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Encyclopedia > Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire at its largest extent under Ashoka.
Imperial Symbol:
The Lion Capital of Ashoka
Founder Chandragupta Maurya
Preceding State(s) Mahajanapadas, mainly Magadha
Languages Sanskrit
Pali
Prakrit
Greek (northwest)
Aramaic (northwest)
Religions Hinduism
Jainism
Buddhism
Capital Pataliputra
Head of State Samraat (Emperor)
First Emperor Chandragupta Maurya
Last Emperor Brhadrata
Government Centralized Absolute Monarchy with Divine Right of Kings as described in the Arthashastra
Divisions 4 provinces:
Tosali
Ujjain
Suvarnagiri
Taxila
Semi-independent tribes
Administration Inner Council of Ministers (Mantriparishad) under a Mahamantri with a larger assembly of ministers (Mantrinomantriparisadamca).
Extensive network of officials from treasurers (Sannidhatas) to collectors (Samahartas) and clerks (Karmikas).
Provincial administration under regional viceroys (Kumara or Aryaputra) with their own Mantriparishads and supervisory officials (Mahamattas).
Provinces divided into districts run by lower officials and similar stratification down to individual villages run by headmen and supervised by Imperial officials (Gopas).
Area 5 million km² [33] (Southern Asia and parts of Central Asia)
Population 50 million [34] (one third of the world population [35])
Currency Silver Ingots (Panas)
Existed 322–185 BCE
Dissolution Military coup by Pusyamitra Sunga
Succeeding state Sunga Empire
A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India.
A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India.

The Maurya Empire (322185 BCE, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. Image File history File links Mauryan_map. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four lions standing back to back. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article is under construction. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... Samraat (Sanskrit samrãṭ) is an Ancient Indian title meaning Emperor. The title of empress is Samragyi (in Sanskrit, samrãjñī). Categories: | | ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Kanakagiri is Historical place of India, situated in Karnataka State, 40 Km North to Gangavati town. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ... The Mantriparishad was the council of ministers that was part of the administrative system of the Maurya Empire in Ancient India. ... Mantri is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in Asian cultures with a Hindu tradition (even if later converted, usually to buddhism or Islam), for various public offices, from fairly humble to ministerial rank, either alone or in a pleiad of compounds. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Kumara is the general Polynesian word for the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas Kumara is also the name of a town on the West Coast of New Zealand Kumara or Kumaraswami is a name for Kartikeya, the Hindu god of war This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... [[Image:[[Gold bars|Gold ingots. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_India. ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_India. ... The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four lions standing back to back. ... (Redirected from 250 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC - 184 BC 183 BC... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... Scholars masturbate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ...


Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains (modern Bihar and Bengal) in the eastern side of the sub-continent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (near modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and began rapidly expanding his power westwards across central and western India taking opportunistic advantage of the disuptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the Great's Macedonian and Persian armies. By 316 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... , Bihar (Hindi: बिहार, Urdu: بہار, IPA: ,  ) is a state of the Indian union situated in north India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313...


At its greatest extent, the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan and significant portions of what is now Afghanistan, including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by Emperor Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga. Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Herat is a province of Afghanistan; together with Badghis, Farah, and Ghor provinces it makes up the western region of the country. ... Kandahar or Qandahar (Pashto: قندھار) is one of the largest of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ...


The Mauryan Empire was perhaps the largest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent until the arrival of the British. Its decline began fifty years after Ashoka's rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BCE with the foundation of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC - 184 BC 183 BC... The Sunga dynasty ruled the Sunga empire of central and eastern India from 185 BCE to around 73 BCE. The last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty was Brithadratha. ...


Under Chandragupta, the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-indus region, which was under Macedonian rule. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I, a Greek general from Alexander's army. Under Chandragupta and his successors, both internal and external trade, and agriculture and economic activities, all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance, administration and security. After the Kalinga War, the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka: India was a prosperous and stable empire of great economic and military power whose political influence and trade extended across Western and Central Asia and Europe. Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism was the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Combatants Mauryan Empire State of Kalinga Commanders Ashoka Unknown Strength Unknown larger quantity Unknown smaller quantity Casualties 10,000 (approx. ... This article is under construction. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


Chandragupta's minister Kautilya Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra, one of the greatest treatises on economics, politics, foreign affairs, administration, military arts, war, and religion ever produced in the East. Archaeologically, the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary sources of written records of the Mauryan times. The Mauryan empire is considered one of the most significant periods in Indian history. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath, is the emblem of India. Chanakya (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Northern Black Polished Ware culture (NBPW) of the Indian subcontinent (ca. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Emblem of India. ... Sarnath (also Mrigadava, Migadāya, Rishipattana, Isipatana) is the deer park where Gautama Buddha first taught the Dharma, and where the Buddhist Sangha came into existence through the enlightenment of Kondanna. ... The Emblem of India The Emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. ...

Contents

Background

Although Alexander set up a Macedonian garrison and satrapies (vassal states) in trans-Indus region of modern day Pakistan, ruled by the previously by kings Ambhi of Taxila and Porus of Pauravas(modern day Jhelum, and the Greek generals Eudemus and Peithon until around 316 BCE. It was Chandragupta Maurya under the clever instructions of his advisor, Chanakya, that they were able to surpise and defeat the Macedonians and consolidate the region under the control of his newly-occupied seat of power in Magadha. Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Taxiles (in Greek Tαξιλης; lived 4th century BC) was a prince or king, who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes rivers, in the Punjab at the period of the expedition of Alexander the Great, 327 BC. His real name was Ambhi, and the Greeks appear to... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab and dominions extending to Hyphasis[1]. Its capital may have been near the current city of Lahore [2... The pauravas was the name given to the many petty kingdoms and tribes of ancient NW India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Pauravas were all situated on or near the Indus river where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade. ... Jhelum or Jehlum may mean: Jhelum River in India and Pakistan Jhelum City in Punjab, Pakistan Jhelum District in Punjab, Pakistan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Eudemus (in Greek EυδημoÏ‚; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals, who was appointed by him to the command of the troops left in India. ... Peithon, son of Agenor (?-312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313...


Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya

Main articles: Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya

Following Alexander's advance into the Punjab, a brahmin named Chanakya (real name Vishnugupt, also known as Kautilya) traveled to Magadha, a kingdom that was large and militarily-powerful and feared by its neighbors, but was dismissed by its king Dhana, of the Nanda Dynasty. However, the prospect of battling Magadha in a major war was one of the factors that caused the refusal of Alexander's troops to go further east: he returned to Babylon, and he re-deployed most of his troops west of the Indus river. When Alexander died in Babylon, soon after in 323 BCE, his empire fragmented, and local kings declared their independence, leaving several smaller satraps in an un-unified state. Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... The Indus River (Urdu: Sindh; Sindhi: Sindh; Sanskrit and Hindi: सिन्धु ; Persian: حندو ; Pashto: ّآباسنFather of Rivers; Tibetan: Lion River; Chinese: Yìndù; Greek: Ινδους Indus) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent and has given the country India its... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320...

Statuettes of the Maurya period, 4th-3rd century BCE. Musée Guimet.
Statuettes of the Maurya period, 4th-3rd century BCE. Musée Guimet.

Chandragupta Maurya's rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. On the one hand, a number of ancient Indian accounts, such as the drama Mudrarakshasa (Poem of Rakshasa - Rakshasa was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta, describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. A kshatriya tribe known as the Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts, Mahaparinibbana Sutta. However, any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as "Sandrokottos". As a young man he is said to have met Alexander.[1] He is also said to have met the Nanda king, angered him, and made a narrow escape.[2] Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. Gathering young men and ex-soldiers from across central India, including Yavana (Greek), Scythian and Persian troops, Chandragupta's forces attacked and vanquished the Nanda dynasty.[3] In the northwest, sometime after the departure of the Greek satraps Peithon and Eudemus in 317 BCE, Chandragupta vanquished the remnants of Greek forces.[4] Under principles outlined in the Arthashastra, Maurya built an extensive intelligence network, the first of its kind in India — a network of spies and informers who betrayed enemy plans, and mis-informed the enemy themselves of Maurya's true designs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1110x386, 558 KB) Statuettes of the Maurya period, 4th-3rd century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1110x386, 558 KB) Statuettes of the Maurya period, 4th-3rd century BCE. Musee Guimet. ... Guimet in his museum. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Chandragupta Maurya (ruled 322–298 BC), known to the Greeks as Sandracottus, was the first emperor of the Mauryan empire. ... For the Mahāparinirvāṇa SÅ«tra, a text of East Asian Mahayana Buddhism, see Nirvana Sutra. ... People named Chandragupta: Chandragupta Maurya. ... Peithon, son of Agenor (?-312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE... Eudemus (in Greek EυδημoÏ‚; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals, who was appointed by him to the command of the troops left in India. ...


Conquest of Magadha

Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum.
Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum.

Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana, plus resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. These men included the former general of Taxila, other accomplished students of Chanakya, the representative of King Porus of Kakayee, his son Malayketu, and the rulers of small states. Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (686 × 734 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 560 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (686 × 734 pixel, file size: 215 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Preparing to invade Pataliputra, Maurya hatched a plan. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Ultimately Nanda resigned, handing power to Chandragupta, and went into exile and was never heard of again. Chanakya contacted the prime minister, Rakshasas, and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha, not to the Magadha dynasty, insisting that he continue in office. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning, and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor, and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman.

Building India's First Empire

Having become the king of one of India's most powerful states, Chandragupta invaded the Punjab. One of Alexander's richest satraps, Peithon, satrap of Media, had tried to raise a coalition against him. Chandragupta managed to conquer the Punjab capital of Taxila, an important centre of trade and hellenistic culture, increasing his power and consolidating his control. Peithon (about 355 BC - about 314 BC) was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordia in western Macedonia. ...


Chandragupta Maurya

Main article: Chandragupta Maurya
Approximate Dates of Mauryan Dynasty
Emperor Reign start Reign end
Chandragupta Maurya 322 BCE 298 BCE
Bindusara 297 BCE 272 BCE
Asoka The Great 273 BCE 232 BCE
Dasaratha 232 BCE 224 BCE
Samprati 224 BCE 215 BCE
Salisuka 215 BCE 202 BCE
Devavarman 202 BCE 195 BCE
Satadhanvan 195 BCE 187 BCE
Brihadratha 187 BCE 185 BCE

Chandragupta was again in conflict with the Greeks when Seleucus I, ruler of the Seleucid Empire, tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India, during a campaign in 305 BCE, but failed. The two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded, implying either a marital alliance between the two dynastic lines or a recognition of marriage between Greeks and Indians, Chandragupta received the satrapies of Paropamisadae (Kamboja and Gandhara), Arachosia (Kandhahar) and Gedrosia (Balochistan), and Seleucus I received 500 war elephants that were to have a decisive role in his victory against western Hellenistic kings at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes, Deimakos and Dionysius resided at the Mauryan court. Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... 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(Redirected from 273 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272... (Redirected from 232 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC - 232 BC... Dasaratha Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire, ruling 232 - 224 BC. He was the successor of Ashoka the Great. ... (Redirected from 232 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC - 232 BC... 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(Redirected from 215 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 220 BC 219 BC 218 BC 217 BC 216 BC - 215 BC... (Redirected from 202 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC... Devavarman Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire. ... (Redirected from 202 BCE) Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC... (Redirected from 195 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC - 195 BC... Satadhanvan Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire. ... (Redirected from 195 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC - 195 BC... (Redirected from 187 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC... Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... (Redirected from 187 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC - 187 BC... (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... In ancient Greece Epigamia (Greek language: Επιγαμια), designated the legal right to contract a marriage. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ... Gedrosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southernwestern part of today s Pakistan, from the Indus River to the areas of Baluchistan and Makran. ... Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. ... Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... Indian war elephant, relief at Mathura, 2nd century BC War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Combatants Antigonids Macedonians Seleucids Commanders Antigonus I†, Demetrius I of Macedon Prepelaus, Lysimachus, Seleucus I Nicator, Pleistarchus Strength 45,000 heavy infantry, 25,000 light infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 75 elephants 40,000 heavy infantry, 20,000 light infantry, 12,000 Persian cavalry, 3,000 heavy cavalry, 400 elephants, 100... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... Megasthenes (c. ... Deimakos (3rd century BCE), also Deimachus, was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire. ... Dionysius was a Greek of the 3rd century BCE, who was sent as ambassador to the court of the Indian emperor Ashoka, by Ptolemy Philadelphus. ...


Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration at Pataliputra, which, according to Megasthenes, was "surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous Persian sites such as Susa and Ecbatana." Chandragupta's son Bindusara extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court, named Deimachus (Strabo 1–70). The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Golden Rhyton from Irans Achaemenid period. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Deimakos (3rd century BCE), also Deimachus, was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...


Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta, who live simply, honestly, and do not know writing:

" The Indians all live frugally, especially when in camp. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude, and consequently they observe good order. Theft is of very rare occurrence. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos, wherein lay 400,000 men, found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae, and this among a people who have no written laws, but are ignorant of writing, and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. They live, nevertheless, happily enough, being simple in their manners and frugal. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley, and their food is principally a rice-pottage." Strabo XV. i. 53-56, quoting Megasthenes[6]

Bindusara

Main article: Bindusara

Chandragupta died after a reign for 24 years and abdicated in favor of his son, Bindusara,also known as Amitrochates( destroyer of foes) in Greek accounts, around 301 BCE.[7] Details are scarce regarding Bindusara; however, the incorporation of southern peninsular India is sometimes credited to him. According to Jain tradition, his mother was a woman by the name of Durdhara. The Puranas assign him a reign of 25 years. He has been identified with the Indian title Amitraghata (slayer of Enemies), found in Greek texts as Amitrochates. Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ...


Ashoka the Great

Main article: Ashoka the Great
Emperor Ashoka (a depiction)
Emperor Ashoka (a depiction)
The distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka. is a concrete indication of the extent of Ashoka's rule. To the West, it went as far as Kandahar (where the Edicts were written in Greek and Aramaic), and bordered the contemporary Hellenistic metropolis of Ai Khanoum.
The distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka.[8] is a concrete indication of the extent of Ashoka's rule. To the West, it went as far as Kandahar (where the Edicts were written in Greek and Aramaic), and bordered the contemporary Hellenistic metropolis of Ai Khanoum.

Chandragupta's grandson Ashokavardhan Maurya, better known as Ashoka the Great (ruled 273- 232 BCE), is considered by contemporary historians to be perhaps the greatest of Indian monarchs, and perhaps the world. H.G. Wells calls him the "greatest of kings". Ashoka (DevanāgarÄ«: अशोकः, IAST: , IPA: , Prakrit Imperial title: Devanampriya Priyadarsi, He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably) (304 BCE – 232 BCE) was an Indian emperor, of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled from from 273 BCE to 232 BCE. Often cited as one of India... Image File history File links Ashoka2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 498 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 1440 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 498 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1196 × 1440 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hellenistic foot fragment of a giant statue, from Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BCE. Ai-Khanoum or Ay Khanum (lit. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272 BC 271 BC 270... (Redirected from 232 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC - 232 BC...


As a young prince, Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive, re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India. But it was his conquest of Kalinga which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units, an estimated 100,000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare, including over 10,000 of Ashoka's own men. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. When he personally witnessed the devastation, Ashoka began feeling remorse, and he cried 'what have I done?'. Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed, Ashoka embraced the teachings of Gautama Buddha, and renounced war and violence. For a monarch in ancient times, this was an historic feat. Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). While he maintained a large and powerful army, to keep the peace and maintain authority, Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe, and he sponsored Buddhist missions. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. Over 40 years of peace, harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ...


The Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, are found throughout the Subcontinent. Ranging from as far west as Afghanistan and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District), Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments. Although predominantly written in Prakrit, two of them were written in Greek, and one in both Greek and Aramaic. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks, Kambojas, and Gandharas as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the Hellenic world at the time such as Amtiyoko (Antiochus), Tulamaya (Ptolemy), Amtikini (Antigonos), Maka (Magas) and Alikasudaro (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory "600 yojanas away" (a yojanas being about 7 miles), corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4,000 miles).[9] The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... For the city, see Nellore. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Temple of Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around nine hundred years. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Magas of Cyrene (r. ... Alexander II, king of Epirus, succeeded his father Pyrrhus in 272 BC. He attacked Antigonus Gonatas and conquered the greater part of Macedonia, but was in turn driven out of both Epirus and Macedonia by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus. ...


Administration

Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum.
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum.

The Empire was divided into four provinces, with the imperial capital at Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are Tosali (in the east), Ujjain in the west, Suvarnagiri (in the south), and Taxila (in the north). The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara (royal prince), who governed the provinces as king's representative. The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his Mantriparishad (Council of Ministers). ImageMetadata File history File links MauryanRingstone. ... ImageMetadata File history File links MauryanRingstone. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared...


Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by Kautilya in the Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time<citation needed>. According to Megasthenes, the empire wielded a military of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants. A vast espionage system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism, Ashoka nevertheless continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia. Chanakya (c. ... The Arthashastra (more precisely Arthaśāstra) is a treatise on statecraft and economic policy which identifies its author by the names Kautilya[1] and Viṣṇugupta,[2] who are traditionally identified with the Mauryan minister Cāṇakya. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Economy

Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.
Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.

For the first time in South Asia, political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally-administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ...


Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an international network of trade expanded. The Khyber Pass, on the modern boundary of Pakistan and Afghanistan, became a strategically-important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. Trade also extended through the Malay peninsula into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles, spices and exotic foods. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The easing of many overly-rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire. Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ...


