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Encyclopedia > Mauritania
الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية
Al-Jumhūriyyah al-Islāmiyyah al-Mūrītāniyyah
Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Flag of Mauritania
Flag Coat of arms
Motto شرف إخاء عدل   (Arabic)
AnthemNational Anthem of Mauritania
Location of Mauritania
Capital
(and largest city)
Nouakchott
18°09′N, 15°58′W
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Mauritanian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
 -  Prime Minister Zeine Ould Zeidane
Independence from France 
 -  Date November 28, 1960 
Area
 -  Total 1,030,700 km² (29th)
397,954 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.03
Population
 -  2005 estimate 3,069,000 (135th)
 -  1988 census 1,864,236 [1] 
 -  Density 3.0/km² (221st)
7.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $7.159 billion (144th)
 -  Per capita $2,402 (132nd)
Gini? (2000) 39 (medium
HDI (2005) 0.550 (low) (137th)
Currency Ouguiya (MRO)
Time zone GMT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+0)
Internet TLD .mr
Calling code +222

Mauritania (Arabic: موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in North-West Africa. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, by Senegal on the southwest, by Mali on the east and southeast, by Algeria on the northeast, and by Western Sahara on the northwest (most of which is occupied by Morocco). It is named after the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania. The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast. Mauretania may refer to: Mauritania (alternative spelling), a modern country in Africa Mauretania, an ancient Berber kingdom RMS Mauretania, either of two British ocean liners: RMS Mauretania (1906), in service until 1934 RMS Mauretania (1938), scrapped in 1965 Not to be confused with Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mauritania. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Mauritania. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Mauritania was adopted on April 1, 1959. ... The Coat of arms of Mauritania (Arabic: ) is based on the national flag of Mauritania adopted on April 1, 1959. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Mauritanian national anthems words are taken from a 19th-century poem by Baba Ould Cheikh; the melody was written by Tolia Nikiprowetzky, and was adopted upon independence in 1960. ... Image File history File links LocationMauritania. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Mauritania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] NawākÅ¡Å«á¹­) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This page contains a list of Presidents and Heads of State of Mauritania See also lists of incumbents List of Heads of State of Mauritania Affiliations:- PPM = Partie des Personnes de Mauritanian (Mauritanian Peoples Party, to 1961 PRM) - authoritarian PRDS = Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (Social and... Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi (Arabic: ‎) (born 1938[1]) is a Mauritanian politician. ... ... Zeine Ould Zeidane (born 1966) is a Mauritanian economist and politician. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The purchasing power parity (PPP) theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Developpment Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... 2000 MRO issued in 2004 The ouguiya (Arabic: أوقية; ISO 4217: MRO) is the currency of Mauritania. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .mr is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Mauritania. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Bold text:For the modern country, see Mauritania. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] NawākÅ¡Å«á¹­) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Mauritania

From the fifth to seventh centuries, the migration of Berber tribes from North Africa displaced the Bafours, the original inhabitants of present-day Mauritania and the ancestors of the Soninke. The Bafours were primarily agriculturalist, and among the first Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle. With the gradual desiccation of the Sahara, they headed south. Following them came a migration of not only Central Saharans into West Africa, but in 1076, Islamic warrior monks (Almoravid or Al Murabitun) attacked and conquered the ancient Ghana Empire. Over the next 500 years, Arabs overcame fierce resistance from the local population (Berber and non-Berber alike) and came to dominate Mauritania. The Mauritanian Thirty-Year War (1644-74) was the unsuccessful final effort to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders led by the Beni Hassan tribe. The descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society. Berbers retained influence by producing the majority of the region's Marabouts—those who preserve and teach Islamic tradition. Many of the Berber tribes claimed Yemeni (and sometimes other Arab) origin: there is little evidence to suggest this, though some studies do make a connection between the two. [2] Hassaniya, a Berber-influenced Arabic dialect that derives its name from the Beni Hassan, became the dominant language among the largely nomadic population. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Bafours were the original inhabitants of Mauritania, and the ancestors to the Soninke tribe. ... Also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, the Soninke are a Mandé people who descend from the Bafour, and are closely related to the Imraguen of Mauritania. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Not to be confused with the modern country Ghana. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Char Bouba war (variously transliterated as Sharr Bubba, Shar Buba, etc) or the Mauritanian Thirty Years War, took place between 1644-74 in the tribal areas of what is today Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... The Maqil or Maquil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt during the 13th century. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of Al Minya (or Minieh), on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... For other uses, see moor. ... A marabout is a personal spiritual leader in the Islam faith as practiced in West Africa, and still to a limited extent in the Maghreb. ... ḤassānÄ«ya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... The Arabic language is a Semitic language with many varieties. ... Beni Hasan (or Bani Hasan, or also Beni-Hassan) is a village in Middle Egypt about 25 km south of Al Minya (or Minieh), on the east bank of the Nile, with remarkable catacombs that have been excavated. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ...


