a black body and its temperature. ... Black body spectrum For a general introduction, see black body. ... In physics, the spectral intensity of electromagnetic radiation from a black body at temperature T is given by the Plancks law of black body radiation: where: I(ν) is the amount of energy per unit time per unit surface area per unit solid angle per unit frequency. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ...


The central assumption behind his new derivation, presented to the DPG on 14 December 1900, was the supposition that the electromagnetic energy could be emitted only in quantized form, in other words, the energy could only be a multiple of an elementary unit E = hν, where h is Planck's constant, also known as Planck's action quantum (introduced already in 1899), and ν is the frequency of the radiation. is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... In physics, quantization is a procedure for constructing a quantum field theory starting from a classical field theory. ... A commemoration plaque for Max Planck on his discovery of Plancks constant, in front of Humboldt University, Berlin. ...

Planck in 1918, the year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum theory
Planck in 1918, the year he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum theory

At first Planck considered that the quantisation was only as "a purely formal assumption ... actually I did not think much about it..."; nowadays this assumption, incompatible with classical physics, is regarded as the birth of quantum physics and the greatest intellectual accomplishment of Planck's career (Ludwig Boltzmann had been discussing in a theoretical paper in 1877 the possibility that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete). The full interpretation of the radical implications of Planck's work was advanced by Albert Einstein in 1905—for this reason, the philosopher and historian of science Thomas Kuhn argued that Einstein should be given credit for quantum theory more so than Planck, since Planck did not understand in a deep sense that he was "introducing the quantum" as a real physical entity.[4] It was in recognition of his monumental accomplishment that Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Look up quantum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Fig. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


The discovery of Planck's constant enabled him to define a new universal set of physical units (such as the Planck length and the Planck mass), all based on fundamental physical constants. In physics, Planck units are one of several systems of natural units, units of measurement that normalize certain fundamental physical constants to 1. ... The Planck length, denoted by , is the unit of length approximately 1. ... The Planck mass is the natural unit of mass, denoted by mP. It is the mass for which the Schwarzschild radius is equal to the Compton length divided by π. ≈ 1. ... A physical constant is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and constant in time. ...


Subsequently, Planck tried to grasp the meaning of the energy quanta, but to no avail. "My unavailing attempts to somehow reintegrate the action quantum into classical theory extended over several years and caused me much trouble." Even several years later, other physicists like Rayleigh, Jeans, and Lorentz set Planck's constant to zero in order to align with classical physics, but Planck knew well that this constant had a precise nonzero value. "I am unable to understand Jeans' stubbornness — he is an example of a theoretician as should never be existing, the same as Hegel was for philosophy. So much the worse for the facts, if they are wrong."[citation needed] See also Rayleigh fading Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh waves Rayleigh-Jeans law External links Nobel website bio of Rayleigh About John William Strutt MacTutor biography of Lord Rayleigh Categories: People stubs | 1842 births | 1919 deaths | Nobel Prize in Physics winners | Peers | British physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Sir James Hopwood Jeans (born Ormskirk, September 11, 1877, died Dorking, September 16, 1946) was a British physicist, astronomer and mathematician who was the first to propose the theory of continuous creation of matter in the universe. ... Hendrik Lorentz by Jan Veth Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (born July 18, 1853 in Arnhem, Netherlands; died February 4, 1928 in Haarlem, Netherlands) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


Max Born wrote about Planck: "He was by nature and by the tradition of his family conservative, averse to revolutionary novelties and skeptical towards speculations. But his belief in the imperative power of logical thinking based on facts was so strong that he did not hesitate to express a claim contradicting to all tradition, because he had convinced himself that no other resort was possible."[citation needed] Max Born (December 11, 1882 – January 5, 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician. ...


Einstein and the theory of relativity

Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal, Berlin June 28, 1929

In 1905 the three epochal papers of the hitherto completely unknown Albert Einstein were published in the journal Annalen der Physik. Planck was among the few who immediately recognized the significance of the special theory of relativity. Thanks to his influence this theory was soon widely accepted in Germany. Planck also contributed considerably to extend the special theory of relativity. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ...


