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Encyclopedia > Mauritius
Republic of Mauritius
République de Maurice
Flag of Mauritius Coat of arms of Mauritius
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Stella Clavisque Maris Indici"  (Latin)
"Star and Key of the Indian Ocean"
AnthemMotherland
Capital
(and largest city)
Port Louis
20°10′S, 57°31′E
Official languages English1
Recognised regional languages Mauritian Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Tamil, Chinese (Mandarin), Telugu, Mauritian Bhojpuri
Demonym Mauritian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Anerood Jugnauth
 -  Prime Minister Navinchandra Ramgoolam
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Date March 12, 1968 
 -  Republic March 12, 1992 
Area
 -  Total 2,040 km² (179th)
787 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.05
Population
 -  2006 estimate 1,256,7392 (153rd)
 -  Density 616/km² (18th)
1,564/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $16.0 billion (119th)
 -  Per capita $13,703 (51st)
HDI (2004) 0.804 (high) (65th)
Currency Mauritian rupee (MUR)
Time zone MUT (UTC+4)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+4)
Internet TLD .mu
Calling code +230
1 [1][2]
2 The population estimate is for the whole republic. For the island of Mauritius only, as at 31 December 2006, it is 1,219,220[3]

Mauritius (pronounced: IPA: /məˈrɪʃəs/; French: Ile Maurice /mɔʁis/; Mauritian Creole: Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius, French: République de Maurice, is an island nation off the coast of the African continent in the southwest Indian Ocean, about 900 kilometres (560 mi) east of Madagascar. In addition to the island of Mauritius, the republic includes the islands of St. Brandon, Rodrigues and the Agalega Islands. Mauritius is part of the Mascarene Islands, with the French island of Réunion 200 km (125 mi) to the southwest and the island of Rodrigues 570 km to the northeast. Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritius. ... National flag and naval jack. ... As stipulated in Mauritius Laws 1990 Vol. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Motherland is the national anthem of Mauritius. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... The arms of Port Louis Port Louis banking district, and the main avenue leading to the Government House (seen in the background) Port Louis (pronounced locally as paw-louee) is the capital of Mauritius. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Mauritian Creole, also called Morisyen, is a creole language spoken in Mauritius. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This page contains a list of presidents of Mauritius. ... Anerood Jugnauth with George W. Bush From: Jai Ramdin mailto:simplylettings@simplylettings. ... List of Heads of Governments of Mauritius (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Political Affiliations MMM - Mauritian Militant Movement (Mouvement Militant Mauricien) MSM - Militant Socialist Movement (Mouvement Socialist Mauricien) PI - Independence Party (Parti de lIndépendance) PTr - Mauritius Labour Party (Parti Travailliste) See also: Lists of... Navinchandra Ramgoolam (born July 13, 1947) was a former prime minister of the Republic of Mauritius (from 1995-2000). ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code MUR User(s) Mauritius Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving Mauritius Time, or MUT, is a time zone used by in the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .mu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mauritius. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Mauritian Creole, also called Morisyen, is a creole language spoken in Mauritius. ... An island nation is a country that is wholly confined to an island or islands. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Map of the Cargados Carajos Islands Cargados Carajos Shoals (also known as the Saint Brandon Rocks) are a group of about 16 small islands and islets on an extended reef in the Indian Ocean northeast of Mauritius. ... Map of Rodrigues Rodrigues (or, incorrectly, Rodriguez) is one of the Mascarene Islands and a dependency of Mauritius. ... The Agalega Islands are two islands in the Indian Ocean, lying 1,100 km (700 miles) north of Mauritius at . ... Mauritius (right) and Réunion (left) The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Mauritius

The first record of Mauritius comes from Arab and Malay sailors as early as the 10th century.[4] The Portuguese sailors first visited it in 1507 and established a visiting base leaving the island uninhabited. Three ships of the eight Dutch Second Fleet that were sent to the Spice Islands were blown off course during a cyclone and landed on the island in 1598, naming it in honour of Prince Maurice of Nassau, the Stadtholder of the Netherlands.[5] In 1638, the Dutch established the first permanent settlement. Because of tough climatic conditions including cyclones and the deterioration of the settlement, the Dutch abandoned the island some decades later. France, which already controlled the neighbouring Île Bourbon (now Réunion) seized Mauritius in 1715 and later renamed it Île de France (Isle of France). Under French rule, the island developed a prosperous economy based on sugar production. This economic transformation was initiated in part by governor François Mahé de Labourdonnais. // Mauritius was first discovered by the Arabs in 975 AD. Also Malay sailors knew of Mauritius as early as the 10th century. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about maritime crew. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567–23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly...


