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Encyclopedia > Mausoleum of Maussollos
The Mausoleum site in ruins, as it stands today
The Mausoleum site in ruins, as it stands today

The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (in Greek, Μαυσωλεῖον Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, Μαυσωλεῖον τοῦ Ἁλικαρνασσοῦ (Ἀλικαρνασσοῦ)) was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey) for Mausolus, a satrap in the Persian Empire, and Artemisia II of Caria, his wife and sister. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2542 KB) [edit] Summary Mausoleum of Maussollos as it stands today in Bodrum, Turkey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2542 KB) [edit] Summary Mausoleum of Maussollos as it stands today in Bodrum, Turkey. ... Ury House, Aberdeenshire ruined by removal of the roof after the second world war to avoid taxation. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC - 350 BC - 349 BC 348 BC 347... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ... Mausolus (Greek: Μαύσωλος; also Maussollus) was a satrap of the Persian empire and virtual ruler of Caria (377-353/352 BC). ... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Persia redirects here. ... Artemisia of Caria (in Greek Aρτεμισια; died 350 BC) was the sister, wife, and successor of the Carian prince Mausolus. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ...


The structure was designed by the Greek architects Satyrus and Pythius.[1][2] It stood approximately 45 metres (135 feet) in height, and each of the four sides was adorned with sculptural reliefs created by each one of four Greek sculptorsLeochares, Bryaxis, Scopas of Paros and Timotheus.[3] The finished structure was considered to be such an aesthetic triumph that Antipater of Sidon identified it as one of his Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The restored Stoa of Attalus, Athens Architecture, executed to considered design, was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC, when urban life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. ... Satyros or Satyrus, was a ancient Greek architect of the 4th century BCE. Along with Pythis, he designed the Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus, considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. ... Pythis, also known as Pytheos or Pythius, was one of the most noted Greek architects of the later age. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Leochares was an Greek sculptor, who lived in the 4th Century B.C. He is theorised as the creator of Apollo Belvedere, which is currently housed in Vatican City. ... Bryaxis (born c. ... Scopas (Σκόπας) (c. ... Paros (Greek: νήσος Πάρος; Venetian: isola di Paro) is an island of Greece in the central Aegean Sea, in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Roman marble of Leda and the Swan (Prado) Timotheos was a Greek sculptor of the fourth century BCE, one of the rivals and contemporaries of Skopas, among the sculptors who worked for their own fame on the Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus during the 350s. ... Antipater of Sidon (2nd century BC) is an ancient Greek writer and poet best known for his list of Seven Wonders of the World. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ...


The word mausoleum has since come to be used generically for any grand tomb, though "Mausoleion" originally meant "[building] dedicated to Mausolus".

Contents

Lives of Mausolus and Artemisia

Conquest

In 623 BC, Halicarnassus was the capital of a small regional kingdom in the coast of Asia Minor. In 377 BC the ruler of the region, Hecatomnus of Milas, died and left the control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus. Hecatomnus, a local satrap under the Persians, took control of several of the neighboring cities and districts. After Mausolus and Artemisia, he had several other sons and daughters: Ada (adopted mother of Alexander the Great), Idrieus and Pixodarus. Mausolus extended its territory as far as the southwest coast of Anatolia. Mausolus and Artemisia ruled from Halicarnassus over the surrounding territory for twenty-four years. Mausolus, although descended from local people, spoke Greek and admired the Greek way of life and government. He founded many cities of Greek design along the coast and encouraged Greek democratic traditions. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC - 620s BC - 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC Events and Trends 627 BC - Death of Assurbanipal, king of Assyria; he is succeeded by Assur_etel_ilani (approximate... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Events The Second Athenian Empire, a maritime self-defense league, is founded. ... Hecatomnus (in Greek Eκατoμνως; lived 4th century BC) was king or dynast of Caria in the reign of Artaxerxes II of Persia (404–358 BC). ... Mausolus of Milas Early 20th century Milas house 18th century Milas rug in the New York Metropolitan Museum Milas (ancient Mylasa) is a city in southwestern Turkey. ... Ada of Caria (4th century BC) came to power as the ruler of the large and profitable provincial capital city of Halicarnassus in Caria, a satrapy of the Persian Empire at a time when Darius was actively seeking to conquer it. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Idrieus (in Greek Ιδριευς; died in 344 BC) was king or dynast of Caria. ... Pixodarus (in Greek Πιξωδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), a prince or king of Caria, was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively held the sovereignty of their native coutry. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ...


