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Encyclopedia > Maus
Maus

Image:Maus.jpg
Cover of Maus Hardcover #1 Maus may mean: Maus, a series of Pulitzer Prize-winning graphic novels by Art Spiegelman Maus (band), an Icelandic rock band Panzer VIII Maus, a name for the German World War II Panzerkampfwagen VIII tank prototype, the heaviest tank ever built Maus, a German word for mouse This is a... cover of Maus graphic novel This image is a book cover. ...

Publisher Pantheon Books
Format limited series graphic novel
Publication dates 1973 to 1991
Creative team
Writer(s) Art Spiegelman
Artist(s) Art Spiegelman

Maus: A Survivor's Tale is a memoir by Art Spiegelman, presented as a graphic novel. It recounts the struggle of Spiegelman's father to survive the Holocaust as a Polish Jew and draws largely on his father's recollections of his experiences. The book also follows the author's troubled relationship with his father and the way the effects of war reverberate through generations of a family. In 1992 it won a Pulitzer Prize Special Award. The New York Times described the selection of Maus for the honor: "The Pulitzer board members ... found the cartoonist's depiction of Nazi Germany hard to classify."[1] Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ... The limited series is a term referring to a comic book series with a set finite number of issues. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American comics artist, editor, and advocate for the medium of comics, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning comic memoir, Maus. ... Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American comics artist, editor, and advocate for the medium of comics, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning comic memoir, Maus. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Pulitzer Prize jury has the option of awarding special citations where they consider necessary. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Contents

Overview

The book alternates the stories told by Spiegelman's father Vladek Spiegelman about life in Poland before and during the Second World War with the contemporary life of Art, Vladek and their loved ones in the Rego Park neighborhood of New York City. The book recounts the struggle of Vladek Spiegelman living with his family in Radomsko, Częstochowa, Sosnowiec and Bielsko in the late 1930s and his tragic odyssey during the war which ultimately led him to Auschwitz as prisoner 175113. Vladek Spiegelman (on the left), as depicted on the cover of Maus Vladek Spiegelman (October 11, 1906-August 18, 1982) is the subject of the Pulitzer Prize-winning graphic novel Maus, written and illustrated by his son, Art Spiegelman. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Rego Park is an neighborhood in central Queens, New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Radomsko is a town in central Poland with 51,330 inhabitants . ... Motto: CzÄ™stochowa to dobre miasto (CzÄ™stochowa is a good city) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina CzÄ™stochowa Established 11th century City Rights 1356 Government  - Mayor Tadeusz Wrona Area  - City 162. ... Sielecki Castle Sosnowiec (pronounced: [sÉ”s:nÉ”vȋεʦ]) is a city located in the south of Poland, in a tributary of the Wisla (Vistula) river. ... Motto: none Voivodship Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w Bielsku-Białej Mayor Jacek Krywult Area 125 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 190 780 - 1526/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 49°50 N 19°04 E Area code +48 33 Car plates SB Twin towns - Municipal Website Bielsko... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ...


The book has a satirical feel about it since the characters are all presented as various types of anthropomorphic animals, according to nationality or race. Jews, for example, are depicted as human-like mice, Germans as cats, Americans as dogs, and Poles as pigs. Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject (individuals, organizations, states) often as an intended means of provoking or preventing change. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... Cats may refer to: Felines, members of the animal family Felidae The domesticated animal, cat The musical, yeah right, I bet that this was really dumb. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Throughout the book, Art Spiegelman confronts his complex and often conflicted relationship with his father. For example, Vladek exhibits racial prejudice against blacks despite his own experiences of anti-semitism. He is also presented as stingy and a person who makes life very difficult for those around him, including his first wife Anja (Art's mother, who committed suicide) and his second wife Mala, also a concentration camp survivor. The personality of the present day Vladek seems quite different from that of the man in the concentration camps, where he was resourceful and compassionate. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ...