During their numerous military conflicts with Great Britain, the French harboured the outlawed "corsairs" (privateers or pirates) who frequently took British vessels as they sailed between India and Britain, laden with valuable trade goods. In the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) the British set out to gain control of the island. Despite winning the Battle of Grand Port, Napoleon's only naval victory over the British, the French lost to the British at Cap Malheureux three months later. They formally surrendered on 3 December 1810, on terms allowing settlers to keep their land and property and to use the French language and law of France in criminal and civil matters. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to the original Mauritius. For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Combatants France Great Britain Commanders Guy-Victor Duperré Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin Sir Samuel Pym Strength 5 ships 4 ships Casualties some ships damaged 2 ships lost (HMS Sirius, HMS Magicienne) 2 captured (HMS Néréide, HMS Iphigenia The naval Battle of Grand Port took place on 20... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law (droit privé) and public law (droit public). Private law includes, in particular: civil law (droit civil); and criminal law (droit pénal). Public law includes, in particular: administrative law (droit administratif); and constitutional law (droit constitutionnel...


In 1965, the United Kingdom split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius to create the British Indian Ocean Territory in order to use the strategic islands for defence purposes in co-operation with the United States. Although the Government of Mauritius agreed to the move at the time,[citation needed] subsequent administrations have laid claim to the islands stating that the divestment was illegal under international law, a claim recognised by the United Nations.[citation needed] // The Chagos Archipelago. ... UN redirects here. ...

A postcard c.1900-1910 showing the Port Louis theatre.
A postcard c.1900-1910 showing the Port Louis theatre.

Mauritius attained independence in 1968 and the country became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1992. Mauritius has been a stable democracy with regular free elections and a positive human rights record,[6] and has attracted considerable foreign investment earning one of Africa's highest per capita incomes.[7] Image File history File links Port_Louis_Mauritius_Theatre. ... Image File history File links Port_Louis_Mauritius_Theatre. ... The Commonwealth republics, shown in pink A Commonwealth republic is any one of the 31 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that have a republican form of government. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Mauritius

Mauritius is a parliamentary democracy based on the United Kingdom model.[8] The head of state of Mauritius is the President, who is elected for a five-year term by the National Assembly, the unicameral Mauritian parliament. The National Assembly consists of 62 members elected directly by popular vote, with between four and eight further members appointed from "best losers" election candidates to represent ethnic minorities, if under represented after the elections. The government is headed by the prime minister and a council of ministers. Mauritian politics are vibrant and characterized by coalition and alliance building. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This page contains a list of presidents of Mauritius. ... The Parliament of Mauritius, the National Assembly, has 70 members, 62 elected for a four year term in single-seat constituencies and 8 additional members appointed by the Supreme Court to ensure that ethnic and religious minorities are equitably represented. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


The Government is elected on a five-year basis. The most recent general elections took place on 3 July 2005 in all the 20 mainland constituencies, as well as the constituency covering the island of Rodrigues. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Rodrigues Rodrigues (or, incorrectly, Rodriguez) is one of the Mascarene Islands and a dependency of Mauritius. ...


Historically, elections have always had a tendency to adhere to a system comprising two major coalitions of parties.


In international affairs, Mauritius is part of the Indian Ocean Commission, the Southern African Development Community and the Commonwealth of Nations and La Francophonie (French speaking countries) amongst others. A more complete list can be found in the main Politics of Mauritius article. The Indian Ocean Commission (COI), known as the Commission de lOcéan Indien in French, is an intergovernmental organization that joins Reunion Island, Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles and Mayotte together to encourage cooperation. ... SADC-only (yellow) and SADC+SACU members Headquarters Gaborone, Botswana Working languages Membership 15 African states Leaders  -  Secretary General Establishment  -  as the SADCC April 1, 1980   -  as the SADC August 17, 1992  Website http://www. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... La Francophonie (formally lOrganisation internationale de la Francophonie), a French language term coined in 1880 by French geographer Onésime Reclus, brother of Elisée Reclus, to designate the community of people and countries using French, is an international organisation of and governments. ... Mauritian politics are vibrant and characterized by coalition and alliance building. ...