Halicarnassus

Mausolus decided to build a new capital; a city as safe from capture as it was magnificent to be seen. He chose the city of Halicarnassus. If Mausolus' ships blocked a small channel, they could keep all enemy warships out. He started to make of Halicarnassus a capital fit for a warrior prince. His workmen deepened the city's harbor and used the dragged sand to make protecting breakwaters in front of the channel. On land they paved streets and squares, and built houses for ordinary citizens. And on one side of the harbor they built a massive fortified palace for Mausolus, positioned to have clear views out to sea and inland to the hills — places from where enemies could attack. In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... Breakwaters create safe harbors, but can also trap sediment moving along the coast. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ...


On land, the workmen also built walls and watchtowers, a Greek–style theatre and a temple to Ares — the Greek god of war. A watchtower is a type of fortification. ... The Greeks began to build monumental temples in the first half of the 8th century BC. The temples of Hera at Samos and of Poseidon at Isthmia were among the first erected. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ...


Mausolus and Artemisia spent huge amounts of tax money to embellish the city. They commissioned statues, temples and buildings of gleaming marble. In the center of the city Mausolus planned to place a resting place for his body after his death. It would be a tomb that would forever show how rich he and his queen were. For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ...


Death and memorial

Artemisia Prepares to Drink the Ashes of her Husband, Mausolus (c. 1630), attributed to Furini
Artemisia Prepares to Drink the Ashes of her Husband, Mausolus (c. 1630), attributed to Furini

In 353 BC Mausolus died, leaving Artemisia broken-hearted. It was the custom in Caria for rulers to marry their sisters; such incestuous marriages kept the power and the wealth in the family. As a tribute to him, she decided to build him the most splendid tomb, a structure so famous that Mausolus's name is now the eponym for all stately tombs, in the word mausoleum. The construction was also so beautiful and unique it became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ...


Soon after construction of the tomb started, Artemisia found herself in a crisis. Rhodes, a Greek island at the Aegean Sea, had been conquered by Mausolus. When the Rhodians heard about his death, they rebelled and sent a fleet of ships to capture the city of Halicarnassus. Knowing that the Rhodian fleet was on the way, Artemisia hid her own ships at a secret location at the east end of the city's harbor. After troops from the Rhodian fleet disembarked to attack, Artemisia's fleet made a surprise raid, captured the Rhodian fleet and towed it out to sea. Artemisia put her own soldiers on the invading ships and sailed them back to Rhodes. Fooled into thinking that the returning ships were their own victorious navy, the Rhodians failed to put up a defense and the city was easily captured, quelling the rebellion. This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Artemisia lived for only two years after the death of her husband. The urns with their ashes were placed in the yet unfinished tomb. As a form of sacrifice ritual the bodies of a large number of dead animals were placed on the stairs leading to the tomb, then the stairs were filled with stones and rubble, sealing the access. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the craftsmen decided to stay and finish the work after the death of their patron "considering that it was at once a memorial of his own fame and of the sculptor's art." Maya funerary urn For the computing term, see Uniform Resource Name. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The memorial at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii commemorates American dead from wars in the Pacific. ...


The construction of the Mausoleum

Scale model of the Mausoleum at Miniatürk, Istanbul
Scale model of the Mausoleum at Miniatürk, Istanbul

Artemisia spared no expense in building the tomb. She sent messengers to Greece to find the most talented artists of the time. These included Scopas, the man who had supervised the rebuilding of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The famous sculptors were (in the Vitruvius order) Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas and Timotheus, as well as hundreds of other craftsmen. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 3390 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mausoleum of Maussollos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 3390 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mausoleum of Maussollos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. ...