French colonization gradually absorbed the territories of present-day Mauritania from the Senegal river area and upwards, starting in the late 1800s. In 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the colonial mission. Through a combination of strategic alliances with Zawiya tribes and military pressure on the Hassane warrior nomads, he managed to extend French rule over the Mauritanian emirates: Trarza, Brakna and Tagant quickly submitted to treaties with the colonial power (1903-04), but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anticolonial rebellion (or jihad) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn. It was finally defeated militarily in 1912, and incorporated into the territory of Mauritania, which had been drawn up in 1904. Mauritania would subsequently form part of French West Africa, from 1920. In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Xavier Coppolani was a French military and colonial leader, who was instrumental in the colonial occupation and creation of modern-day Mauritania. ... Zaouia (Arabic زاوية corner), also spelled zawiya or zawiyah, is a Maghrebi and West African term for an Islamic religious school cum monastery, roughly corresponding to the Eastern term madrassa. In precolonial times, these were the primary sources for education in the area, and taught basic literacy to a large proportion... The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Trarza is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... Brakna is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... Tagant is a region in south-central Mauritania named for the Tagant plateau. ... Adrar (Arabic: ولاية آدرار) is a large region in Mauritania, named for the Adrar Plateau. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Shaykh Ma al-Aynayn (b. ... Location of French West Africa French West Africa (French: ) was a federation of eight French territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea (now Guinea), Côte dIvoire, Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso) and Dahomey (now Benin). ...


French rule brought legal prohibitions against slavery and an end to interclan warfare. During the colonial period, the population remained nomadic, but many sedentary peoples, whose ancestors had been expelled centuries earlier, began to trickle back into Mauritania. As the country gained independence in 1960, the capital city Nouakchott was founded at the site of a small colonial village, the Ksar, while 90% of the population was still nomadic. With independence, larger numbers of indigenous Black African peoples (Haalpulaar, Soninke, and Wolof) entered Mauritania, moving into the area north of the Senegal River. Educated in French language and customs, many of these recent arrivals became clerks, soldiers, and administrators in the new state. This, occurring as France militarily suppressed the most intransigent hassane tribes of the Moorish north, shifted old balances of power, and created new cause for conflict between the southern populations and Moors. Between these groups stood the Haratin, a very large population of Arabized slaves, who lived within Moorish society, integrated into a low-caste social position. Modern day slavery is still common practice in this country[1]. Slave redirects here. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] NawākÅ¡Å«á¹­) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... The Fula or Fulani is an ethnic group of people spread over many countries in West Africa, from Mauritania, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali in the west to Cameroon and as far as Sudan in the east. ... Also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, the Soninke are a Mandé people who descend from the Bafour, and are closely related to the Imraguen of Mauritania. ... Wolof may refer to: the ethnic group of the Wolof people; the Wolof language; things originating from the culture or tradition of the Wolof people. ... The Senegal River, in West Africa, forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania and Western Sahara. ... The Haratin or Harratin are an ethnic group in the Sahara. ...


Moors reacted to the change, and to Arab nationalist calls from abroad, by increasing pressure to Arabize many aspects of Mauritanian life, such as law and language. A schism developed between those Moors who consider Mauritania to be an Arab country and those who seek a dominant role for the non-Moorish peoples, with various models for containing the country's cultural diversity suggested, but none implemented successfully. This ethnic discord was evident during intercommunal violence that broke out in April 1989 (the "1989 Events"), but has since subsided. The ethnic tension and the sensitive issue of slavery - past and, in some areas, present - is still a powerful theme in the country's political debate. A significant number from all groups, however, seek a more diverse, pluralistic society. Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology in Arab world. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... The 1989 events were a series of ethnic and political disturbances in Mauritania and Senegal. ...