In many ways, the economic situation in the Maurya Empire is comparable to the Roman Empire several centuries later, which both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities which existed purely for private commerce. This was due to the Mauryas having to contend with pre-existing private commercial entities hence they were more concerned about keeping the support of these pre-existing organizations, while the Romans did not have such pre-existing entities to contend with hence they were able to prevent such entities from developing.[10] (See also Economic history of India.) “Corporate” redirects here. ... Economic history of India, in the sense of the meaning of the term economic in its current sense, is at least 5000 years old. ...


Religion

Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE.
Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara stupa, 3rd century BCE.[11]
Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka (260-218 BCE).
Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and later became an avatar of Vishnu. 3rd-2nd century CE. British Museum.
Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and later became an avatar of Vishnu. 3rd-2nd century CE. British Museum.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 797 × 422 pixelsFull resolution (797 × 422 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Butkara stupa during the Maurya period. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 797 × 422 pixelsFull resolution (797 × 422 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Butkara stupa during the Maurya period. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... The Butkara Stupa is an important Buddhist shrine in the area of Swat, Pakistan. ... Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (959x577, 19 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Proselytism is the practice of attempting to convert people to another opinion, usually another religion. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC - 260 BC - 259 BC 258 BC... (Redirected from 218 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC 220 BC 219 BC - 218 BC... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 533 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1110 × 1249 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 533 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1110 × 1249 pixel, file size: 331 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Balarama, next to the river Yamuna. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...

Jainism

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya became the first major Indian monarch to initiate a religious transformation at the highest level when he embraced Jainism, a religious movement resented by orthodox Hindu priests who usually attended the imperial court. At an older age, Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self purifying Jain ritual of santhara i.e. fast unto death, at Shravan Belagola in Karnatka.However, his successor, Emperor Bindusara, preserved Hindu traditions and distanced himself from Jain and Buddhist movements.Samprati, the grandson of Ashoka also embraced Jainism. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk Arya Suhasti Suri and he is known to have built 1,25,000 Jain Temples across India. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain & Palitana. It is also said that just like Ashoka, Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece, Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. But till date no research has been done in this area. Thus, Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Chandragupta & Samprati, are credited for spread of Jainism in Southern India. Lakhs of Jain Temples & Jain Stupas were erected during their reign. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles, alongwith rise of Shankaracharya & Ramanujacharya, Jainism,once the major religion of southern India, declined. This article is under construction. ... Acharya Bhadrabahu (433 B.C. - 357 B.C. ?) was a Jain monk. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... , Karnātakā   (Kannada: ಕನಾ೯ಟಕ) (IPA: ) is one of the four southern states of India. ... Samprati Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... This article is under construction. ... A Jain temple is called Derasar. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Samprati Maurya was a king of the Mauryan empire. ... This article is under construction. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... A Jain temple is called Derasar. ... This article is under construction. ...


Buddhism

But when Ashoka embraced Buddhism, following the Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the Arthashastra on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son and daughter to Sri Lanka, whose king Tissa was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to West Asia, Greece and South East Asia, and commissioned the construction of monasteries, schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India, and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in Afghanistan. Ashoka helped convene the Third Buddhist Council of India and South Asia's Buddhist orders, near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. // Main article: First Buddhist council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the nirvana of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by the monk Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...


Hinduism

While himself a Buddhist, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu priests and ministers in his court, and he maintained religious freedom and tolerance although the Buddhist faith grew in popularity with his patronage. Indian society began embracing the philosophy of ahimsa, and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the caste system and orthodox discrimination, as Hinduism began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings. Social freedom began expanding in an age of peace and prosperity. Ahimsa (Devanagari: ; IAST ) is a Sanskrit term meaning non-violence (literally: the avoidance of violence - himsa). ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Architectural remains

Greek Late Archaic style capital from Patna (Pataliputra), thought to correspond to the reign of Ashoka, 3rd century BCE, Patna Museum (click image for references).
Mauryan architecture in the Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE.
Mauryan architecture in the Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE.

Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. Remains of a hypostyle building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in Kumrahâr near Patna, and is one of the very few site that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas in that city. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (889x708, 418 KB) Summary Greek capital from Pataliputra (Patna), India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (889x708, 418 KB) Summary Greek capital from Pataliputra (Patna), India. ... Kouros of the Archaic period, Thebes Archaeological Museum The sculpture of Ancient Greece is by far the most important surviving form of Ancient Greek art, although only a small fragment of Greek sculptural output has survived. ... A capital of the Composite order In Western architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, head) forms the crowning member of the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular shaft. ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ... ... Patna Museum was built by the British during the British Raj in the year 1917 to house the historical artefacts found in the vicinity of Patna. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 548 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 1606 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 548 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1467 × 1606 pixel, file size: 2. ... In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a flat ceiling which is supported by columns, as in the Hall of Columns at Karnak. ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ...


The grottoes of Barâbar are another example of Mauryan architecture, especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the Ajivikas.[13]


The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the Pillars of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the sub-continent. The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ...


Contacts with the Hellenistic world

Foundation of the Empire

Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. Plutarch reports that Chandragupta Maurya met with Alexander the Great, probably around Taxila in the northwest: Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... Taxila is an important archaelogical site in Pakistan containing the ruins of the Gandhāran city and university of Takshashila (also Takkasila or Taxila) an important Vedic/Hindu[1] and Buddhist[2] centre of learning from the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In 1980, Taxila was declared...

"Androcottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth." Plutarch 62-3[14]

Reconquest of the Northwest (c. 310 BCE)

Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India, in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks, where he fought the satraps (described as "Prefects" in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin), among whom may have been Eudemus, ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE or Peithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for Babylon in 316 BCE. Eudemus (in Greek Eυδημoς; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals, who was appointed by him to the command of the troops left in India. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 322 BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314... Peithon, son of Agenor (?-312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 321 BC 320 BC 319 BC 318 BC 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313...

"India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination" Justin XV.4.12-13[15]
"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory." Justin XV.4.19[16]

Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE)

Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him.
Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator, who fought Chandragupta Maurya, and later made an alliance with him.

Seleucus I Nicator, the Macedonian satrap of the Asian portion of Alexander's former empire, conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (660 × 669 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 591 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (660 × 669 pixel, file size: 170 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Appian (c. ...