In 2006, Mauritius asked to be an observing member of Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) in order to become closer to those countries.[9] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal Official language Portuguese Membership 8 (plus 2 observers) Leaders  -  Executive Secretariat Luís de Matos Monteiro da Fonseca Establishment 1996 Website http://www. ...


Districts and dependencies

The island of Mauritius itself is divided into nine districts: The island of Mauritius itself is divided into 9 districts (capitals in parentheses): Black River (Tamarin) Flacq (Centre de Flacq) Grand Port (Mahebourg) Moka (Moka) Pamplemousses (Pamplemousses) Plaines Wilhems (Rose Hill) Port Louis (Port Louis) Riviére du Rempart (Poudre dOr) Savanne (Souillac) Three islands or island groups also... Image File history File links Mauritius_districts_numbered. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ...

  1. Black River (Capital: Bambous)
  2. Flacq (Capital: Centre de Flacq)
  3. Grand Port (Capital: Mahebourg)
  4. Moka (Capital: Quartier Militaire)
  5. Pamplemousses (Capital: Triolet)
  6. Plaines Wilhems (Capital: Rose Hill/ Curepipe)
  7. Port Louis (Capital of Maurtius)
  8. Rivière du Rempart (Capital: Mapou)
  9. Savanne (Capital: Souillac)

Dependencies of Mauritius: Black River is a District of Mauritius on the Western side of the Island. ... Bambous is a town in the Black River district of Mauritius, on the road from Tamarin to the capital of Port Louis. ... Flacq is a district of Mauritius, situated in the east of the island. ... Centre de Flacq (French for the centre of Flacq) is a town and the capital of the district of Flacq in east-central Mauritius. ... Grand Port is a district encompassing much of south-eastern part of the island of Mauritius. ... Mahebourg is a small city (population 15,753 as of 2000) on the southeastern coast of the island of Mauritius. ... Moka is a district of Mauritius in the centre of the island. ... Quartier-Militaire is a town in the centre of Mauritius, found in the Moka District and the capital of Moka-Flacq district. ... Pamplemousses is a district of Mauritius in the north of the island, and is one of the most densely populated parts of the island. ... A triolet (IPA: , or ) is a poetic form. ... Plaines Wilhems is one of the most important districts in Mauritius, not to say the most. ... Rose Hill is the third biggest town in Mauritius, and is capital of the Lower Plaine Wilhems. ... Curepipe is a large town centrally situated in Mauritius, an island country in the southwest Indian Ocean. ... Port Louis District is a district of Mauritius. ... For the tree of the same name see Matipo Mapou is a town in the northern part of the island of Mauritius. ... Savanne is a district in Mauritius. ... Souillac is the name of two places: Souillac, in the Lot département Souillac, a city and the capital of the district of Savanne Category: ...

  • Rodrigues, an island 560 kilometres north-east of Mauritius, which attained limited autonomy in October 2002.[10][11] Had the status of the 10th administrative district of Mauritius before autonomy was attained.[12]
  • Agalega, two small islands about 933 kilometres (580 mi) north of Mauritius.
  • Cargados Carajos Shoals, also known as the Saint Brandon islands, about 402 kilometres (250 mi) north of Mauritius.

Other Mauritian territories: Map of Rodrigues Rodrigues (or, incorrectly, Rodriguez) is one of the Mascarene Islands and a dependency of Mauritius. ... Agalega are two islands in the indian ocean belonging to Mauritius This article is a stub. ... Map of the Cargados Carajos Islands Cargados Carajos Shoals (also known as the Saint Brandon Rocks) are a group of about 16 small islands and islets on an extended reef in the Indian Ocean northeast of Mauritius. ...

Mauritius also claims the following islands.[13]: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nazareth Bank is a large undersea bank in the Indian Ocean, part of the vast undersea Mascarene Plateau. ... The Saya de Malha Bank (also Sahia de Malha Bank) is a large undersea bank in the Indian Ocean, part of the vast undersea Mascarene Plateau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

// The Chagos Archipelago. ...

