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Encyclopedia > Max Born
Max Born

Max Born
Born December 11, 1882(1882-12-11)
Breslau, Germany
Died January 5, 1970 (aged 87)
Göttingen, Germany
Nationality German - British
Field Physicist
Institutions University of Frankfurt am Main
University of Göttingen
University of Edinburgh
Academic advisor   Carl Runge
Notable students   Victor Frederick Weisskopf
Robert Oppenheimer
Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim
Max Delbrück
Walter Elsasser
Friedrich Hund
Pascual Jordan
Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Herbert S. Green
Known for Foundations of quantum mechanics
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Physics (1954)
Religion Lutheran

Max Born (December 11, 1882January 5, 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician. He won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... I.G.Farben Building at Campus Westend The Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Carle David Tolmé Runge (August 30, 1856 – January 3, 1927) was a German mathematician, physicist, and spectroscopist. ... Weisskopf redirects here. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim (November 7, 1899, München - October 5, 1985, La Jolla, California, USA) was a German-born Jewish theoretical physicist. ... Max Delbrück in the early 1940s at Vanderbilt University. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Walter Maurice Elsasser (born March 20, 1904, in Mannheim, Germany; died October 14, 1991, in Baltimore) was a physicist and is considered father of the geodynamo theory. ... Carl von Weizacker & Friedrich Hund, Goettingen DPI Friedrich Hund (February 4, 1896 - March 31, 1997) : German physicist known for his work on atoms and molecules. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... Maria Goeppert Mayer: Physicist (Women in Science) ISBN 0791072479 Maria Goeppert-Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was born Maria Goeppert in Katowice, Silesia (then in Germany, now part of Poland). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Herbert (Bert) Sydney Green (17 December 1920 - 16 February 1999) was a doctoral student of the Nobel Laureate Max Born at Edinburgh. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Born was born in Breslau (now called Wrocław), which at Born's birth was in the Prussian Province of Silesia. He was one of two children of Gustav Born, (b. April 22, 1850, Kempen, d. July 6, 1900, Breslau), an anatomist and embryologist, and Gretchen Kauffmann (b. January 22, 1856, Tannhausen, d. August 29, 1886, Breslau), from a Silesian family of industrialists. Gustav and Gretchen married on May 7, 1881. Max Born had a sister called Käthe (b. March 5, 1884), and a half-brother called Wolfgang (b. October 21, 1892), from his father's second marriage (m. September 13, 1891) with Bertha Lipstein. His mother died when Max Born was four years old. Wrocław. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... Kempen can refer to: the town of Kempen in Germany; the German name of the Polish town of Kepno, or the fromer Prussian district Kreis Kempen; the Dutch and Belgian region of Kempen This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same... Tannhausen is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district. ...


Initially educated at the König-Wilhelm-Gymnasium, Born went on to study at the University of Breslau followed by Heidelberg University and the University of Zurich. During study for his Ph.D.[1] and Habilitation [2] at the University of Göttingen, he came into contact with many prominent scientists and mathematicians including Klein, Hilbert, Minkowski, Runge, Schwarzschild, and Voigt. In 1908-1909 he studied at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... The University of Breslau (Universität Breslau) was a university in Breslau, Germany, which existed from 1702 until the city with the rest of Silesia was occupied by Stalin and given to the Peoples Republic of Poland after the Second World War. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zürich. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... Felix Christian Klein (April 25, 1849, Düsseldorf, Germany – June 22, 1925, Göttingen) was a German mathematician, known for his work in group theory, function theory, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... Hermann Minkowski. ... Carle David Tolm Runge (August 30, 1856 – January 3, 1927) was a German mathematician, physicist, and spectroscopist. ... Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 - May 11, 1916) was a noted German Jewish physicist and astronomer, father of astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild. ... Woldemar Voigt (September 2, 1850 - December 13, 1919) was a German physicist. ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a...


When Born arrived in Göttingen in 1904, Klein, Hilbert, and Minkowski[3] were the high priests of mathematics and were known as the “mandarins.” Very quickly after his arrival, Born formed close ties to the latter two men. From the first class he took with Hilbert, Hilbert identified Born as having exceptional abilities and selected him as the lecture scribe, whose function was to write up the class notes[4] for the students’ mathematics reading room at the University of Göttingen. Being class scribe put Born into regular, invaluable contact with Hilbert, during which time Hilbert’s intellectual largesse benefited Born’s fertile mind. Hilbert became Born’s mentor and Hilbert eventually selected him to be the first to hold the unpaid, semi-official position of Hilbert’s assistant. Born’s introduction to Minkowski came through Born’s stepmother, Bertha, as she knew Minkowski from dancing classes in Königsberg. The introduction netted Born invitations to the Minkowski household for Sunday dinners. In addition, while performing his duties as scribe and assistant, Born often saw Minkowski at Hilbert’s house. Born’s outstanding work on elasticity - a subject near and dear to Klein - became the core of his magna cum laude Ph.D. thesis, in spite of some of Born’s irrationalities in dealing with Klein.[5] Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ...