Einstein's hypothesis of light quanta (photons), based on Philipp Lenard's 1902 discovery of the photoelectric effect, was initially rejected by Planck. He was unwilling to discard completely Maxwell's theory of electrodynamics. "The theory of light would be thrown back not by decades, but by centuries, into the age when Christian Huygens dared to fight against the mighty emission theory of Isaac Newton ..." In physics, the photon (from Greek φως, phōs, meaning light) is the quantum of the electromagnetic field; for instance, light. ... Philipp Eduard Anton von Lénárd, (June 7, 1862 in Preßburg, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, Slovakia)–May 20, 1947 in Messelhausen, Germany) was a Hungarian-German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Christiaan Huygens Christiaan Huygens (approximate pronunciation: HOW-khens; SAMPA /h9yGEns/ or /h@YG@ns/) (April 14, 1629–July 8, 1695), was a Dutch mathematician and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


In 1910 Einstein pointed out the anomalous behavior of specific heat at low temperatures as another example of a phenomenon which defies explanation by classical physics. Planck and Nernst, seeking to clarify the increasing number of contradictions, organized the First Solvay Conference (Brussels 1911). At this meeting Einstein was able to convince Planck. The specific heat capacity (symbol c or s, also called specific heat) of a substance is defined as heat capacity per unit mass. ... Walther Hermann Nernst (June 25, 1864 – November 18, 1941) was a German physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry. ... The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. ...


Meanwhile Planck had been appointed dean of Berlin University, whereby it was possible for him to call Einstein to Berlin and establish a new professorship for him (1914). Soon the two scientists became close friends and met frequently to play music together.


World War and Weimar Republic

At the onset of the First World War Planck was not immune to the general excitement of the public: "... besides of much horrible also much unexpectedly great and beautiful: the swift solution of the most difficult issues of domestic policy through arrangement of all parties... the higher esteem for all that is brave and truthful..." Admittedly, he refrained from the extremes of nationalism. He voted successfully for a scientific paper from Italy receiving a prize from the Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1915 (Planck was one of its four permanent presidents), although at that time Italy was about to join the Allies. The infamous "Manifesto of the 93 intellectuals", a polemic pamphlet of war propaganda, was also signed by Planck, while Einstein retained a strictly pacifistic attitude which almost led to his imprisonment (he was saved by his Swiss citizenship). But already in 1915 Planck revoked (after several meetings with Dutch physicist Lorentz) parts of the Manifesto, and in 1916 he signed a declaration against German annexationism. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: ) was an academy established in Berlin on July 11, 1700. ... The Manifesto of the Ninety-Three is the name commonly given to a 1914 proclamation endorsed by 93 prominent German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions in the early period of World War I. The Manifesto galvanized support for the war throughout German schools... Hendrik Lorentz by Jan Veth Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (born July 18, 1853 in Arnhem, Netherlands; died February 4, 1928 in Haarlem, Netherlands) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. ...


In the turbulent post-war years, Planck, now the highest authority of German physics, issued the slogan "persevere and continue working" to his colleagues. In October 1920 he and Fritz Haber established the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Organization of German Science), aimed at providing support for destitute scientific research. A considerable portion of the monies they distributed were raised abroad. In this time Planck held leading positions also at Berlin University, the Prussian Academy of Sciences, the German Physical Society and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (which in 1948 became the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Under such conditions he was hardly able to conduct research. Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, important for fertilisers and explosives. ... Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Acronym: NG; translation: Emergency Association of German Science. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ...


He became a member of the Deutsche Volks-Partei (German People's Party), the party of peace Nobel prize laureate Gustav Stresemann, which aspired to liberal aims for domestic policy and rather revisionistic aims for international politics. He disagreed with the introduction of universal suffrage and later expressed the view that the Nazi dictatorship resulted from "the ascent of the rule of the crowds". This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ...   (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ...