Geography

Map of Mauritius
Map of Mauritius

Together with Réunion and Rodrigues, Mauritius is part of the Mascarene Islands. This archipelago was formed in a series of undersea volcanic eruptions, as the African plate drifted over the Réunion hotspot. Mauritius and Rodrigues were formed 8-10 million years ago. They are no longer volcanically active, and the hotspot now rests under Réunion. The island of Mauritius itself is formed around a central plateau, with its highest peak in the southwest, Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire at 828 metres (2,717 ft). Around the plateau, the original crater can still be distinguished from several mountains. Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar Geographic coordinates: 20 17 S, 57 33 E Map references: World Area: total: 2,040 sq km land: 2,030 sq km water: 10 sq km note: includes Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (Saint Brandon), and Rodrigues Area - comparative... Image File history File links Mauritius-CIA_WFB_Map. ... Image File history File links Mauritius-CIA_WFB_Map. ... Map of Rodrigues Rodrigues (or, incorrectly, Rodriguez) is one of the Mascarene Islands and a dependency of Mauritius. ... Mauritius (right) and Réunion (left) The Mascarene Islands (or Mascarenhas Archipelago) is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar, which includes Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues, and Cargados Carajos shoals. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The Réunion hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which currently lies under the Island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. ... Piton de la Petite Rivière Noire is the tallest mountain on the island of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Satellite image of Mauritius, February 2003, with traced outline of island.
Satellite image of Mauritius, February 2003, with traced outline of island.

The local climate is tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; there is a warm, dry winter from May to November and a hot, wet, and humid summer from November to May. Anti-cyclones affect the country during May to September. Cyclones affect the country during November-April. Hollanda (1994) and Dina (2002) were the worst two last cyclones to have affected the island. Image File history File links Satellite_image_of_Mauritius_in_February_2003. ... Image File history File links Satellite_image_of_Mauritius_in_February_2003. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone is a weather phenomenon associated with atmospheric high pressure. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...


The island's capital and largest city is Port Louis, in the northwest. Other important towns are Curepipe, Vacoas, Phoenix, Quatre Bornes, Rose-Hill and Beau-Bassin . See also Port Louis, Falkland Islands. ... Curepipe is a large town centrally situated in Mauritius, an island country in the southwest Indian Ocean. ... Vacoas is one of the main seven towns in Mauritius. ... Vacoas is one of the five main towns in Mauritius. ... Quatre Bornes is a town in Mauritius. ... Rose Hill may refer to: Rose Hill, North Carolina Rose Hill, Kansas Rose Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia Rose Hill, Iowa Rose Hill, Illinois Rose Hill, Lee County, Virginia Rose Hill, Mauritius British actress Rose Hill Rose Hills Memorial Park, Whittier, California This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rose-Hill. ...


The island is well known for its natural beauty. Author Mark Twain, for example, noted in Following the Equator, his personal travelogue, "You gather the idea that Mauritius was made first and then heaven, and that heaven was copied after Mauritius". For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Following the Equator is basically a tour of the British Empire undertaken by Mark Twain as a response to regain his financial status and extricate himself from debt incurred from his failed investment in the revolutionary typesetting machine. ...


Economy

Skyline of Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius.
Skyline of Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius.
Main article: Economy of Mauritius

Since independence in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculturally based economy to a middle income diversified economy with growing industrial, financial, and tourist sectors. For most of the period, annual growth has been of the order of 5% to 6%. This has been reflected in increased life expectancy, lowered infant mortality and an improved infrastructure. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x520, 81 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mauritius Port Louis ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (887x520, 81 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mauritius Port Louis ... The arms of Port Louis Port Louis banking district, and the main avenue leading to the Government House (seen in the background) Port Louis (pronounced locally as paw-louee) is the capital of Mauritius. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tourist redirects here. ...


Estimated at US$10,155 for 2005 at purchasing power parity (PPP),[14] Mauritius has the seventh-highest GDP per capita in Africa, behind Réunion (US$19,233 at real exchange rates),[15], Seychelles (US$13,887 at PPP), Gabon (US$12,742 at PPP), Botswana (US$12,057 at PPP), Equatorial Guinea (US$11,999 at PPP), and Libya (US$10,727 at PPP).[14] The economy is mainly dependent on sugarcane plantations, tourism, textiles, and services, but other sectors are rapidly developing as well. Mauritius, Libya, and Seychelles are the only three African nations with a "high" Human Development Index rating (Réunion, as part of France, is not listed by the UN in their Human Development Index ranking). PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Gross Domestic Product (GDP), a calculation method in national accounting (see Measures of national income and output) is defined as the total value of final goods and services produced within a countrys borders in a year, regardless of ownership. ...