Born married Hedwig, née Ehrenberg, who was also of Jewish descent (although a practising Christian), on August 2, 1913, and converted to the Lutheran faith soon thereafter; the marriage produced three children including G. V. R. Born. His granddaughter is the British-born Australian singer and actress Olivia Newton-John. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Gustav Victor Rudolf Born, born 29 July 1921, Germany, son of Max Born, is Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology at Kings College London and Research Professor at the William Harvey Research Institute, St. ... Olivia Newton-John AO OBE (born 26 September 1948) is a Grammy Award-winning and Golden Globe-nominated English-born Australian pop singer, songwriter and actress. ...


Career

After Born’s Habilitation in 1909, he settled in as a young academic at Göttingen as a Privatdozent.[6] In Göttingen, Born stayed at a boarding house run by Sister Annie at Dahlmannstarsse 17, known as El BoKaReBo The name was derived from the first letters of the last names of its boarders: “El” for Ella Philipson (a medical student), “Bo” for Born and Hans Bolza (a physics student), “Ka” for Theodore von Kármán (a Privatdozent), and “Re” for Albrecht Renner (a medical student). A frequent visitor to the boarding house was Paul Peter Ewald, a doctoral student of Arnold Sommerfeld on loan to David Hilbert at Göttingen as a special assistant for physics.[7] Richard Courant, a mathematician and Privatdozent, called these people the “in group.”[8] Boarding House is a privately owned house,in which individuals or families on vaccation, holidays, deputition,transfered on temporary duties, on some particular training,short&mediun tenure visitors,working professionals & lodgers,rent one or more rooms sets for one or more nights,sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months and... Theodore von Kármán (SzÅ‘llÅ‘skislaki Kármán Tódor) (May 11, 1881 – May 6, 1963) was an engineer and physicist who was active primarily in the fields of aeronautics during the seminal era in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Paul Peter Ewald (January 23, 1888 - August 22, 1985) was a U.S. (German-born) crystallographer and physicist. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... Richard Courant (born January 8, 1888 at Lublinitz, today Poland, died January 27, 1972 at New York/USA) was a German and American mathematician. ...


From 1915 to 1919, except for a period in the German army, Born was extraordinarius professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin, where he formed a life-long friendship with Albert Einstein. In 1919, he became ordinarius professor on the science faculty at the University of Frankfurt am Main. While there, the University of Göttingen was looking for a replacement for Peter Debye, and the Philosophy Faculty had Born at the top of their list. In negotiating for the position with the education ministry, Born arranged for another chair at Göttingen and for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck to fill it.[9] In 1921, Born became ordinarius professor of theoretical physics and Director of the new Institute of Theoretical Physics at Göttingen.[10] While there, he formulated[11] the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, published in July 1926[12] and for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954, some three decades later. The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics in an attempt to explain experimental data taken of the natural world. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... “Einstein” redirects here. ... ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch physical chemist. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex-valued function that describes an uncertain or unknown quantity. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


For the 12 years Born and Franck were at Göttingen, 1921 - 1933, Born had a collaborator with shared views on basic scientific concepts - a distinct advantage for teaching and his research on the developing quantum theory. The approach of close collaboration between theoretical physicists and experimental physicists was also shared by Born at Göttingen and Arnold Sommerfeld at the University of Munich, who was ordinarius professor of theoretical physics and Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics - also a prime mover in the development of quantum theory. Born and Sommerfeld not only shared their approach in using experimental physics to test and advance their theories, Sommerfeld, in 1922 when he was in the United States lecturing at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, sent his student Werner Heisenberg to be Born’s assistant. Heisenberg again returned to Göttingen in 1923 and completed his Habilitation under Born in 1924 and became a Privatdozent at Göttingen - the year before Heisenberg and Born published their first papers on matrix mechanics.[13] [14] Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... With approximately 48,000 students, the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München or LMU) is one of the largest universities in Germany. ... Quantum field theory (QFT) is the quantum theory of fields. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... Privatdozent (PD or Priv. ... Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. ...


In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. On July 9, Heisenberg gave Born a paper to review and submit for publication.[15] In the paper, Heisenberg formulated quantum theory avoiding the concrete but unobservable representations of electron orbits by using parameters such as transition probabilities for quantum jumps, which necessitated using two indexes corresponding to the initial and final states.[16] When Born read the paper, he recognized the formulation as one which could be transcribed and extended to the systematic language of matrices,[17] which he had learned from his study under Jakob Rosanes[18] at Breslau University. Born, with the help of his assistant and former student Pascual Jordan, began immediately to make the transcription and extension, and they submitted their results for publication; the paper was received for publication just 60 days after Heisenberg’s paper.[19] A follow-on paper was submitted for publication before the end of the year by all three authors.[20] (A brief review of Born’s role in the development of the matrix mechanics formulation of quantum mechanics along with a discussion of the key formula involving the non-commutivity of the probability amplitudes can be found in an article by Jeremy Bernstein.[21] A detailed historical and technical account can be found in Mehra and Rechenberg’s book The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 3. The Formulation of Matrix Mechanics and Its Modifications 1925–1926.[22]) Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... The main building of WrocÅ‚aw University, seen from the University bridge (Most Uniwersytecki) spanning the Oder River. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. ...