"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus." Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55[17]

Appian (c. ...

Exchange of territory against war elephants

Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement, and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE, Seleucus, according to Strabo, ceded the territories along the Indus: Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302...

"The Trans Indus Inhabitants occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants." Strabo 15.2.1(9)

Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received much more territory, including Pakistan, southern Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Some authors claim this is an exaggeration, which comes from a statement made by Pliny the Elder, referring not specifically to the lands received by Chandragupta, but rather to the various opinions of geographers regarding the definition of the word "India":[18] Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:&#931;&#941;&#955;&#949;&#965;&#954;&#959;&#962; &#925;&#953;&#954;&#940;&#964;&#969;&#961;) (c. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ... Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE...

"The greater part of the geographers, in fact, do not look upon India as bounded by the river Indus, but add to it the four Satrapies of the Gedrosi (Gedrosia), the Arachotæ (Arachosia), the Arii (Aria), and the Paropauisidæ (Paropamisadae), the river Cophes (Kabul river) thus forming the extreme boundary of India. All these territories, however, according to other writers, are reckoned as belonging to the country of the Arii." Pliny, Natural History VI, 23[19]

Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandhahar, in today's southern Afghanistan. Gedrosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southernwestern part of today s Pakistan, from the Indus River to the areas of Baluchistan and Makran. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ...


In exchange for this territory, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. Combatants Antigonids Macedonians Seleucids Commanders Antigonus I†, Demetrius I of Macedon Prepelaus, Lysimachus, Seleucus I Nicator, Pleistarchus Strength 45,000 heavy infantry, 25,000 light infantry, 10,000 cavalry, 75 elephants 40,000 heavy infantry, 20,000 light infantry, 12,000 Persian cavalry, 3,000 heavy cavalry, 400 elephants, 100... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King...


Marital alliance

A matrimonial alliance was also agreed upon (called Epigamia in ancient sources, meaning either the recognition of marriage between trans-indus inhabitants and Greeks, or a dynastic alliance): In ancient Greece Epigamia (Greek language: Επιγαμια), designated the legal right to contract a marriage. ...

"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya], king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship." Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55[20]

Since there are no records of an Indian princess in the abundant Classical literature on the Seleucid, it is generally thought that the alliance went the other way around, and that a Seleucid princess may have been bethrothed to the Mauryan Dynasty. This practice in itself was quite common in the Hellenistic world to formalize alliances. There is thus a possibility that some of the descendants of Chandragupta were partly of Hellenic descent, whether Chandragupta married the Seleucid princess, or his son Bindusara, and that the Maurya dynasty was considered as closely connected to the Seleucid one.[21] Bindusara himself, born earlier around 320 BCE, could not have been the result of such a union, but he may have been the one who married the Seleucid princess, just before his rise as Emperor in 298 BCE.[22] Appian (c. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ...


Although Indian sources mention him as the son of brahmin woman, the marriage arrangement has led some to suggest that Ashoka may have been a product of this union with a Seleucid princess[23] although the general view is that Ashoka was born from a Brahmin mother who was a minor queen of Bindusara, based on the account of the 2nd century CE Ashokavadana ("Legend of Ashoka").[24] The practice of Mauryan rulers to have harems is repeatedly mentioned in sources such as the Ashokavadana however, which would suggest a multiplicity of bloodlines and a numerous descent for each king. Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशॊकवदन, Narrative of Ashoka) is a 2nd century CE document related to the legend of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. ... Coming from the Arab tradition, the harîm حريم (compare haram) is the part of the household forbidden to male strangers. ...


At the very least, this treaty on "Epigamia" implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level, although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people, or both. In ancient Greece Epigamia (Greek language: Επιγαμια), designated the legal right to contract a marriage. ...


Exchange of ambassadors

Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court.[25] Megasthenes (c. ... Deimakos (3rd century BCE), also Deimachus, was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Dionysius was a Greek of the 3rd century BCE, who was sent as ambassador to the court of the Indian emperor Ashoka, by Ptolemy Philadelphus. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ...


Exchange of presents

Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: An aphrodisiac is an agent which is used to increase sexual desire [1]. The name comes from the Greek goddess of Sensuality Aphrodite. ...

"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis, "The deipnosophists" Book I, chapter 32[26]

His son Bindusara 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with Antiochus I: Athenaeus (Αθηναιος Athenaios; fl. ... The Deipnosophistae (deipnon “dinner” and sophistai, “professors”: original Greek title Deipnosophistai, English Deipnosophists) may be translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers. ... Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor (297 - c. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I Antiochus I Soter ( 324/323_262/261 BC reigned 281 BC - 261 BC) was half Persian, his mother Apame being one of those eastern princesses whom Alexander had given as wives to his generals in 324 BC. On the assassination of his father Seleucus I in...

"But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really, as Aristophanes says, "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs"), that even Amitrochates, the king of the Indians, wrote to Antiochus, entreating him (it is Hegesander who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine, and some dried figs, and a sophist; and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer, "The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you; but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece" Athenaeus, "Deipnosophistae" XIV.67[27]

Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... The Deipnosophistes (deipnon “dinner” and sophistae, “the wise ones”) is variously translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers is work of some 15 books (some complete and some surviving in summaries only) by the ancient Greek author Athenaeus of Naucratis in Egypt, written...

Greek populations in India

Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. In his Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, some of them written in Greek, Ashoka describes that Greek populations within his realm converted to Buddhism: The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan...

"Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma." Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika).
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar. Kabul Museum. (Click image for translation).
Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar. Kabul Museum. (Click image for translation).

Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek, and a full Edict, written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in Kandahar. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek, using sophisticated philosophical terms. In this Edict, Ashoka uses the word Eusebeia ("Piety") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous "Dharma" of his other Edicts written in Prakrit: Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... Andhra Pradesh (&#3078;&#3074;&#3111;&#3120; &#3110;&#3143;&#3126;&#3074;), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... ImageMetadata File history File links AsokaKandahar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links AsokaKandahar. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Eusebeia (Greek:εὐσέβεια, from eu meaning well, and sebomai meaning reverence, itself formed from seb meaning sacred awe and reverence especially in actions) is a Greek word abundantly used in Greek philosophy as well as in the New Testament, meaning inner piety, spiritual maturity, or godliness. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ...

"Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (εὐσέβεια, Eusebeia) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and more happily." (Trans. by G.P. Carratelli [1])

Eusebeia (Greek:εὐσέβεια, from eu meaning well, and sebomai meaning reverence, itself formed from seb meaning sacred awe and reverence especially in actions) is a Greek word abundantly used in Greek philosophy as well as in the New Testament, meaning inner piety, spiritual maturity, or godliness. ...

Buddhist missions to the West (c.250 BCE)

Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali.
Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali.

Also, in the Edicts of Ashoka, Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his Buddhist proselytism, although no Western historical record of this event remain: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 2037 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maurya Empire Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1402 × 2037 pixel, file size: 254 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maurya Empire Pillars of Ashoka Vaishali... Vaishali is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

"The conquest by Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400-9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka)." (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika).

Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine, for men and animals, in their territories:   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... Å–Å…A yojana is a Vedic measure of distance, possibly somewhere from 5. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... 309–246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: , 309 BC–246 BC), was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 281 BC to 246 BC. He was the son of the founder of the Ptolemaic kingdom Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice. ... Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Magas of Cyrene (r. ... Alexander II, king of Epirus, succeeded his father Pyrrhus in 272 BC. He attacked Antigonus Gonatas and conquered the greater part of Macedonia, but was in turn driven out of both Epirus and Macedonia by Demetrius, the son of Antigonus. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Tamraparni is an ancient region of southern India, corresponding to the area of a Tamraparni river, in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...

"Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain, and among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochos rules, and among the kings who are neighbors of Antiochos, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown. Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals." 2nd Rock Edict

The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism, as some of the emissaries of Ashoka, such as Dharmaraksita, are described in Pali sources as leading Greek ("Yona") Buddhist monks, active in Buddhist proselytism (the Mahavamsa, XII[28]). The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Tamraparni is an ancient region of southern India, corresponding to the area of a Tamraparni river, in Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. ... Coin of Antiochus II. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (of king Antiochus). ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Dharmaraksita (Pali: Dhammarakkhita) was one of the missionaries sent by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka to proselytize the Buddhist faith. ... Pāli is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... For the village on Guam, see Yona Yona is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greek speakers. ... The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...


Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE)

Sophagasenus was an Indian Mauryan ruler of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in Prakrit. His name is mentionned in the list of Mauryan princes, and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty, as a descendant of Pradyumana. He may have been a grandson of Ashoka, or Kunala, the son of Ashoka. He ruled an area south of the Hindu Kush, possibly in Gandhara. Antiochos III, the Seleucid king, after having made peace with Euthydemus in Bactria, went to India in 206 BC and is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: Sophagasenus was an Indian Mauryan governor or king of the 3rd century BCE, described in ancient Greek sources, and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in Prakrit. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in... Allegiance: Maurya Empire (Magadha Empire) Rank: Heir Succeeded by: Samprati Kunala or Kunāl (3rd Century B.C) was the son of Emperor Ashoka and Queen Padmavati, and presumptive heir to Ashoka and thus the heir to the Mauryan Empire which one ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (&#1607;&#1606;&#1583;&#1608;&#1705;&#1588; in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now...

"He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India; renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians; received more elephants, until he had a hundred and fifty altogether; and having once more provisioned his troops, set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him." Polybius 11.39

Decline

Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. Brhadrata, the last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor Ashoka, although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. Brhadrata was the last ruler of the Indian Mauryan dynasty. ... The Mauryan dynasty ruled the Mauryan empire, the first unified empire of India, from 322 BCE to 183 BCE. The rulers of the Mauryan dynasty were: Chandragupta Maurya (322 - 298 BCE) - founder of the Mauryan empire. ... Allegiance: Magadhan Empire Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Dasaratha Maurya Reign: 273 BC-232 BC Place of birth: Pataliputra, India Battles/Wars Kalinga War Emperor Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक(:); IAST transliteration: , pronunciation: ) (304 BC–232 BC) (Imperial Title:Devanampiya Piyadassi ie He who is the beloved of the Gods who, in...


Sunga coup (185 BCE)

He was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade, by the commander-in-chief of his guard, the Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga, who then took over the throne and established the Sunga dynasty. Buddhist records such as the Asokavadana write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for Buddhists,[29] and a resurgence of Hinduism. According to John Marshall,[30] Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions, although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. Other historians, such as Etienne Lamotte[31] andRomila Thapar,[32] among others, have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking, and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. (Redirected from 185 BCE) Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 190 BC 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC - 185 BC... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... Pusyamitra Sunga (also Pushyamitra Shunga) was the founder of the Indian Sunga dynasty (185-78 BCE). ... The Sunga dynasty ruled the Sunga empire of central and eastern India from 185 BCE to around 73 BCE. The last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty was Brithadratha. ... The Ashokavadana (Narrative of Ashoka) is a 2nd century CE book related the legend of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. ... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... John Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. ... Etienne Lamotte (1903-1983) was a Belgian scientist[1]. In 1953, he was awarded the Francqui Prize on Human Sciences. ... Romila Thapar speaks at the Library of Congress Romila Thapar (born 1931) is an Indian historian whose principal area of study is Ancient India. ...


Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE)

Main article: Indo-Greek kingdom

The fall of the Mauryas left the Khyber Pass unguarded, and a wave of foreign invasion followed. The Greco-Bactrian king, Demetrius, capitalized on the break-up, and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Pakistan around 180 BC, forming the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region, and make forays into central India, for about a century. Under them, Buddhism flourished, and one of their kings Menander became a famous figure of Buddhism, he was to establish a new capital of Sagala, the modern city of Sialkot. However, the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the Sungas, Satavahanas, and Kalingas are unclear, what is clear is that Scythian tribes, renamed Indo-Scythians, brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus, the region of Mathura, and Gujarat. The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Mountain passes of Afghanistan The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (el. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Silver tetradrachm depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ... Sialkot (Urdu/Punjabi: سیالکوٹ ) is a city situated in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the feet of the snow-covered peaks of Kashmir near the Chenab river. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


The Empire To Modern Indians

Having been India's first major empire, the Maurya Empire holds a special place in the minds of Indian people: Indians feel pride in recalling the great political and military power the Empire held in its day, and the spirituality and piety of Ashoka, who kept war and violence away from his people. The media in India also has produced works based upon Mauryan times:

  • Chanakya (early 1990s) was a Hindi television series that depicted the life and philosophy of Kautilya Chanakya, from fighting Alexander's invasion to the coronation of Chandragupta Maurya. Directed by Dr. Chandraprakash Dwivedi starring Dr. Chandraprakash Dwivedi himself as Chanakya and Abhishek Dwivedi as Chandragupta
  • Asoka (2001) is a Hindi film by Santosh Sivan starring Shahrukh Khan as the Emperor Ashoka, depicting his aggressive youth, early impetuous rule, and his transformation following the war in Kalinga. The film, however, does not claim that its portrayal of Ashoka's life is historically accurate.
  • Chanaka Chandragupta (1977) is Telugu film by N.T. Rama Rao starring legendary actors Akkineni Nageswara Rao as Chanayka and N.T. Rama Rao as Chandragupta Maurya.
Preceded by
Nanda Dynasty
Magadha dynasties Succeeded by
Sunga dynasty



Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... Santosh Sivan (born in Trivandrum, India) is an Indian cinematographer and film director. ... Shahrukh Khan (born November 2, 1965) (Hindi: शाहरुख़ ख़ान, Hindko/Urdu: شاہ رخ خان) is a prominent Bollywood actor, producer, and was recently the host of the game show, Kaun Banega Crorepati. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) is a Dravidian language (South-Central Dravidian languages) primarily spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. ... NTR played a wide variety of mythological characters including Krishna, Rama, Ravana, Duryodhana, Karna, Bhishma, Arjuna, and Viswamitra Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923 - 18 January 1996), more commonly known as N.T. Rama Rao or just NTR, was an Indian film actor, director, and producer. ... Akkineni Nageswara Rao (born September 20, 1924 at Venkataraghavapuram, Dist. ... NTR played a wide variety of mythological characters including Krishna, Rama, Ravana, Duryodhana, Karna, Bhishma, Arjuna, and Viswamitra Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923 - 18 January 1996), more commonly known as N.T. Rama Rao or just NTR, was an Indian film actor, director, and producer. ... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ...

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: IPA: ) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



Notes

History of South Asia and History of India

Stone Age 70,000–3300 BCE
· Mehrgarh Culture · 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic Period 1500–500 BCE
· Iron Age · 1200–500 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BCE
Magadha Empire 684 BCE–320 BCE
· Maurya Empire · 321–184 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 230 BCE–1279 CE
· Satavahana Empire · 230 BCE–199 CE
· Kushan Empire · 60–240
· Gupta Empire 40–550
· Pala Empire · 750–1174
· Chola Empire · 250 BCE–1279
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
· Delhi Sultanate · 1206–1526
· Deccan Sultanates · 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Empire 1526–1707
Sikh Empire 1801-1849
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Modern States 1947 onwards
Nation histories
Bangladesh · Bhutan · Republic of India
Maldives · Nepal · Pakistan · Sri Lanka
Regional histories
Bengal · Himachal Pradesh · Orissa
Pakistani Regions · North India · South India · Tibet
Specialised histories
Dynasties · Economy · Indology · Language · Literature
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  1. ^ :"Androcottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth." Plutarch 62-3 Plutarch 62-3
  2. ^ :"He was of humble origin, but was pushing to acquiring the throne by the superior power of the mind. When after having offensed the king of Nanda by his insolence, he was comdemned to death by the king, he was saved by the speed of his own feet... He gathered bandits and invited Indian to a change of rule." Justin XV.4.15 "Fuit hic humili quidem genere natus, sed ad regni potestatem maiestate numinis inpulsus. Quippe cum procacitate sua Nandrum regem offendisset, interfici a rege iussus salutem pedum ceieritate quaesierat. (Ex qua fatigatione cum somno captus iaceret, leo ingentis formae ad dormientem accessit sudoremque profluentem lingua ei detersit expergefactumque blande reliquit. Hoc prodigio primum ad spem regni inpulsus) contractis latronibus Indos ad nouitatem regni sollicitauit." Justin XV.4.15
  3. ^ The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus (John Marshall "Taxila", p18, and al.) This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas (Greeks), Kambojas, Shakas (Scythians), Kiratas (Nepalese), Parasikas (Persians) and Bahlikas (Bactrians):
    "asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parasika-Bahlika parbhutibhih
    "Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara
    "balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama"
    (Sanskrit original, Mudrarakshasa 2)
    With the help of these frontier martial tribes from Central Asia, Chandragupta was apparently able to defeat the Nanda/Nandin rulers of Magadha so as to found the powerful Maurya empire in northern India.
  4. ^ "Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory." Justin XV.4.19 "Molienti deinde bellum aduersus praefectos Alexandri elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis ultro se obtulit et ueluti domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et proeliator insignis fuit. Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate, qua Seleucus futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat, Indiam possidebat." Justin XV.4.19
  5. ^ Radhakumud Mookerji (1988). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times (p. 39). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 8120804058.
  6. ^ Source:Megasthenes fragment XXVII
  7. ^ "Shastri, Nilakantha, "Age of the Nandas and Mauryas", p.165, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1967)
  8. ^ Reference: "India: The Ancient Past" p.113, Burjor Avari, Routledge, ISBN 0415356156
  9. ^ Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, translation S. Dhammika.
  10. ^ Khanna, Vikramaditya S. (2005). The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India. University of Michigan.
  11. ^ Source: "Butkara I", Facenna.
  12. ^ "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p23
  13. ^ "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique", p22
  14. ^ Plutarch 62-3
  15. ^ "(Transitum deinde in Indiam fecit), quae post mortem Alexandri, ueluti ceruicibus iugo seruitutis excusso, praefectos eius occiderat. Auctor libertatis Sandrocottus fuerat, sed titulum libertatis post uictoriam in seruitutem uerterat ; 14 siquidem occupato regno populum quem ab externa dominatione uindicauerat ipse seruitio premebat." Justin XV.4.12-13
  16. ^ "Molienti deinde bellum aduersus praefectos Alexandri elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis ultro se obtulit et ueluti domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et proeliator insignis fuit. Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate, qua Seleucus futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat, Indiam possidebat." Justin XV.4.19
  17. ^ Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  18. ^ Debated by Tarn, "The Greeks in Bactria and India", p100
  19. ^ Pliny, Natural History VI, 23
  20. ^ Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  21. ^ Discussion on the dynastic alliance in Tarn, p152-153: "It has been recently suggested that Asoka was grandson of the Seleucid princess, whom Seleucus gave in marriage to Chandragupta. Should this far-reaching suggestion be well founded, it would not only throw light on the good relations between the Seleucid and Maurya dynasties, but would mean that the Maurya dynasty was descended from, or anyhow connected with, Seleucus... when the Mauryan line became extinct, he (Demetrius) may well have regarded himself, if not as the next heir, at any rate as the heir nearest at hand". Also discussed in "Taxila", John Marshall
  22. ^ A similar case is known when Antiochus III fought Euthydemus of Bactria around 210 BCE, and finally gave one of his daughters to his son Demetrius: :"And after several journeys of Teleas to and fro between the two, Euthydemus at last sent his son Demetrius to confirm the terms of the treaty. Antiochus received the young prince; and judging from his appearance, conversation, and the dignity of his manners that he was worthy of royal power, he first promised to give him one of his own daughters, and secondly conceded the royal title to his father." Polybius 11.34 Siege of Bactra
  23. ^ Tarn, John Marshall, "The Cambridge Shorter History of India", by J.Allan, p33: "If the usual oriental practice was followed and if we regard Chandragupta as the victor, then it would mean that a daughter or other female relative of Seleucus was given to the Indian ruler or to one of his sons, so that Asoka may have had Greek blood in his veins.". Also McEvilley, "The shape of ancient thought", 2002, p367, ISBN 1-58115-203-5: "Asoka may have been either one-half or one-quarter Greek". Ashoka, the son of Bindusara, also happens to have been born around the time this matrimonial alliance was sealed.
  24. ^ The unknown Ashoka
  25. ^ Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21
  26. ^ Ath. Deip. I.32
  27. ^ Athenaeus, "Deipnosophistae" XIV.67
  28. ^ Full text of the Mahavamsa Click chapter XII
  29. ^ According to the Ashokavadana
  30. ^ Sir John Marshall, "A Guide to Sanchi", Eastern Book House, 1990, ISBN-10: 8185204322, pg.38
  31. ^ E. Lamotte: History of Indian Buddhism, Institut Orientaliste, Louvain-la-Neuve 1988 (1958)
  32. ^ Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar, Oxford University Press, 1960 P200
  33. ^ Peter Turchin, Jonathan M. Adams, and Thomas D. Hall. East-West Orientation of Historical Empires. University of Connecticut, November 2004.
  34. ^ Roger Boesche (2003). "Kautilya’s Arthashastra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India", The Journal of Military History 67 (p. 12).
  35. ^ Colin McEvedy and Richard Jones (1978), "Atlas of World Population History", Facts on File (p. 342-351). New York.