Sugar cane is grown on about 90% of the cultivated land area and accounts for 25% of export earnings. However, a record-setting drought severely damaged the sugar crop in 1999. The government's development strategy centres on foreign investment. Mauritius has attracted more than 9,000 offshore entities; many aimed at commerce in India and South Africa while investment in the banking sector alone has reached over $1 billion. Economic performance during the period from 2000 through 2004 combined strong economic growth with unemployment at 7.6% in December 2004. France is the country's biggest trading partner, has close ties with the country, and provides technical assistance in various forms. Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In order to provide locals with access to imports at lower prices and attract more tourists going to Singapore and Dubai, Mauritius is gearing towards becoming a duty-free island within the next four years. Duty has been eliminated for several products and decreased for more than 1850 products including clothing, food, jewelry, photographic equipment, audio visual equipment and lighting equipment.[16] In addition, reforms aimed at attracting new business opportunities have also been implemented. Recently, in the 2007-2008 budget, Finance Minister Rama Sithanen reduced the corporate tax to 15%[citation needed]. Location of Dubai in the UAE Coordinates: , Country Emirate Dubai Incorporated (town) June 9, 1833 Incorporated (emirate) December 2, 1971 Founder Maktoum bin Bati bin Suhail (1833) Seat Dubai Subdivisions Towns and villages Jebel Ali Hatta Al Hunaiwah Al Aweer Al Hajarain Al Lusayli Al Marqab Al Shindagha Al Faq... This article is about a tax measure. ...


A plan by ADB Networks calls for Mauritius to become the first nation to have coast-to-coast wireless internet access. The wireless hot spot currently covers about 60% of the island and is accessible by about 70% of its population. By the end of 2007, antennas should have provided access to 98% of the island. Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Mauritius ranks first in respect of FDI inflows to India amongst all the countries, with cumulative inflows amounting to US$10.98 billion. The top sectors attracting FDI inflows from Mauritius between January 2000 and December 2005 are electrical equipment, telecommunications, fuels, cement and gypsum products and services sector (financial and non-financial).[17] This article is about economics. ...


Demographics

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Ancestry

Mauritian society includes people from many different ethnic groups. A majority of the republic's residents are the descendants of people from the Indian subcontinent. Mauritius also contains substantial populations from continental Africa, Madagascar, France, Great Britain, and China, among other places. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The Indo-Mauritians (when the ethnic groups are combined) and Creoles (of African descent) are the predominant population. There are approximately 30,000 Mauritians of Chinese descent, from the Hakka, Mandarin, and Cantonese language groups. More than 90% of the Sino-Mauritian community are Roman Catholic, the remainder are largely Buddhist. Indo-Mauritians are people of Indian descent living on the island of Mauritius, where they represent a majority comprising of 68% of the population according to the July 2007 statistics[1]. // The first of these Indians arrived to the Immigration Depot in 1834 as indentured labourers to work the sugarcane...

Melody Selvon, "Miss Mauritius" in 2007.
Melody Selvon, "Miss Mauritius" in 2007.

While there is a small population of British citizens living in Mauritius, most of whom have Mauritian nationality, few identify as being Mauritian. The term Anglo-Mauritian, a term which may include Mauritians living in the UK, is used unofficially. Though the Franco-Mauritian is small, it is the largest of the European ancestries on the island. They control most of the island and are usually upper-class citizens. Franco-Mauritians are people of French origin who reside in Mauritius. ...

Picture from the 1950s of the Central Market, Port Louis, Mauritius.
Picture from the 1950s of the Central Market, Port Louis, Mauritius.

Small groups of foreign students from Europe or the Indian Ocean region are also present. Recent years have seen a steady flow of foreign workers into the textile industry (primarily Chinese women), the construction industry (primarily Indian workers), and harbour-related activities (primarily Taiwanese men). Immigration policy does not provoke much debate in Mauritius, and the relative economic stability of the island serves to attract foreign workers[citation needed].


Language

The official language of Mauritius is English. All government administrative documents are therefore drawn up in English. Together with English, French is also used in instruction in the educational system. French, however, predominates in the media, both broadcast and printed as well as with business and in corporate affairs. Although English is the official language of the island, A majority of the population can speak French fluently. American and other English-language movies and TV programmes shown in Mauritius are conventionally dubbed in French. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The most widely-spoken language of the country is Mauritian Creole, which has close ties with French pronunciation, but with a few marked differences - Creole does not contain some of the more deep and rounded consonants that French does. Mauritian Creole is considered the native tongue of the country. Creole was the language used by the African slaves to communicate with their French masters. Today, Creole is used in everyday life by all Mauritians. When Franco-Mauritians engage in conversations with Creole speakers, French is more commonly employed than Creole. Mauritian Creole, also called Morisyen, is a creole language spoken in Mauritius. ... Franco-Mauritians are people of French origin who reside in Mauritius. ...