Quantum mechanics

At the end of the 1920s Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli had worked out the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, but it was rejected by Planck, as well as Schrödinger, Laue; and Einstein. Planck expected that wave mechanics would soon render quantum theory—his own child—unnecessary. This was not to be the case, however. Further work only cemented quantum theory, even against his and Einstein's philosophical revulsions. Planck experienced the truth of his own earlier observation from his struggle with the older views in his younger years: "A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."[5] Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Early twentieth century studies of the physics of very small-scale phenomena led to the Copenhagen interpretation. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... The wave equation is an important partial differential equation which generally describes all kinds of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ...


Nazi dictatorship and Second World War

When the Nazis seized power in 1933, Planck was 74. He witnessed many Jewish friends and colleagues expelled from their positions and humiliated, and hundreds of scientists emigrated from Germany. Again he tried the "persevere and continue working" slogan and asked scientists who were considering emigration to remain in Germany. He hoped the crisis would abate soon and the political situation would improve. There was also a deeper argument against emigration. Emigrating German non-Jewish scientists would need to look for academic positions abroad, but these positions better served Jewish scientists, who had no chance of continuing to work in Germany.


Hahn asked Planck to gather well-known German professors in order to issue a public proclamation against the treatment of Jewish professors, but Planck replied, "If you are able to gather today 30 such gentlemen, then tomorrow 150 others will come and speak against it, because they are eager to take over the positions of the others."[6] Under Planck's leadership, the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG) avoided open conflict with the Nazi regime, except concerning Fritz Haber. Planck tried to discuss the issue with Adolf Hitler but was unsuccessful. In the following year, 1934, Haber died in exile. Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development of synthetic ammonia, important for fertilisers and explosives. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


One year later, Planck, having been the president of the KWG since 1930, organized in a somewhat provocative style an official commemorative meeting for Haber. He also succeeded in secretly enabling a number of Jewish scientists to continue working in institutes of the KWG for several years. In 1936, his term as president of the KWG ended, and the Nazi government pressured him to refrain from seeking another term.


As the political climate in Germany gradually became more hostile, Johannes Stark, prominent exponent of Deutsche Physik ("German Physics", also called "Aryan Physics") attacked Planck, Sommerfeld and Heisenberg for continuing to teach the theories of Einstein, calling them "white Jews." The "Hauptamt Wissenschaft" (Nazi government office for science) started an investigation of Planck's ancestry, but all they could find out was that he was "1/16 Jewish." Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874 – June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics (German: ). The term was taken from the title of a 4-volume physics textbook by Philipp... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ...


In 1938 Planck celebrated his 80th birthday. The DPG held a celebration, during which the Max-Planck medal (founded as the highest medal by the DPG in 1928) was awarded to French physicist Louis de Broglie. At the end of 1938 the Prussian Academy lost its remaining independence and was taken over by Nazis (Gleichschaltung). Planck protested by resigning his presidency. He continued to travel frequently, giving numerous public talks, such as his famous talk on Religion and Science, and five years later he was sufficiently fit to climb 3,000-meter peaks in the Alps. Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th duc de Broglie, generally known as Louis de Broglie (August 15, 1892–March 19, 1987), was a French physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. ... The German word Gleichschaltung Ⓗ Ⓘ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ...


During the Second World War, the increasing number of Allied bombing campaigns against Berlin forced Planck and his wife to leave the city temporarily and live in the countryside. In 1942 he wrote: "In me an ardent desire has grown to persevere this crisis and live long enough to be able to witness the turning point, the beginning of a new rise." In February 1944 his home in Berlin was completely destroyed by an air raid, annihilating all his scientific records and correspondence. Finally, he got into a dangerous situation in his rural retreat due to the rapid advance of the Allied armies from both sides. After the end of the war he was brought to a relative in Göttingen. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


