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Encyclopedia > Mausoleum of Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong's Mausoleum
Mao Zedong's Mausoleum

The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo Zhŭxí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China from 1945 until his death. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 126 KB)Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 126 KB)Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, China. ... Simplified Chinese characters (Simplified Chinese: 简体字; Traditional Chinese: 簡體字; pinyin: jiÇŽntǐzì; also Simplified Chinese: 简化字; Traditional Chinese: 簡化字; pinyin: jiÇŽnhuàzì) are one of two standard character sets of printed contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Politburo of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党中央政治局 pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Zhèngzhìjú) is a group of 19 to 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Although Mao had wished to be cremated, his body was embalmed, and construction of a mausoleum began shortly after his death. This highly popular attraction is located in the middle of Tiananmen Square, in Beijing, the capital of China. On this site had previously stood the Gate of China, the southern (main) gate of the Imperial City during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: 天安门广场; Traditional Chinese: 天安門廣場; Pinyin: Tiānānmén Guǎngchǎng) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ... Beijing (Chinese: ; pinyin: Běijīng; ; IPA: ), a city in northern China (formerly spelled in English as Peking or Peiking), is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Gate of China in Beijing (Chinese: 中华门; pinyin: ) is a historical ceremonial gateway in Beijing, China, located near the centre of todays Tiananmen Square. ... The Míng Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: Míng Cháo) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire...


The remains of the Great Helmsman, as he is sometimes known, are on display for public viewing. People queue up for hundreds of meters every day to see the former chairman, many paying tribute to him with flowers that can be rented at the entrance on the north side. There is a souvenir shop at the exit on the south side.

Contents


Construction

The mausoleum was built right after Mao's death (September 9, 1976). The groundbreaking ceremony took place November 24, 1976, and the mausoleum was completed on May 24, 1977. Hua Guofeng, who supervised the mausoleum's project, has his handwriting on the mausoleum's sign. Image File history File linksMetadata P1090218. ... Image File history File linksMetadata P1090218. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: 华国锋; Traditional Chinese: 華國鋒; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ...


According to China Pictorial, Issue 9, 1977, people throughout China designed and built the mausoleum. Material from all over China was used for the construction: granite from Sichuan Province, porcelain plates from Guangdong Province, pine trees from Yan'an, Shaanxi Province, saw-wort seeds from the Tian Shan Mountains in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, earth from the quake-stricken Tangshan, color pebbles from Nanjing, milky quartz from the Kunlun Mountains, pine logs from Jiangxi Province, and rock samples from Mount Everest. Water and sand from the Taiwan Straits were also used to symbolically emphasize the People's Republic of China's claims over Taiwan. 700,000 people from different provinces, autonomous regions, and nationalities did symbolic voluntary labour. (Chinese: 四川; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... China, and should not be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Yanan (Chinese: 延安; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in Shaanxi province, China. ... Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tangshan earthquake (唐山大地震) of July 28, 1976 is one of the largest earthquakes in loss of life to hit the modern world. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Region containing Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun mountain range (崑崙山) is one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3000 km. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Everest redirects here. ... Categories: China geography stubs ...


Embalming

At Mao's death, China did not have the embalming technologies needed to preserve Mao's cadaver for the public display and such display had clearly violated Mao's will, who wished to be cremated. Decisions were made against Mao's wishes to preserve his cadaver in the mausoleum and since it was impossible for China to obtain the necessary technologies from the former-USSR, China asked help from Vietnam, which learned the trade from the former-USSR when Ho Chi Minh's cadaver was preserved in his mausoleum for public display against his death wish. Appreciating the Chinese support during the Vietnam War, Vietnam taught the Chinese everything they learned from the former-USSR. However, the effectiveness of such practice is subject to debate because there is significant controversy over whether the body is real, as visitors have noted the exceedingly waxy appearance of the corpse, as well as the speed in which visitors are ushered through the room. Also, the body is on display at most a few hours each day, and often not at all, fueling speculation that if the body is real, it is decaying rapidly. Official portrait of Hồ Chí Minh Hồ Chí Minh (May 19, 1890 – September 2, 1969) was a Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became Prime Minister (1946-1955) and President (1955-1969) of North Vietnam. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Peoples Republic of China Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~520,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 230...


Controversy

After the reform started in 1979 in China, however, it was revealed that the symbolic voluntary labor was a complete waste of time and other resources, because the significant majority of the voluntary work performed was nothing other than a political propaganda showpiece: the so-called 'volunteers' would come to the construction site to form a human chain and pass the bricks from one end to the other, and the next day, a different group of the so-called 'volunteers' would repeat the task, except the bricks were passed back to the original spot. Actual work that would really help the construction was never done. As a result, the construction of the mausoleum of Mao cost (measured in 1977 prices) ten times more than that of the Great Hall of the People (measured in 1959 prices), and some Chinese scholars even went so far as claiming the cost is ten times more than the Great Hall of the People when both were measured in 1977 prices. This waste of resources was used by the reformers within the communist party to criticize Hua Guofeng and his followers, but once the reformers had consolidated their power after Hua Guofeng was removed, further discussion on this sensitive topic was banned. Great Hall of the People by day. ... Great Hall of the People by day. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: 华国锋; Traditional Chinese: 華國鋒; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: 华国锋; Traditional Chinese: 華國鋒; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Vandalism Attempts

Security of the mausoleum has been increased steadily since its completion due to sproadic vandalism attempts. Chinese goverment admits that the guards have successfully thwarted two vandalism attempts by subduing the culprits while they were still waiting in line outside: both were carried out by a man acting alone, and both involved attempts to use explosives. In one case, the guards discovered the wooden handles of the hand grenades protruding outside the culprit's pockets, while in the other, the guards discovered the unusually bulging pockets of the culprit contained dynamite.[citation needed]


According to the Chinese democracy movement, there was at least one attempt which successfully reached inside the mausoleum: in the 1990's, an unemployed female textile worker from Xinyang managed to slip inside and attempted to use a metal weight to crack the crystal casket of Mao, but she was quickly apprehended. For Guns N Roses album Chinese Democracy The Chinese democracy movement is a loosely organized movement in the Peoples Republic of China against the Communist Party of China. ... Xinyang (Simplified Chinese: 信阳; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...


Reference

  • The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall Successfully Completed (Issue 9, 1977). China Pictorial, pg. 4-12.

External link

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mausoleum of Mao Zedong
  • Satellite photo of the Mausoleum on Google Maps

 
 

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