Themes

The author's articulation of the Holocaust is the main theme of the two graphic novels, giving the book a metabiographical aspect. Spiegelman often mentions the apprehension he feels in trying to express the inexpressible. The novel depicts the Holocaust through the perspectives both of a survivor and of those who did not experience it directly, but are deeply connected to it nonetheless.


Story

Before the story begins a, a sequence of of an eleven year old Art is shown. The young Art is shown rollerskating with his friends. When he falls his friends continue without him in an act of abandonment. Art's father, Vladek Spiegelman, calls him over to hold a wooden board while he saws it. When Vladek ask why Art is crying he tells him about the friends that recently ditched him. Vladek reassures Art with the advice that to find out who is really one's friend one must be locked up with them in room for a week with no food.


Animals used

  • The Jews are represented by mice.
  • The Germans are represented by cats.
  • The Americans are represented by dogs.
  • The Poles are represented by pigs.
  • The Roma (Gypsies) are represented as gypsy moths. (found on page 133 of Maus II)
  • The French are represented by frogs.
  • The Swedes are represented by reindeer.
  • The British are represented by fish. (found on page 131 of Maus II)
  • The child of a Jew and a German is shown as a mouse with cat stripes. (found on page 131 of Maus II)

The animals are symbolic of the different nationalities and races for a number of reasons:[2]: This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Caribou redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...

  • The Jews, as mice, can be seen as weak and helpless victims, as well as satirizing the Nazi portrayal of Jews as vermin. Also the German verb 'mauscheln' (which visually includes the word 'Maus' - mouse) means originally 'to talk like a Jew'[3].
  • The Germans, as cats, suggest power over the Jews.
  • Dogs for the Americans suggest power, friendliness, loyalty and other positive values. Unlike other animals used, the dog faces Spiegelman uses vary from character to character. Perhaps this is to represent how Americans come from many different places (for example, the African-American hitchhiker is portrayed as a black dog). The stereotypical dog also dislikes cats and may attack them. The choice of dog may have been inspired by the term "dogface," which was a common nickname for the American G.I. (especially infantry) during the WWII era. It may also be an allusion to some cartoons, such as Tom and Jerry, in which a dog (Spike) will protect a mouse from a cat. It may also mean that the Americans didn't help the Jews intentionally, like a dog doesn't help a mouse.
  • The use of pigs as Polish suggests more negative views: as well as greed, the Poles/pigs are brutal (Spiegelman mentions a Jew who survived the war, only to be murdered by Poles when he returned home.) After the comic was released in Poland many Poles found it very offensive to be represented by pigs. However, there are many Polish characters who are portrayed sympathetically or positively such as the Spiegelmans' governess or Mrs. Motonawa who hides Vladek and Anja at great personal risk. Spiegelman explained that he chose pigs in good faith because of their resemblance to famous American cartoon characters like Miss Piggy and Porky Pig. The choice may also reflect the traditional agricultural Polish way of life.[4][5]
  • The sole gypsy is represented by a Gypsy moth; she tells the fortune of Anja, Vladek's wife. It seems to represent an exotic, mysterious personality that was and still is the common perception of the Romani people.
  • The French being frogs would appear to be a direct reference to an oft-used nickname, itself a lampoon of the fact that the French are supposedly renowned for eating frogs: it is also, however, suggested that Spiegelman wanted a certain amount of sliminess about the French, as he says to his (French) wife: "Bunnies are too innocent for the French... Think of the years of anti-Semitism."
  • The Swedish as deer suggests native reindeer.
  • The British as fish suggests an aquatic creature, a metaphor of British naval supremacy or Britain's status as an island.[6]
  • Vladek as a senior citizen mouse wears glasses. However, most of the time he is drawn as wearing pince-nez just like Scrooge McDuck. Scrooge's creator Carl Barks was an influence on Spiegelman, who was later chosen to write an obituary for Barks that was published in The New York Times.