Politics

Politics in Mauritania have always been determined by personalities and tribes more than ideologies, with any leader's ability to exercise political power dependent upon control over resources; perceived ability and integrity; and tribal, ethnic, family, and personal considerations. Conflict between white Moor, black Moor (Haratine), and non-Moor ethnic groups (Haal Pulaars, Soninkes, Wolofs and Bambaras), centering on language, land tenure, and other issues, continues to be the dominant challenge to national unity. Politics of Mauritania takes place in a framework of a military ruled republic, whereby the Chairman of the Military Council for Justice and Democracy is both head of state and head of government. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


The government bureaucracy is composed of traditional ministries, special agencies, and parastatal companies. The Ministry of Interior spearheads a system of regional governors and prefects modeled on the French system of local administration. Under this system, Mauritania is divided into thirteen regions (wilaya), including the capital district, Nouakchott. Control is tightly concentrated in the executive branch of the central government, but a series of national and municipal elections since 1992 have produced some limited decentralization. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision of several countries, including Algeria, Morocco, Sudan, and Oman. ... Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of service or action. ...


Mauritania, along with Morocco, annexed the territory of Western Sahara in 1976, with Mauritania taking the lower one-third at the request of former colonial power, Spain. After several military losses to Polisario,heavily armed and supported by Algeria, the local hegemon and rival to Morocco, Mauritania retreated in 1979, and its claims were taken over by Morocco. Due to economic weakness, Mauritania has been a negligible player in the territorial dispute, with its official position being that it wishes for an expedient solution that is mutually agreeable to all parties. While most of the former Spanish or Western Sahara has been woven into Morocco, the UN still considers the Western sahara a territory that needs to express its wishes with respect to statehood: a referendum is still supposed to be held sometimes in the future, under UN auspices, to determine whether the "saharaouis" wish to remain part of Morocco or not. The Moroccan authorities, on their part, wish the sharaouis to remain part of Morocco and, as such, have made significant investments in the area. The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Peoples Liberation Front of Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro) is an army and political movement in the Western Sahara, comprising...


The discovery of oil in 2001 in the offshore Chinguetti deposit will be a test for the current government since, according to human rights activists, it can be a blessing for one of the poorest countries in the world as well as a curse bringing corruption and violence to the country. Petro redirects here. ... The Chinguetti deposit is a petroleum deposit off the Mauritanian coast, discovered by the Australian firm Woodside Petroleum in 2001. ...


The Ould Daddah era (1960-78)

After independence, President Moktar Ould Daddah, originally installed by the French, formalized Mauritania into a one-party state in 1964 with a new constitution, which set up an authoritarian presidential regime. Daddah's own Parti du Peuple Mauritanien (PPM) became the ruling organization in a single-party system. The President justified this decision on the grounds that he considered Mauritania unready for western-style multi-party democracy. Under this one-party constitution, Daddah was reelected in uncontested elections in 1966, 1971 and 1976. He was ousted in a bloodless coup on July 10, 1978, after bringing the country to near-collapse through a disastrous war to annex the southern part of Western Sahara, in an attempt to create a "Greater Mauritania". This page contains a list of Presidents and Heads of State of Mauritania See also lists of incumbents List of Heads of State of Mauritania Affiliations:- PPM = Partie des Personnes de Mauritanian (Mauritanian Peoples Party, to 1961 PRM) - authoritarian PRDS = Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (Social and... Moktar Ould Daddah Moktar Ould Daddah (Arabic: مختار ولد داده; December 25, 1924 - October 14, 2003) was the President of Mauritania from 1960, when his country gained its independence from France, to 1978, when he was deposed in a military coup detat. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Parti du Peuple Mauritanien (PPM, French Mauritanian Peoples Party) was the sole legal party of Mauritania from 1961 to 1978. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... The Military Committee for National Recovery (French, Comité Militaire de Redressement National, CMRN) was a short-lived military government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania after the coup détat that removed long-time President Mukthar Ould Daddah on July 10, 1978, until a second coup on April 6, 1979. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... // Western Sahara area has never formed a state in the modern sense of the word. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ... Tiris al-Gharbiyya (Arabic for Western Tiris) was the Mauritanian name for the area of Western Sahara under its control between 1975 and 1979. ... Greater Mauritania is a term for the Mauritanian irredentist claim to Western Sahara, and possibly other Moorish or Sahrawi-populated areas of the western Sahara desert. ...