Up until this time, matrices were seldom used by physicists; they were considered to belong to the realm of pure mathematics. Gustav Mie had used them in a paper on electrodynamics in 1912 and Born had used them in his work on the lattices theory of crystals in 1921. While matrices were used in these cases, the algebra of matrices with their multiplication did not enter the picture as they did in the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics.[23] Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics motivated entirely for reasons other than application. ... Gustav Adolf Feodor Wilhelm Ludwig Mie (September 29, 1869 Rostock – February 13, 1957 Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German physicist. ...


Born, however, had learned matrix algebra from Rosanes, as already noted, but Born had also learned Hilbert’s theory of integral equations and quadratic forms for an infinite number of variables as was apparent from a citation by Born of Hilbert’s work Grundzüge einer allgemeinen Theorie der Linearen Integralgleichungen published in 1912.[24] [25] Jordan, too was well equipped for the task. For a number of years, he had been an assistant to Richard Courant at Göttingen in the preparation of Courant and David Hilbert’s book Methoden der mathematischen Physik I, which was published in 1924.[26] This book, fortuitously, contained a great many of the mathematical tools necessary for the continued development of quantum mechanics. In 1926, John von Neumann became assistant to David Hilbert, and he would coin the term Hilbert space to describe the algebra and analysis which were used in the development of quantum mechanics.[27] [28] ... In mathematics, an integral equation is an equation in which an unknown function appears under an integral sign. ... In mathematics, a quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of degree two in a number of variables. ... Richard Courant (born January 8, 1888 at Lublinitz, today Poland, died January 27, 1972 at New York/USA) was a German and American mathematician. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... A neologism is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (or coined), often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space (named after the German mathematician David Hilbert) generalizes the notion of Euclidean space in a way that extends methods of vector algebra from the plane and three-dimensional space to spaces of functions. ...


In 1928, Albert Einstein nominated Heisenberg, Born, and Jordan for the Nobel Prize in Physics,[29] but it was not to be. The announcement of the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 was delayed until November 1933.[30] It was at that time that it was announced Heisenberg had won the Prize for 1932 “for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”[31] and Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac shared the 1933 Prize "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory".[32] One can rightly ask why Born was not awarded the Prize in 1932 along with Heisenberg – Bernstein gives some speculations on this matter. One of them is related to Jordan joining the Nazi Party on May 1, 1933 and becoming a Storm Trooper.[33] Hence, Jordan’s Party affiliations and Jordan’s links to Born may have affected Born’s chance at the Prize at that time. Bernstein also notes that when Born won the Prize in 1954, Jordan was still alive, and the Prize was awarded for the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics, attributable alone to Born.[34] “Einstein” redirects here. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The seal of SA SA propaganda poster. ...


Heisenberg’s reaction to Born for Heisenberg receiving the Prize for 1932 and to Born for Born receiving the Prize in 1954 are also instructive in evaluating whether Born should have shared the Prize with Heisenberg. On November 25, 1933 Born received a letter from Heisenberg in which he said he had been delayed in writing due to a “bad conscience” that he alone had received the Prize “for work done in Göttingen in collaboration – you, Jordan and I.” Heisenberg went on to say that Born and Jordan’s contribution to quantum mechanics cannot be changed by “a wrong decision from the outside.”[35] In 1954, Heisenberg wrote an article honoring Max Planck for his insight in 1900. In the article, Heisenberg credited Born and Jordan for the final mathematical formulation of matrix mechanics and Heisenberg went on to stress how great their contributions were to quantum mechanics, which were not “adequately acknowledged in the public eye.”[36] is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Planck” redirects here. ...


Those who received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen included Max Delbrück, Walter Elsasser, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf.[37] Born’s assistants at the University of Göttingen’s Institute for Theoretical Physics included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.[38] [39] [40] Walter Heitler became an assistant to Born in 1928 and under Born completed his Habilitation in 1929.[41] Born not only recognized talent to work with him, but he let his “superstars stretch past him.” [42] His Ph.D. student Delbrück, and six of his assistants (Fermi, Heisenberg, Goeppert-Mayer, Herzberg, Pauli, Wigner) went on to win Nobel Prizes. Max Delbrück in the early 1940s at Vanderbilt University. ... Walter Maurice Elsasser (born March 20, 1904, in Mannheim, Germany; died October 14, 1991, in Baltimore) was a physicist and is considered father of the geodynamo theory. ... Carl von Weizacker & Friedrich Hund, Goettingen DPI Friedrich Hund (February 4, 1896 - March 31, 1997) : German physicist known for his work on atoms and molecules. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... Maria Goeppert Mayer: Physicist (Women in Science) ISBN 0791072479 Maria Goeppert-Mayer (June 28, 1906 – February 20, 1972) was born Maria Goeppert in Katowice, Silesia (then in Germany, now part of Poland). ... Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim (November 7, 1899, München - October 5, 1985, La Jolla, California, USA) was a German-born Jewish theoretical physicist. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... External links National Academy of Sciences biography Categories: People stubs | 1908 births | 2002 deaths | Manhattan Project | Physicists ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Gerhard Herzberg (December 25, 1904 – March 3, 1999) was a pioneering theoretical chemist. ... Carl von Weizacker & Friedrich Hund, Goettingen DPI Friedrich Hund (February 4, 1896 - March 31, 1997) : German physicist known for his work on atoms and molecules. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Belgian physicist. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Eugene Wigner Eugene Paul Wigner (Hungarian Wigner Pál JenÅ‘) (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian physicist and mathematician who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and... Walter Heinrich Heitler (02. ... Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...