Hindi and Urdu also has numerous speakers in the country, although both are used mainly by the Indian community. Several other languages including Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Punjabi and dialects of Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hakka and Mandarin, are also spoken by significant parts of the population. The earliest builders brought by the French were the Tamils of Indian origin, who were employed to build Port Louis, the capital. Subsequently, around hundred years later, laborers from other parts of British India were brought by the British. Arabic is taught in Mosques around Mauritius. Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngwén) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: Hànyǔ, Huáyǔ, or Zhōngwén) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Anthem God Save The King-Emperor The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (1858 - 1912) New Delhi (1912 - 1947) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Religion

The largest religions of the republic are Hinduism (52%), Roman Catholicism (28%), Islam (16.6%), Buddhism (2.5%), Adventist Protestantism (2%) and Sikhism (0.3%). [18] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ... Adventist is also commonly used as an abbreviation for Seventh-day Adventist. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Mauritius

The cuisine of Mauritius is a blend of Indian Cuisine, Creole, Chinese and European. It is common for a combination of cuisines to form part of the same meal. The "cari poule" or chicken curry, for example, is a very popular dish[citation needed]. Other common Mauritian dishes include the "dholl puri" (a type of bread, made from lentils) the "mine-frit" (Chinese fried noodle), and "niouk nien" (dumplings). A common Mauritian drink is "alouda", a milk-based drink containing basil seeds. The culture of Mauritius involves the blending of several cultures from Mauritiuss history, as well as individual culture arising indigenously. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Not to be confused with Native American cuisine. ... Louisiana Creole cuisine is a style of cooking originating in Louisiana (centered on the Greater New Orleans area) that blends French, Spanish, and American influences. ... See the individual entries for: // Belarusian cuisine Bulgarian cuisine Czech cuisine Hungarian cuisine Jewish cuisine Polish cuisine Romanian cuisine Russian cuisine Slovak cuisine Slovenian cuisine Ukrainian cuisine British cuisine English cuisine Scottish cuisine Welsh cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine Modern British cuisine Nordic cuisine Danish cuisine Finnish cuisine Icelandic cuisine Lappish...


The production of rum is common throughout the island. Sugarcane was first introduced on the island when the Dutch colonised it in 1638. Even then, the propensity of making rum out of sugarcane was strongly recognised. Sugarcane was mainly cultivated for the production of "arrack", a precursor to rum. Only much later, after almost 60 years, the first proper sugar was produced.[citation needed] However, it was during the French and English administration that sugar production was fully exploited, which considerably contributed to the economical development of the island.[citation needed] It was Pierre Charles François Harel who in 1850 initially proposed the concept of local distillation of rum in Mauritius. In part due to his efforts, Mauritius today houses three distilleries (Grays, Medine and St Aubin) and is in the process of opening an additional three.[citation needed] Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The sega is a local folklore music. Sega has African roots, and main traditional instruments for producing the music are goat-skin percussion instruments called ravane and metallic clicks using metal triangles. The songs usually describe the miseries of slavery, and has been adapted nowadays as social satires to voice out inequalities as felt by the blacks. Men are usually at the instruments while women perform an accompanying dance. Shows are regularly hosted in the coastal hotels.[citation needed] This article is about Mauritian dance music. ... An old-fashioned triangle, with wand (beater) Angelika Kauffmann: LAllegra, 1779 The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. ...

Mauritius was the only known habitat of the extinct Dodo bird.
Mauritius was the only known habitat of the extinct Dodo bird.

In 1847, Mauritius became the fifth country in the world to issue postage stamps. The two types of stamps issued then, known as the Mauritius "Post Office" stamps, consisting of a Red Penny and Blue Two Pence denomination, are probably the most famous and valuable stamps in the world. Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... Image File history File links ExtinctDodoBird. ... For other uses, see Dodo (disambiguation). ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ...