The tomb was erected on a hill overlooking the city. The whole structure sat in an enclosed courtyard. At the center of the courtyard was a stone platform on which the tomb sat. A stairway flanked by stone lions led to the top of the platform, which bore along its outer walls many statues of gods and goddess. At each corner, stone warriors mounted on horseback guarded the tomb. At the center of the platform, the marble tomb rose as a square tapering block to one-third of the Mausoleum's 45-meter (135-foot) height. This section was covered with bas-reliefs showing action scenes, including the battle of the centaurs with the lapiths and Greeks in combat with the Amazons, a race of warrior women. A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Lapith and a Centaur: a metope from the Parthenon In Greek mythology, the Lapiths were a legendary race, whose home was in Thessaly on the mountain Pelion. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


On the top of this section of the tomb thirty-six slim columns, nine per side, rose for another third of the height. Standing between each column was a statue. Behind the columns was a solid cella-like block that carried the weight of the tomb's massive roof. The roof, which comprised most of the final third of the height, was pyramidal. Perched on the top was a quadriga: four massive horses pulling a chariot in which rode images of Mausolus and Artemisia. Temple layout with cella highlighted A cella (from Latin for small chamber) or naos (from the Greek for temple), is the inner chamber of a temple in classical architecture, or a shop facing the street in domestic Roman architecture (see domus). ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ...


Medieval and modern times

Fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk
Fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk

The Mausoleum overlooked the city of Halicarnassus for many centuries. It was untouched when the city fell to Alexander III of Macedon in 334 BC and still undamaged after attacks by pirates in 62 and 58 BC. It stood above the city's ruins for sixteen centuries. Then a series of earthquakes shattered the columns and sent the bronze chariot crashing to the ground. By 1404 only the very base of the Mausoleum was still recognizable. Mausoleum of Halicarnassus The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, depicted in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck, was built about 353 bc. ... Mausoleum of Halicarnassus The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, depicted in this hand-coloured engraving by Martin Heemskerck, was built about 353 bc. ... St. ... January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Marten Heemskerk self-portrait (detail) Marten Jacobszoon Heemskerk van Veen or Maarten van Heemskerck (1498, Heemskerk – October 1, 1574, Haarlem), was one of the leading Dutch portrait and religious painters of the sixteenth century, famous for his depictions of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...


In the early fifteenth century, the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive castle called Bodrum Castle. When they decided to fortify it in 1494, they used the stones of the Mausoleum. In 1522 rumors of a Turkish invasion caused the Crusaders to strengthen the castle at Halicarnassus (which was by then known as Bodrum) and much of the remaining portions of the tomb were broken up and used in the castle walls. Sections of polished marble from the tomb can still be seen there today. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St. ... Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey in the city of Bodrum, was built by the Knights Hospitaller starting in 1402 as the Castle of St. ...


At this time a party of knights entered the base of the monument and discovered the room containing a great coffin. In many histories of the Mausoleum one can find the following story of what happened: The party, deciding it was too late to open it that day, returned the next morning to find the tomb, and any treasure it may have contained, plundered. The bodies of Mausolus and Artemisia were missing too. The Knights claimed that Moslem villagers were responsible for the theft. Today, on the walls of the small museum building next to the site of the Mausoleum we find a different story. Research done by archeologists in the 1960s shows that long before the knights came, grave robbers had dug a tunnel under the grave chamber, stealing its contents. Also the museum states that it is most likely that Mausolus and Artemisia were cremated, so only an urn with their ashes were placed in the grave chamber. This explains why no bodies were found.

The Masonic House of the Temple of the Scottish Rite, Washington, DC, John Russell Pope, architect, 1911-15, is a more scholarly version
The Masonic House of the Temple of the Scottish Rite, Washington, DC, John Russell Pope, architect, 1911-15, is a more scholarly version

Before grinding and burning much of the remaining sculpture of the Mausoleum into lime for plaster, the Knights removed several of the best works and mounted them in the Bodrum castle. There they stayed for three centuries. The House of the Temple is a Masonic temple in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., which serves as the headquarters of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A. (Officially, Home of The Supreme Council, 33°, Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, Washington D.C... The Jefferson Memorial, built 1939 — 1943 John Russell Pope (April 24, 1874 – August 27, 1937) was an architect most known for his designs of the Jefferson Memorial (completed in 1943) and the West Building of the National Gallery of Art (completed in 1941) in Washington, DC. Pope was born in...