In a letter to Born in 1926, Einstein made his famous remark regarding quantum mechanics, often paraphrased as "The Old One does not play dice."[43]


In 1933 Born emigrated from Germany. He had strong and public pacifist opinions; moreover, though Born was a Lutheran, he was classified as a "Jew" by the Nazi racial laws due to his ancestry, and was thus stripped of his professorship. He took up a position as Stokes Lecturer at the University of Cambridge. From 1936 to 1953 he was Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh. He became a British subject and a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1939. [44] The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... The University of Edinburgh was founded in 1583 as a renowned centre for teaching in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... In British nationality law, the term British subject has at different times had different meanings. ... ...


Born had a dislike for nuclear weapons research, but he still acknowledged “it might be the only way out.”[45] Much of the theoretical power behind the development of the first atomic bomb was due to many of those surrounding him at Göttingen and working on atomic physics and quantum mechanics: three of his Ph.D. students (Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Oppenheimer and Weisskopf), three of his assistants (Fermi, Teller, and Wigner), the Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics (James Franck), and David Hilbert’s assistant (John von Neumann).[46] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Atomic physics (or atom physics) is the field of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems comprised of electrons and an atomic nucleus. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... For other persons named John Neumann, see John Neumann (disambiguation). ...


Max and Hedwig Born retired to Bad Pyrmont (10 km south of Hamelin (Hameln)) in Germany, in 1954.[47] Bad Pyrmont is a city in Hamelin-Pyrmont, Lower Saxony, with a population of 22,000 (2003). ... Hamelin (German: Hameln) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


Born was one of the 11 signatories to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto. The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. ...


Born died in Göttingen, Germany. He is buried there in the same cemetery as Walther Nernst, Wilhelm Weber, Max von Laue, Max Planck, and David Hilbert. Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Walther Nernst. ... Wilhelm Eduard Weber (October 24, 1804 - June 23, 1891) was a noted physicist. ... Max von Laue (October 9, 1879 - April 24, 1960) was a German physicist, who studied under Max Planck. ... “Planck” redirects here. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ...