With the exception of the Americans (dogs), the animal characters are all drawn alike. For instance, most of the Jewish mice resemble each other regardless of sex or age. Clothing and other details are used in order to tell them apart: Spiegelman himself, for instance, is always wearing a white shirt and a black sleeveless overshirt; his French wife, Françoise, wears a striped t-shirt. While wandering the streets of their Nazi-occupied town, the Jews wear pig masks in order to show the trouble they went through to pass off as non-Jewish Poles. 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Spi(e)gelman(n) can refer to: Art Spiegelman, American comics artist James Spigelman, Chief Justice of New South Wales Sol Spiegelman, American microbiologist Vladek Spiegelman, father of Art Spiegelman and subject of his graphic novel Maus See also Spiegel This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... Miss Piggy being moved on Extreme Makeover: Home Edition Miss Piggy is a Muppet character primarily played by Frank Oz and sometimes Richard Hunt in Season 1 of The Muppet Show. ... Porky Pig is an Academy Award-nominated animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Caribou redirects here. ... Theodore Roosevelt wearing pince-nez Pince-nez (also known as Oxford glasses) are a style of spectacles, popular in the 19th century, which are supported without earpieces, by pinching the bridge of the nose. ... Scrooge McDuck or Uncle Scrooge is a fictional Scottish-born Glaswegian[1]anthropomorphic duck created by Carl Barks that first appeared in Four Color Comics #178, Christmas on Bear Mountain, published by Dell Comics in December, 1947. ... Carl Barks (March 27, 1901 – August 25, 2000) was a famous Disney Studio illustrator and comic book creator, who invented Duckburg and many of its inhabitants, such as Scrooge McDuck (1947), Gladstone Gander (1948), the Beagle Boys (1951), Gyro Gearloose (1952) and Magica De Spell (1961). ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Françoise Mouly (b. ...


The use of animals in the graphic novel may seem incongruous, but instead of creating social stereotypes, Spiegelman attempts to lampoon them and show how stupid it is to classify a human being based on nationality or ethnicity.[1] His images are not his: they were "borrowed from the Germans... Ultimately what the book is about is the commonality of human beings. It's crazy to divide things down along nationalistic or racial or religious lines... These metaphors, which are meant to self-destruct in my book - and I think they do self-destruct - still have a residual force and still get people worked up over them."


The use of animals may also be used in order to detach the reader from real life. This may have been done to appeal to a younger generation of readers, yet still telling a story of survival and death during the holocaust. But instead of fully detaching the reader from the book, he shows a human aspect by illustrating how his father tells his story and by showing the emotions and relationships of the characters throughout.[7]


Publication

Maus was originally published as a three-page strip for Funny Aminals, an underground comic published by Apex Novelties in 1972. In 1977, Spiegelman decided to lengthen the work,[8] publishing most of the work serially in RAW magazine, a publication Spiegelman co-edited along with his wife Françoise Mouly. It was then published in its final form in two parts (Volume I: "My Father Bleeds History" and Volume II: "And Here My Troubles Began"), before eventually being integrated into a single volume. A CD-ROM edition also exists. Cover to RAW volume 1, number 1 (July 1980). ... Françoise Mouly (b. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


Impact

Since its publication, Maus has been the subject of numerous essays. Deborah R. Geis published a collection of essays involving Maus titled Considering Maus: Approaches to Art Spiegelman's "Survivor's Tale" of the Holocaust, which received criticism in an Image & Narrative essay for, among other things, excluding several essays praising and even the rare essay critiquing the graphic novel.[9]


Alan Moore praised Maus in a recommendations list for the website http://www.readyourselfraw.com, saying "I have been convinced that Art Spiegelman is perhaps the single most important comic creator working within the field and in my opinion Maus represents his most accomplished work to date…"[10] For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ...