In the 19th century a British consul obtained several of the statues from the castle, which now reside in the British Museum. In 1852 the British Museum sent the archaeologist Charles Thomas Newton to search for more remains of the Mausoleum. He had a difficult job. He didn't know the exact location of the tomb, and the cost of buying up all the small parcels of land in the area to look for it would have been astronomical. Instead Newton studied the accounts of ancient writers like Pliny to obtain the approximate size and location of the memorial, then bought a plot of land in the most likely location. Digging down, Newton explored the surrounding area through tunnels he dug under the surrounding plots. He was able to locate some walls, a staircase, and finally three of the corners of the foundation. With this knowledge, Newton was able to determine which plots of land he needed to buy. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Sir Charles Thomas Newton (September 16, 1816–November 28, 1894) was a British archaeologist. ...


Newton then excavated the site and found sections of the reliefs that decorated the wall of the building and portions of the stepped roof. Also discovered was a broken stone chariot wheel some two metres (7 feet) in diameter, which came from the sculpture on the Mausoleum's roof. Finally, he found the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia that had stood at the pinnacle of the building. From 1966 to 1977, the Mausoleum was thoroughly researched by Prof. Kristian Jeppesen of Aarhus University, Denmark. He has produced a six-volume work on the Mausoleum called "The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos". University of Aarhus The University of Aarhus is a university based in Århus, Denmark. ...

This lion is among the few free-standing sculptures from the Mausoleum at the British Museum
This lion is among the few free-standing sculptures from the Mausoleum at the British Museum

The beauty of the Mausoleum was not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof: statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals in varying scales. The four Greek sculptors who carved the statues: Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas and Timotheus were each responsible for one side. Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum holds a special place in history, as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ...


Nowadays, the massive castle of the Knights of Malta still stands in Bodrum, and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted built into the walls of the structure. At the site of the Mausoleum itself, only the foundation remains, together with a small museum. Some of the surviving sculptures at the British Museum include fragment of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. There the images of Mausolus and his queen forever watch over the few broken remains of the beautiful tomb she built for him. Amazons were warrior women of Greek legend believed to have lived on the northern fringes of Greece, modern Thrace and toward the Black Sea. ...

The design of the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne was inspired by that of the Mausoleum
The design of the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne was inspired by that of the Mausoleum

Modern buildings based upon the Mausoleum of Maussollos include Grant's Tomb in New York City; Los Angeles City Hall; the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia; the spire of St. George's Church, Bloomsbury in London; the Indiana War Memorial (and in turn Chase Tower) in Indianapolis;[4] and the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Southern Jurisdiction's headquarters, the House of the Temple in Washington D.C., the Civil Courts Building in St. Louis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1046, 445 KB) Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: Melbourne ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1046, 445 KB) Melbourne War Memorial Source: Own Photo File links The following pages link to this file: Melbourne ... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... The Shrine of Remembrance, located in St Kilda Road, Melbourne, is one of the largest war memorials in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Grants Tomb, circa 1909 Grants tomb 2004 Grants Tomb is a mausoleum containing the bodies of Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), an American Civil War General and the 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826-1902). ... Los Angeles City Hall is the center of government in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... The Shrine of Remembrance, located in St Kilda Road, Melbourne, is one of the largest war memorials in Australia. ... St. ... Built in 1990 near Monument Circle in Indianapolis, the Chase Tower (formally known as the Bank One Tower) is the tallest skyscraper in Indiana. ... The House of the Temple is a Masonic temple in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., which serves as the headquarters of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A. (Officially, Home of The Supreme Council, 33°, Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, Washington D.C...


Notes

  1. ^ Kostof, Spiro (1985). A History of Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 9. ISBN 0-19-503473-2. 
  2. ^ Gloag, John [1958] (1969). Guide to Western Architecture, Revised Edition, The Hamlyn Publishing Group, 362. 
  3. ^ Smith, William (1870). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, page 744. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
  4. ^ in.gov

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Kristian Jeppesen, et al. The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos, 6 vols.

External links

  • [1] - The Tomb of Mausolus (W.R. Lethaby's reconstruction of the Mausoleum, 1908)
  • Livius.org: Mausoleum of Halicarnassus

Coordinates: 37°02′16.6″N, 27°25′26.6″E William Richard Lethaby (January 18, 1857 - July 17, 1931) was an English architect and architectural historian whose ideas were highly influential on the late Arts and Crafts and early Modern movements in architecture, and in the fields of conservation and art education. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Mausoleum of Maussollos (1993 words)
The mausoleum was a huge marble tomb built ca 353 BC for King Mausolus of Caria in Asia Minor.
The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof.
Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum holds a special place in history as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece.
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