Published works

  • Über das Thomson'sche Atommodell Hablitations-Vortag (FAM, 1909) - The Habiliation was done at the University of Göttingen, on October 23, 1909. [48]
  • Dynamik der Kristallgitter (Teubner, 1915) [49] - After its publication, the physicist Arnold Sommerfeld asked Born to write an article based on it for the 5th volume of the Mathematical Encyclopedia. World War I delayed the start of work on this article, but it was taken up in 1919 and finished in 1922. It was published as a revised edition under the title Atomic Theory of Solid States. [50]
  • Die Relativitätstheorie Einsteins und ihre physikalischen Grundlagen (Springer, 1920) - Based on Born’s lectures at the University of Frankfurt am Main. [52]
    • Available in English under the title Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. [53]
  • Vorlesungen über Atommechanik (Springer, 1925) [54]
  • Problems of Atomic Dynamics (MIT Press, 1926) – A first account of matrix mechanics being developed in Germany, based on two series of lectures given at MIT, over three months, in late 1925 and early 1926. [56] [57]
  • Elementare Quantenmechanik (Zweiter Band der Vorlesungen über Atommechanik), with Pascual Jordan. (Springer, 1930) - This was the first volume of what was intended as a two-volume work. This volume was limited to the work Born did with Jordan on matrix mechanics. The second volume was to deal with Erwin Schrödinger’s wave mechanics. However, the second volume was not even started by Born, as he believed his friend and colleague Hermann Weyl had written it before he could do so. [58] [59]
  • Optik: Ein Lehrbuch der elektromagnetische Lichttheorie (Springer, 1933) - The book was released just as the Borns were emigrating to England.
    • Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light,[60] with Emil Wolf. (Pergamon, 1959) - This is the English translation of Optik. Shortly after World War II, a number of scientists suggested that Born update and translate his work into English. Since there had been many advances in optics in the intervening years, updating was warranted. In 1951, Emil Wolf began as Born’s private assistant on the book; it was eventually published in 1959 by Robert Maxwell's Pergamon Press[61] - the delay being due to the lengthy time needed “to resolve all the financial and publishing tricks created by Maxwell.” [62]
  • Moderne Physik (1933) -- Based on seven lectures given at the Technischen Hochschule Berlin. [63]
    • Atomic Physics (Blackie, London, 1935) - Authorized translation of Moderne Physik by John Dougall, with updates. [64]
  • The Restless Universe [65] (Blackie and Son Limited, 1935) - A popularized rendition of the workshop of nature. Born’s nephew, Otto Königsberger, who’s successful career as an architect in Berlin was brought to an end when the Nazis took over, was temporarily brought to England to illustrate the book. [66]
  • Experiment and Theory in Physics (Cambridge University Press, 1943) – The address given King’s College, Newcastle-on-Tyne, at the request of the Durham Pholosophical Society and the Pure Science Society. An expanded version of the lecture appeared in a 1956 Dover Publications edition. [67]
  • Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance (Oxford University Press, 1949) – Based on Born’s 1948 Waynflete lectures, given at the College of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford University. A later edition (Dover, 1964) included two appendices: “Symbol and Reality” and Born’s lecture given at the Nobel laureates 1964 meeting in Landau, Germany. [68]
  • A General Kinetic Theory of Liquids with H. S. Green (Cambridge University Press, 1949) -- The six papers in this book were reproduced with permission from the Proceedings of the Royal Society.
  • Physics in My Generation: A Selection of Papers (Pergamon, 1956) [69]
  • Physik im Wandel meiner Zeit (Vieweg, 1957)
  • Physik und Politik (VandenHoeck und Ruprecht, 1960)
  • Zur Begründung der Matrizenmechanik, with Werner Heisenberg and Pascual Jordan (Battenberg, 1962) - Published in honor of Max Born’s 80th birthday. This edition reprinted the authors’ articles on matrix mechanics published in Zeitscrift für Physik , Volumes 26 and 33-35, 1924-1926. [70]
  • My Life and My Views: A Nobel Prize Winner in Physics Writes Provocatively on a Wide Range of Subjects (Scribner, 1968) - Part II (pp. 63-206) is a translation of Verantwortung des Naturwissenschaftlers. [71]
  • Briefwechsel 1916-1955, kommentiert von Max Born with Hedwig Born and Albert Einstein (Nymphenburger, 1969)
    • The Born-Einstein Letters: Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born from 1916-1955, with commentaries by Max Born (Macmillan, 1971).[72]

Habilitation is the highest academic qualification a person can achieve by his/her own pursuit in certain European countries. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (December 5, 1868 in Königsberg, East Prussia – April 26, 1951 in Munich, Germany) was a German physicist who introduced the fine-structure constant in 1919. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The book Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices is a work in structure theory of crystal lattices written collaboratively by Max Born and Kun Huang. ... Huang Kun (黄昆) (September 2, 1919 - July 6, 2005), born in Beijing, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is a well-known physicist in China. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... I.G.Farben Building at Campus Westend The Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... George Bell & Sons was a book publishing house located in London, England, from 1839 to 1986. ... Douglas Rayner Hartree (March 27, 1897 - February 12, 1958) was an English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to atomic physics. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. ... Schrödinger in 1933, when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... The wave equation is an important partial differential equation which generally describes all kinds of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ... Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (November 9, 1885 – December 9, 1955) was a German mathematician. ... The Springer-Verlag (pronounced SHPRING er FAIR lahk) was a worldwide publishing company base in Germany. ... Pergamon Press was a United Kingdom based publishing house, founded by Robert Maxwell, which published general science books. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emil Wolf (July 30, 1922- ) made advancements in Physical Optics, including diffraction, coherence properties of optical fields, spectroscopy of partially coherent radiation, and the theory of direct scattering and inverse scattering. ... For other persons named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). ... The Central Institute for Modern Languages at the Technical University The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ... Blackie and Son Limited was a publishing house in Glasgow, Scotland, from 1890 to 1991. ... Blackie and Son Limited was a publishing house in Glasgow, Scotland, from 1890 to 1991. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Cover of Proceedings of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London. ... Pergamon Press was a United Kingdom based publishing house, founded by Robert Maxwell, which published general science books. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Pascual Jordan (October 18, 1902 in Hanover - July 31, 1980 in Hamburg) was a German physicist. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...

Selected Journal Literature

While links have been provided in this article to journal publications by Born, a few of his papers are worth highlighting here along with citations to translations in English.


Matrix Mechanics A trilogy of papers launched the matrix mechanics formulation of quantum mechanics. The first paper in the trilogy was: W. Heisenberg, Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen, Zeitschrift für Physik, 33, 879-893, 1925 (received July 29, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1 (English title: Quantum-Theoretical Re-interpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations).] Ãœber quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen (English Quantum theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations) was a breakthrough paper in quantum mechanics written by Werner Heisenberg. ...