Maus has also been studied in schools, along with another memoire of the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel's Night.[11] Elie Wiesel KBE (born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928) [1] is a Romanian-French-Jewish novelist, political activist, Nobel Laureate and Holocaust survivor. ... Night is a work by Elie Wiesel based on his experience, as a young Orthodox Jew, of being sent with his family to the German death camp at Auschwitz, and later to the concentration camp at Buchenwald. ...


Awards and nominations

Awards

The Angoulême International Comics Festival is the main comics festival in Europe. ... A variety of religious awards has been presented to comics at the Angoulême International Comics Festival between 1985 and 2003. ... This Prize for Best Comic Book is awarded to comics authors at the Angoulême International Comics Festival. ... Urhunden Prizes have been given out each year by the Svenska Seriefrämjandet (Swedish Comic Promotion Association) (Svenska Seriefrämjandets) since 1987. ... Max & Moritz Prizes are prizes for comic books, comic strips, and other similar materials which have been awarded at each of the biennial International Comics Shows of Erlangen since 1984. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... The Will Eisner Comic Industry Award is given for creative achievement in comic books. ... The Harvey Awards are given for achievement in comic books. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...

Nominations

The National Book Critics Circle (NBCC) is an American association of approximately seven hundred book reviewers. ...

Editions

  • ISBN 0-394-74723-2, Volume One (paperback)
  • ISBN 0-394-54155-3, Volume One (hardcover)
  • ISBN 0-679-72977-1, Volume Two (paperback)
  • ISBN 0-394-55655-0, Volume Two (hardcover)
  • ISBN 0-679-41038-4, Hardcover set (both volumes in two books)
  • ISBN 0-679-74840-7, Paperback boxed set
  • ISBN 0-14-101408-3, Paperback containing both volumes in one book
  • ISBN 0-679-40641-7, Hardcover containing both volumes in one book

Notes

  1. ^ Stanley, Alessandra. "'Thousand Acres' Wins Fiction As 21 Pulitzer Prizes Are Given", New York Times, April 8, 1992. 
  2. ^ http://www.mala.bc.ca/~Johnstoi/introser/maus.htm
  3. ^ http://www.degruyter.com/rs/bookSingle.cfm?id=IS-9783110172904-1&fg=SK&l=E
  4. ^ http://www.forum-znak.org.pl/index-en.php?t=przeglad&id=1020
  5. ^ http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/33dTexts/SampleJournalHM+Byrne039.htm
  6. ^ http://academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/mandel/Wadley.htm
  7. ^ http://www.northern.edu/hastingw/maus.htm
  8. ^ Art Spiegelman (http). Witness & Legacy - Contemporary Art about the holocaust:. Retrieved on February 14, 2006.
  9. ^ http://www.imageandnarrative.be/issue08/olefrahm_geis.htm
  10. ^ http://www.readyourselfraw.com/recommended/rec_alanmoore/recommended_alanmoore.html
  11. ^ http://www.buckslib.org/OneBook/Maus/unit2student.htm

April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Art Spiegelman's MAUS (2025 words)
Maus thus juxtaposes and intertwines past and present, the different subject histories of each protagonist, and the very different cultural contexts of Nazi occupied Poland and Rego Park, New York.
Spiegelman's Maus, in transmitting the story of the father through the son, does not avoid or gloss over any of the difficulties entailed in working-through trauma, which, as we know, always brings with it some degree of "acting-out".
Maus enacts the difficulty of working through a traumatic historical past that defies attempts at mastery, and is a visceral presentation of the postmodern fragmented self struggling to come to terms with this damaged and wounded history in a conscious manner.
Maus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1201 words)
Maus: A Survivor's Tale is a memoir presented as a graphic novel by Art Spiegelman.
Maus was originally published as a three page strip for Funny Aminals, an underground comic published by Apex Novelties in 1972.
Deborah R. Geis published a collection of essays involving Maus titled Considering Maus: Approaches to Art Spiegelman's "Survivor's Tale" of the Holocaust, which received criticism in an Image and Narrative essay for, among other things, excluding several essays praising and even the rare essay critiquing the graphic novel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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