Planck endured many personal tragedies after the age of 50. In 1909, his first wife died after 22 years of marriage, leaving him with two sons and twin daughters. Planck's oldest son, Karl, was killed in action in 1916. His daughter Margarete died in childbirth in 1917, and another daughter, Emma, married her late sister's husband and then also died in childbirth, in 1919. During World War II, Planck's house in Berlin was completely destroyed by bombs in 1944 and his youngest son, Erwin, was implicated in the attempt made on Hitler's life in the July 20 plot. Consequently, Erwin died a horrible death at the hands of the Gestapo in 1945. Erwin's death destroyed Planck's will to live. By the end of the war, Planck, his second wife and his son by her, moved to Göttingen where he died on October 4, 1947. Erwin Planck Erwin Planck (born 12 March 1893; died 23 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician, and a resistance fighter in the Third Reich. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Religious view

Max Planck was a devoted and persistent adherent of Christianity from early life to death, but he was very tolerant towards alternate views and religions, and so was discontented with the church organizations' demands for unquestioning belief. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions...


The God in which Max Planck believed was an almighty, all-knowing, benevolent but unintelligible God that permeated everything, manifest by symbols, including physical laws. His view may have been motivated by an opposition like Einstein's and Schrödinger's against the positivist, statistical subjective quantum mechanics universe of Bohr, Heisenberg and others. Planck was interested in truth and Universe beyond observation, and objected to atheism as an obsession with symbols. “Einstein” redirects here. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Fig. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ...


Planck regarded the scientist as a man of imagination and faith, "faith" interpreted as being similar to "having a working hypothesis". For example the causality principle isn't true or false, it is an act of faith. Thereby Planck may have indicated a view that points toward Imre Lakatos' research programs process descriptions, where falsification is mostly tolerable, in faith of its future removal. [7] Causality or causation denotes the relationship between one event (called cause) and another event (called effect) which is the consequence (result) of the first. ... Imre Lakatos (November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a philosopher of mathematics and science. ...


Honours and awards

The Max Planck DM2 coin.
The Max Planck DM2 coin.
  • "Pour le Mérite" for Science and Arts 1915 (in 1930 he became chancellor of this order)
  • Nobel Prize in Physics 1918 (awarded 1919)
  • Lorentz Medal 1927
  • Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches (1928), an award from the German Reich President
  • Max Planck medal (1929, together with Einstein)
  • Copley Medal (1929)
  • Planck received honorary doctorates from the universities of Frankfurt, Munich (TH), Rostock, Berlin (TH), Graz, Athens, Cambridge, London, and Glasgow.
  • The asteroid 1069 was given the name "Stella Planckia" (1938)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Lorentz Medal is an award given every four years by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. ... The Presidential Palace (Reichspräsidentenpalais) in Berlin. ... The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of science and it is the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ...

See also

In physics, Planck units are one of several systems of natural units, units of measurement that normalize certain fundamental physical constants to 1. ... The Planck length, denoted by , is the unit of length approximately 1. ... The Planck mass is the natural unit of mass, denoted by mP. It is the mass for which the Schwarzschild radius is equal to the Compton length divided by Ï€. ≈ 1. ... In physics, the Planck time (tP), is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units. ... The Planck temperature, named after German physicist Max Planck, is the natural unit of temperature, denoted by TP. The Planck units, in general, represent limits of quantum mechanics. ... In physics, the Planck charge is the unit of electric charge, denoted by , in the system of natural units known as Planck units. ... In physics, Planck units are one of several systems of natural units, units of measurement that normalize certain fundamental physical constants to 1. ... 1 - conductors, Fp - Planck force, lp - Planck leght, Ip - Planck current. ... The Planck energy divided by the Planck time is the Planck power, equal to about 3. ... The Planck density is the natural unit of density, denoted by ρP. ρP = Planck mass / (Planck length)3 = ≈ 5. ... Black body spectrum In physics, Plancks law of black body radiation predicts the spectral intensity of electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths from a black body at temperature  : where the following table provides the definition and SI units of measure for each symbol: The wavelength is related to the frequency... A commemoration plaque for Max Planck on his discovery of Plancks constant, in front of Humboldt University, Berlin. ... Named after Max Planck, in cosmology the Planck epoch (or Planck Era) is the earliest period of time in the history of the universe, from zero to 10-43 seconds (one Planck time), during which all four fundamental forces were unified and elementary particles did not yet exist. ... A Planck particle is a hypothetical subatomic particle, defined as a tiny black hole whose Compton wavelength is the same as its Schwarzschild radius. ... The Planck Postulate (or Plancks Postulate) was used by Max Planck in his derivation of his law of black body radiation. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... Planck is a huge lunar crater that is located in the southern hemisphere of the Moon, on the far side as seen from the Earth. ... WMAP image, unrelated to Planck The Planck Surveyor is the third Medium-Sized Mission (M3) of ESAs Horizon 2000 Scientific Programme. ... Photon polarization is the quantum mechanical description of the classical polarized sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave. ...