  • M. Born and P. Jordan, Zur Quantenmechanik, Zeitschrift für Physik, 34, 858-888, 1925 (received September 27, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1 (English title: On Quantum Mechanics).]
  • M. Born, W. Heisenberg, and P. Jordan, Zur Quantenmechanik II, Zeitschrift für Physik, 35, 557-615, 1925 (received November 16, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1]

Probability Density The now-standard interpretation of the probability density function for ψ*ψ in the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics was published by Born in the first of these two papers, and it is this for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954. The second paper is a continuation and extension of the analysis provided in the first paper. In mathematics, a probability density function (pdf) is a function that represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. ...

  • Max Born Zur Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge, Zeitschrift für Physik 37 863-867 (1926). Received June 25, 1926. Published 10 July 1926.
  • Max Born Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge, Zeitschrift für Physik 38 803-827 (1926). Received July 21, 1926. Published 14 September 1926. [English translation in: Gunther Ludwig, editor, Wave Mechanics (Pergamon, 1968) ISBN 08-103204-8. Under the title: Quantum Mechanics of Collision Processes]

Awards and honors

Sir George Stokes Medal Awarded biennially for outstanding and sustained contributions to analytical science by someone working in a complementary field, which has led to developments of seminal importance to chemical analysis. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... The Royal Society of Edinburghs Building on the corner of George St. ... The Royal Society of Edinburghs Building on the corner of George St. ... The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... The Hughes Medal, named after microphone inventor David Edward Hughes, is one of several medals awarded by the Royal Society, Englands reigning academy of science. ... ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... The Bundesverdienstkreuz (the official name is Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany) is the only general Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ...

Trivia

Olivia Newton-John (born September 26, 1948) is a British-born Australian singer and actress. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Born haber be merged into this article or section. ... Born rigidity, proposed by and later named after Max Born, is a concept in special relativity. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... In physics, the Born-Infeld theory is a nonlinear generalization of electromagnetism. ... The Born-Oppenheimer approximation, also known as the adiabatic approximation, is a technique used in quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics in order to de-couple the motion of nuclei and electrons (i. ... The Born rule (also called the Born law, Borns rule, or Borns law) is a law of quantum mechanics which gives the probability that a measurement on a quantum system will yield a given result. ...

Bibliography

  • Jeremy Bernstein Max Born and the Quantum Theory, Am. J. Phys. 73 (11) 999-1008 (2005). Department of Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030. Received 14 April 2005; accepted 29 July 2005.
  • Max Born The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics. Nobel Lecture – December 11, 1954.
  • Nancy Thorndike Greenspan, "The End of the Certain World: The Life and Science of Max Born" (Basic Books, 2005) ISBN 0-7382-0693-8. Also published in Germany: Max Born - Baumeister der Quantenweld. Eine Biographie (Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2005), ISBN 3-8274-1640-X.
  • Max Jammer The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics (McGraw-Hill, 1966)
  • Christa Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach. Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 2: The Now Mighty Theoretical Physics, 1870 to 1925. University of Chicago Press, Paper cover, 1990. ISBN 0-226-41585-6
  • Jagdesh Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Volume 3. The Formulation of Matrix Mechanics and Its Modifications 1925–1926. (Springer, 2001) ISBN 0-387-95177-6
  • B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1

Stevens Institute of Technology is a technological university located on a 55 acre (223,000 m²) campus in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, founded in 1870 on the basis of an 1868 bequest from Edwin A. Stevens. ... Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. ...