This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The // (c. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... This article is under construction. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited by human beings since the dawn of civilization. ... // Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 3000 years. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, a Kingdom in Punjab located between the Jhelum and the Chenab (in Greek, the Hydaspes and the Acesines) rivers in the Punjab and dominions extending to Hyphasis[1]. Its capital may have been near the current city of Lahore [2... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Kiratas are one of the earliest inahbitants of Nepal. ... For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... The Mudrarakshasa (lit. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... http://www. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Nanda Dynasty, ruled Eastern India in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE Nanda (mythology), in Hinduism, a peasant and foster-father of Krishna Nanda (Buddhism), half-brother of the Buddha NANDA, North American Nursing Diagnosis Association Nanjing University, colloquially called Nanda (pinyin Nándà, Chinese characters 南大) Nanda (indigenous Australians), a... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, U-M or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... Silver tetradrachm depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... The Ashokavadana (Sanskrit: अशॊकवदन, Narrative of Ashoka) is a 2nd century CE document related to the legend of the Maurya emperor Ashoka. ... The University of Connecticut, commonly known as UConn, is the State of Connecticuts land-grant university. ...

See also

Map of the Mauryan Empire in 230 BC It should be possible to replace this fair use image with a freely licensed one. ...

References

  • Robert Morkot, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece ISBN 0140513353
  • Chanakya, Arthashastra ISBN 0140446036
  • J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the Great ISBN 0306813300

Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ...

External links

  • The Mauryan Empire at All Empires
  • Mauryan Empire
  • Mauryan Empire of India
  • Extent of the Empire
  • The Mauryan Empire from Britannica
  • Ashoka and Buddhism
  • Ashoka's Edicts

The All Empires website All Empires (aka AE), an online history community, is an academic venture founded in 2001 by history teachers, writers and enthusiasts to promote historical knowledge. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Maurya Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5334 words)
The Mauryan Empire was perhaps the greatest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent until the arrival of the British.
Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society, while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism was the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India.
The assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for Buddhists, and a resurgence of Hinduism.
History Maurya Empire - History Of Ancient, Medieval And Modern India. (2768 words)
Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains of modern Bihar and its capital city of Pataliputra (near modern Patna), the Empire was founded in 321 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and began expanding his power across central and western India.
Maurya re-directed his forces to sneak up on the city, and conducted a secretive and swift raid on the royal buildings, killing the monarch, loyal aides and royal officials.
Chandragupta's great grandson Ashokavardhan Maurya, better known as Ashoka (273- 232 BCE), is considered by contemporary historians as perhaps the greatest of Indian monarchs, and certainly one of the greatest throughout the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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