Publications

  • Planck, Max. (1897). Vorlesungen über Thermodynamik
  • Planck, Max. (1900). “Entropy and Temperature of Radiant Heat.” Annalen der Physik, vol. 1. no 4. April, pg. 719-37.
  • Planck, Max. (1901). "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum". Annalen der Physik, vol. 4, p. 553 ff.

Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ...

Bibliography

  • Heilbron, J. L. The Dilemmas of an Upright Man: Max Planck and the Fortunes of German Science (Harvard, 2000) ISBN 0-674-00439-6
  • Rosenthal-Schneider, Ilse Reality and Scientific Truth: Discussions with Einstein, von Laue, and Planck (Wayne State University, 1980) ISBN 0-8143-1650-6
  • Clifford A. Pickover, Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them, Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0195336115

Clifford A. Pickover is an author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ...

References

  1. ^ According to a report by the Spiegel Online of 24 April 2008, a recent examination of the documents of the Church Archives in Kiel has shown that Marx is the actual first name and not Max. The word Marx is the Germanized form of the Latin word Marcus.
    Source: Christoph Seidler, Gestatten, Marx Planck, Spiegel Online, 24 April 2008, [1].
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Max Planck
  3. ^ a b For a solid approach to the complexity of Planck's intellectual motivations for the quantum, for his reluctant acceptance of its implications, see Helge Kragh, Max Planck: the reluctant revolutionary, Physics World. December 2000.
  4. ^ Thomas Kuhn, Black-Body Theory and the Quantum Discontinuity: 1894-1912 (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1978).
  5. ^ Quoted in Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970 ed.): p. 150.
  6. ^ In a slightly different translation, Hahn remembers Planck saying: “If you bring together 30 such men today, then tomorrow 150 will come to denounce them because they want to take their places.” This translated quote is found in: Heilbron, 2000, p. 150. Heilbron, at the end of the paragraph, on p. 151, cites the following references to Hahn’s writings: Otto Hahn Einige persönliche Erinnerungen an Max Planck MPG, Mitteilungen (1957) p. 244, and Otto Hahn My Life (Herder and Herder, 1970) p. 140.
  7. ^ adherents.com: The Religious Affiliation of Physicist Max Planck

, For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

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Biographies

Articles

Persondata
NAME Planck, Max
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
SHORT DESCRIPTION German physicist, quantum theory
DATE OF BIRTH April 23, 1858
PLACE OF BIRTH Kiel, Germany
DATE OF DEATH October 4, 1947
PLACE OF DEATH Göttingen, Germany

Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... For a generally accessible and less technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Max Planck - MSN Encarta (304 words)
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was born in Kiel on April 23, 1858, and educated at the universities of Munich and Berlin.
Planck's law states that the energy of each quantum is equal to the frequency of the radiation multiplied by the universal constant.
Planck's discoveries, which were later verified by other scientists, were the basis of an entirely new field of physics, known as quantum mechanics, and provided a foundation for research in such fields as atomic energy.
Max Planck (562 words)
Born in Kiel, Germany, on 23 April, 1858, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, was the sixth child of a professor of law at the University of Kiel.
Max's father took up a position at the University of Munich in 1867 and due to this move, Max Planck went to school at the Maximilian Gymnasium, where, as a result of lessons given by his teacher, Hermann Muller he seems to have developed a strong interest in maths and physics.
Max Planck was totally devastated by this final tragedy and eventually died at Gottingen on 4th October 1947.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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