References

  1. ^ His Ph.D. thesis in mathematics was defended at the University of Göttingen on June 13, 1906: Untersuchungen über die Stabilität der elastischen Linie in Ebene und Raum, unter verschiedenen Grenzbedingungen. It was awarded magna cum laude. See Greenspan, 2005, pp. 35-36 and Max Born’s Life.
  2. ^ The Habiliation was done at the University of Göttingen, on October 23, 1909: Über das Thomson'sche Atommodell Hablitations-Vortag (FAM, 1909). See Greenspan, 2005, pp. 49, 51, and 353.
  3. ^ Hilbert and Klein were colleagues at the University of Königsberg. Klein brought Hilbert to Göttingen. Then, Hilbert brought Minkowski.
  4. ^ Since the lectures were the creation of the lecturer and not take from a textbook, the scribe performed a very important function.
  5. ^ Greenspan, 2005, 26-34.
  6. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 49, 53, and 353.
  7. ^ It was at the boarding house that Paul Peter Ewald met Ella Philipson, who was to become his wife. They had a daughter, Rose. Hans Bethe, who got his doctorate from Sommerfeld in 1928, met Rose at Duke University in 1937, and they were married in 1938. See Greenspan, 2005, p. 53. Also see Hans BetheNew York Times.
  8. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 53.
  9. ^ James Franck took the dual position of ordinarius professor and Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at Göttingen. See Nobel Prize Biography.
  10. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 96-97.
  11. ^ Max Born – Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1954: The statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics.
  12. ^ Max Born Zur Quantenmechanik der Stoßvorgänge, Zeitschrift für Physik 37 863-867 (1926). Received June 25, 1926. Published 10 July 1926.
  13. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 113, 120, and 123.
  14. ^ Jungnickel, Christa and Russell McCormmach. Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 2: The Now Mighty Theoretical Physics, 1870 to 1925. University of Chicago Press, Paper cover, 1990. ISBN 0-226-41585-6. pp. 274, and 281-285 and 350-354.
  15. ^ W. Heisenberg, Über quantentheoretishe Umdeutung kinematisher und mechanischer Beziehungen, Zeitschrift für Physik, 33, 879-893, 1925 (received July 29, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1 (English title: “Quantum-Theoretical Re-interpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations”).]
  16. ^ Emilio Segrè, From X-Rays to Quarks: Modern Physicists and their Discoveries (W. H. Freeman and Company, 1980) ISBN 0-7167-1147-8, pp 153 - 157.
  17. ^ Abraham Pais, Niels Bohr’s Times in Physics, Philosophy, and Polity (Clarendon Press, 1991) ISBN 0-19-852049-2, pp 275 - 279.
  18. ^ Max Born – Nobel Lecture (1954)
  19. ^ M. Born and P. Jordan, Zur Quantenmechanik, Zeitschrift für Physik, 34, 858-888, 1925 (received September 27, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1]
  20. ^ M. Born, W. Heisenberg, and P. Jordan, Zur Quantenmechanik II, Zeitschrift für Physik, 35, 557-615, 1925 (received November 16, 1925). [English translation in: B. L. van der Waerden, editor, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Dover Publications, 1968) ISBN 0-486-61881-1]
  21. ^ Jeremy Bernstein Max Born and the Quantum Theory, Am. J. Phys. 73 (11) 999-1008 (2005)
  22. ^ Mehra, Volume 3 (Springer, 2001)
  23. ^ Jammer, 1966, pp. 206-207.
  24. ^ van der Waerden, 1968, p. 51.
  25. ^ The citation by Born was in Born and Jordan's paper, the second paper in the trilogy which launched the matrix mechanics formulation. See van der Waerden, 1968, p. 351.
  26. ^ Constance Ried Courant (Springer, 1996) p. 93.
  27. ^ John von Neumann Allgemeine Eigenwerttheorie Hermitescher Funktionaloperatoren, Mathematische Annalen 102 49–131 (1929)
  28. ^ When von Neumann left Göttingen in 1932, his book on the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics, based on Hilbert’s mathematics, was published under the title Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. See: Norman Macrae, John von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More (Reprinted by the American Mathematical Society, 1999) and Constance Reid, Hilbert (Springer-Verlag, 1996) ISBN 0-387-94674-8.
  29. ^ Bernstein, 2004, p. 1004.
  30. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 190.
  31. ^ Nobel Prize in Physics and 1933 – Nobel Prize Presentation Speech.
  32. ^ Nobel Prize in Physics and 1933 – Nobel Prize Presentation Speech.
  33. ^ Bernstein, 2005, p. 1004.
  34. ^ Bernstein, 2005, p. 1006.
  35. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 191.
  36. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 285-286.
  37. ^ Sources for History of Quantum Physics
  38. ^ Sources for History of Quantum Physics
  39. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 178 and 262.
  40. ^ Biography on Gerhard Herzberg - National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  41. ^ Author Catalog: Heitler – American Philosophical Society
  42. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 143.
  43. ^ Letter from A. Einstein to M. Born dated December 12, 1926 [Max Born, Physics in my generation, Springer-Verlag, New York (1969), p. 113]. Also: "...Even the great initial success of the quantum theory does not make me believe in the fundamental dice-game..." --Albert Einstein, 7 September, 1944 (p. 149). The Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Max and Hedwig Born 1916-1955 with commentaries by Max Born, ISBN 0-8027-0326-7
  44. ^ Born was elected to the Royal Society in March and received his Certificate of Naturalization on August 31, 1939, one day before World War II broke out in Europe. See Greenspan, 2005, p. 226.
  45. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 239.
  46. ^ Students, assistants, and colleagues of Born at Göttingen who worked on the Manhattan Project:
    • Maria Goeppert-Mayer – Worked on the Manhattan Project with Harold Urey at Columbia University on isotope separation.
    • Robert Oppenheimer – Director of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) - One of the four major sites of the Manhattan Engineering District.
    • Victor Weisskopf – Head of T-3 Group, Experiments, Efficiency Calculations, and Radiation Hydrodynamics, LASL
    • Enrico Fermi – Director of Research, Met Lab of the University of Chicago - One of the four major sites of the Manhattan Engineering District.
    • Edward Teller – Head of T-1 Group, Hydrodynamics of Implosion and Super, LASL
    • Eugene Wigner – Director of Theoretical Studies, Met Lab
    • James Franck – Director of the Chemistry Division, Met Lab, and Chairman of the Committee on Political and Social Problems
    • John von Neumann – LASL consultant on implosion mechanism for the plutonium bomb. (Neumann was assistant to David Hilbert at Göttingen and was greatly influenced by both David Hilbert’s and Max Born’s work. Neumann applied the mathematics of Hilbert space to Born’s quantum mechanics, and, in 1932, his foundational book on the mathematical underpinnings of quantum mechanics, Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik, was published.)
  47. ^ Biographical Sketch from the German Historical Museum
  48. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 49, 51, and 353.
  49. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 352.
  50. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 66, 110, and 115.
  51. ^ A new edition of Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices is available from Oxford University Press in hard cover ISBN 978-0-19-850369-9 and in soft cover ISBN 0-19-850369-5.
  52. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 100.
  53. ^ Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, Dover Publications, 1962 edition, ISBN 0-486-60769-0.
  54. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 352.
  55. ^ AIP Niels Bohr Library and AbeBooks: Search on Mechanics of the Atom.
  56. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 132.
  57. ^ Problems of Atomic Dynamics is available from MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-52019-2, and Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-43873-2.
  58. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 159-160.
  59. ^ Jungnickel, Volume 2, 1990, p. 378.
  60. ^ Principles of Optics is now in its 7th revised printing, ISBN 0-521-64222-1. The first 5 revised editions were done by Pergamon Press (1959 - 1975). The last 2 were done by Cambridge University Press in 1980 and 1999.
  61. ^ Paul Rosbaud, a former editor at Springer who remained in Germany during World War II and spied for the allies, was initially involved with Born and the endeavor to publish Optik in English, as Rosbaud was organizing a publishing company in England after the war. The publishing company did not materialize, and Rosbaud eventually joined Pergamon Press. (Greenspan, 2005, pp. 292-294.)
  62. ^ Greenspan, 2005, pp. 174, 292-294.
  63. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 201.
  64. ^ The eighth edition was published in 1969, including revisions by R. J. Blin-Stoyle & J. M. Radcliffe. The 8th edition of Atomic Physics is available from Dover Publications in paper cover, ISBN 0-486-65984-4.
  65. ^ The Restless Universe was last published by Dover Publications, 1951, ISBN 0-486-20412-X, but it is no longer in print.
  66. ^ Greenspan, 2005, p. 201.
  67. ^ Greenspan, 2005, 245-246 and AbeBooks
  68. ^ Citations for Max Born Based on the Library of Congress - See the entry for Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance. Also see Greenspan, 2005, p. 352.
  69. ^ Physics in My Generation (Springer, 1969), ISBN 0-387-90008-X.
  70. ^ AIP Niels Bohr Library
  71. ^ AIP Niels Bohr Library
  72. ^ The Born-Einstein Letters, Macmillan Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1-4039-4496-2.
  73. ^ My Life: Recollections of a Nobel Laureate was also published by Taylor and Francis/Charles Scribner's Sons, ISBN 0-85066-174-9. No longer in print.
  74. ^ Born Biographic Data
  75. ^ Born Biographic Data
  76. ^ The award was presented for research on quantum mechanics of fields and shared with Born's collaborator H. W. Peng. See Greenspan, 2005, p. 257 and Born Biographic Data.
  77. ^ Born Biographic Data
  78. ^ Born Biographic Data
  79. ^ Born Biographic Data
  80. ^ Born Biographic Data
  81. ^ Born Biographic Data
  82. ^ Born Biographic Data
  83. ^ Nobel Biographic Data
  84. ^ James Franck und Max Born in Göttingen: Reden zur akademischen Feier aus Anlass der 100. Wiederkehr ihres Geburtsjahres. (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1983). Speeches by Norbert Kamp, Peter Haasen, Gerhart W. Rathenau, and Friedrich Hund. Franck was Director of the Second Institute for Experimental Physics at Göttingen, while Born was Director of the Institute of Theoretical Physics.