When discovered, the island of Mauritius was home to a previously unknown species of bird, which the Portuguese named the dodo (simpleton), as they appeared not too bright. However, by 1681, all dodos had been killed by settlers or their domesticated animals. An alternate theory suggests that the imported wild boar destroyed the slow breeding dodo population. Nevertheless, the dodo is prominently featured as a supporter of the national coat-of-arms (see above). For other uses, see Dodo (disambiguation). ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... This is a list of animals that have been domesticated by humans. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... In heraldry, supporters are figures placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. ... A coat of arms or armorial bearings (often just arms for short), in European tradition, is a design belonging to a particular person (or group of people) and used by them in a wide variety of ways. ...

Maiden 2006 Parade. Horse racing is one of the most popular sports on the island.
Maiden 2006 Parade. Horse racing is one of the most popular sports on the island.

The island has also given rise to a diversified literature, prominent in French, English, Creole and Indian languages[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ...


International rankings

Organisation Survey Ranking
Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal 2008 Index of Economic Freedom 18 out of 157
Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index (2006) 32 out of 168
Transparency International 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index 2007 53 out of 179
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2006 65 out of 177

The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...

See also

Miscellaneous topics

Tertiary education in Mauritius includes principally the University of Mauritius and the University of Technology, Mauritius. ... The Government of Mauritius approved the setting up of the University of Technology, Mauritius in January 2000 and The University of Technology, Mauritius Act was proclaimed on 21st June 2000. ... Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam International Airport (IATA: MRU, ICAO: FIMP), also known as Plaisance International Airport, is an airport located in Plaine Magnien, near Plaisance and 26 nautical miles southeast of Port Louis, the capital of Mauritius. ... Air Mauritius is the national airline of Mauritius, based in Port Louis. ... The Mauritius Scout Association is the national Scouting organisation of Mauritius. ... Mauritius Command (1977) (published in the United States as The Mauritius Command) is a novel by Patrick OBrian, the fourth in the Aubrey–Maturin series. ... Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish...

References

  1. ^ Republic of Mauritius, Government Portal (Mauritius).
  2. ^ The Constitution
  3. ^ Population and Vital Statistics, Republic of Mauritius, Year 2006 - Highlights. Central Statistics Office (Mauritius) (March 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  4. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Mauritius. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  5. ^ Mutch, T. D. (1942). The First Discovery of Australia. Sydney: Project Gutenberg of Australia, 55. , p.13.
  6. ^ Human Rights Committee Takes Up Report of Mauritius: Experts Praise Creation of National Human Rights Commission but Raise Concerns Regarding Anti-Terrorism Law, 18 March 2005 - retrieved 8 January 2007
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Mauritius Introduction
  8. ^ The Government And The Constitution
  9. ^ Mauritius and Equatorial Guinea granted associated observer status in CPLP. macauhub.com (2006-07-17). Retrieved on 2007-03-05.
  10. ^ First Day Cover: Rodrigues Regional Assembly. The Mauritius Post Ltd (2004-10-12). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  11. ^ Rodrigues: achievements after three years of autonomy. Government of Mauritius (2005-10-25). Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  12. ^ Facts about the land, people, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations of Mauritius. - Government and political conditions. Bureau of African Affairs. U.S Department of State (June 2007). Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  13. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Mauritius. CIA. Retrieved on 2007-11-194.
  14. ^ a b World Bank. 2005 International Comparison Program. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  15. ^ (French) INSEE Réunion. 11.1 - RÉSULTATS ÉCONOMIQUES. Retrieved on 2008-04-07.
  16. ^ Duty-free plan in Mauritius, TREND-News.com, 04-06-2005
  17. ^ "Infrastructure:India -Mauritius To Work For Greater FDI Inflow", Indlaw Communications Pvt. Limited. (ICPL)., 2006-04-18. Retrieved on 2007-05-12. 
  18. ^ Intute - World Guide - Mauritius

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg of Australia is an Internet site which was founded in 2001 by Colin Choat. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Dodd, Jan and Madeleine Philippe. Lonely Planet Mauritius Reunion & Seychelles. Lonely Planet Publications, 2004. ISBN 1-74059-301-4
  • Lee, Jacques: Mauritius: Its Creole Language - The Ultimate Creole Phrase Book and Dictionary, Paperback 160 pages (August 15, 2005), Publisher: Nautilus, ISBN 0-9511296-4-3.
  • Lee, Jacques: Sega: The Mauritian Folk Dance, Paperback 104 pages (December 1990), Publisher: Nautilus, ISBN 0-9511296-1-9
  • Khal Torabully, Coolitude : An Anthology of the Indian Labour Diaspora (with Marina Carter, Anthem Press, London, 2002) ISBN 1843310031

External links

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