The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... The inscription upon Kants tomb in Kaliningrad. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Experimental physics is the part of physics that deals with experiments and observations pertaining to natural/physical phenomena, as opposed to theoretical physics. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Portrait of Emilio Segrè. Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 – April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ... Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (February 2, 1903, Amsterdam, Netherlands – January 12, 1996, Zürich, Switzerland) was a Dutch mathematician. ... Norman Macrae is a British author, born in 1923. ... The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and education, which it does with various publications and conferences as well as annual monetary awards to mathematicians. ... Constance Bowman Reid is the author of several biographies of mathematicians and popular books about mathematics. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Control panels and operators for calutrons at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ... Harold Urey, circa 1963. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... 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NAME Born, Max
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Physicist
DATE OF BIRTH December 11, 1882
PLACE OF BIRTH Breslau, Germany
DATE OF DEATH January 5, 1970
PLACE OF DEATH Göttingen, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Max Born - Biography (843 words)
Max Born was born in Breslau on the 11th December, 1882, to Professor Gustav Born, anatomist and embryologist, and his wife Margarete, née Kauffmann, who was a member of a Silesian family of industrialists.
Max attended the König Wilhelm's Gymnasium in Breslau and continued his studies at the Universities of Breslau (where the well-known mathematician Rosanes introduced him to matrix calculus), Heidelberg, Zurich (here he was deeply impressed by Hurwitz's lectures on higher analysis), and Göttingen.
Max Born went to Göttingen as Professor in 1921, at the same time as James Franck, and he remained there for twelve years, interrupted only by a trip to America in 1925.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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