CMRN and CMSN military governments (1978-84)

Col. Mustafa Ould Salek's CMRN junta proved incapable of either establishing a strong base of power or extracting the country from its destabilizing conflict with the Sahrawi resistance movement, the Polisario Front. It quickly fell to be replaced by another military government, the CMSN. The energetic Col. Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidallah soon emerged as its main strongman, and by giving up all claims to Western Sahara he found peace with the Polisario, and improved relations with its main backer, Algeria - but relations with the other party to the conflict, Morocco, and its European ally France, deteriorated. Instability continued, and Haidallah's ambitious reform attempts foundered. His regime was plagued by attempted coups and intrigue within the military establishment; in 1984, finally, he was deposed by Col. Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya. Colonel (Ger: Oberst) is a military rank, usually the highest below general grades, and just above Lieutenant Colonel. ... Mustafa Ould Salek (Arabic: المصطفى ولد محمد السالك; b. ... The Military Committee for National Recovery (French, Comité Militaire de Redressement National, CMRN) was a short-lived military government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania after the coup détat that removed long-time President Mukthar Ould Daddah on July 10, 1978, until a second coup on April 6, 1979. ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... “Sahraoui” redirects here. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... The Military Committee for National Salvation (French, Comité Militaire de Salut National, CMSN) was a military government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania that took power in 1979. ... Colonel (Ger: Oberst) is a military rank, usually the highest below general grades, and just above Lieutenant Colonel. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Colonel (Ger: Oberst) is a military rank, usually the highest below general grades, and just above Lieutenant Colonel. ... Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya (Arabic: ) (b. ...


Ould Taya's rule (1984-2005)

The Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social (PRDS), formerly led by President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, dominated Mauritanian politics following the country's first multi-party elections in April 1992 following the approval by referendum of the current constitution in July 1991. President Taya, who won elections in 1992 and 1997, first became chief of state through a December 12, 1984 bloodless coup which made him chairman of the committee of military officers that governed Mauritania from July 1978 to April 1992. The Republican Party for Democracy and Renewal (PRDR) (Parti Républicain Démocratique et Renouvellement) is a political party in Mauritania. ... Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya (Arabic: ) (b. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Political parties, illegal during the military period, were legalized again in 1991. By April 1992, as civilian rule returned, 16 major political parties had been recognized; 12 major political parties were active in 2004. Most opposition parties boycotted the first legislative election in 1992, and for nearly a decade the parliament was dominated by the PRDS. The opposition participated in municipal elections in January-February 1994 and subsequent Senate elections, most recently in April 2004, gained representation at the local level as well as three seats in the Senate. A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... For the band, see Senate (band). ...


Mauritania's presidential election, its third since adopting the democratic process in 1992, took place on November 7, 2003. Six candidates, including Mauritania's first female and first Haratine (former slave family) candidates, represented a wide variety of political goals and backgrounds. Incumbent President Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya won reelection with 67.02% of the popular vote, according to the official figures, with Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla finishing second. A presidential election was held in Mauritania on November 7, 2003. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Slave redirects here. ... Open seat redirects here. ... Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya (Arabic: ) (b. ... Mohamed Khouna Ould Haidalla (Arabic: ; born 1940) was the President of Mauritania and Chairman of the Military Committee for National Salvation from 4 January 1980 to 12 December 1984. ...


Sid'Ahmed Taya recognized Israel (see Foreign relations of Mauritania), which made Mauritania the only Arab country not neighbouring Israel which recognized the latter (Morocco and Qatar have official ties with Israel, but do not fully recognize it). He also started cooperating with the United States in antiterrorism activities, which was criticized by human rights NGOs, who talked of an exaggeration and instrumentation of alleged terrorist activities for geopolitical aims.[3][4] The Foreign relations of The Islamic Republic of Mauritania have been dominated since independence by the issues of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as well as recognition of its independence by its neighbours, particularly Morocco. ...


A group of current and former Army officers launched a bloody but unsuccessful coup attempt on June 8, 2003. The leaders of the attempted coup were never caught.


August 2005 military coup

On 3 August 2005, a military coup led by Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall ended Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya's twenty-one years of strong-arm rule. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Colonel Ely Ould Mohamed Vall (Arabic: ‎; born 1953 in Nouakchott) has been the military leader of Mauritania since a coup détat in August 2005. ...


On August 3, the Mauritanian military, including members of the presidential guard, seized control of key points in the capital of Nouakchott. They took advantage of President Taya's attendance at the funeral of Saudi King Fahd to organize the coup, which took place without loss of life. The officers, calling themselves the Military Council for Justice and Democracy, released the following statement: Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] Nawākšūṭ) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... King Fahd of Saudi Arabia King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz (born in Riyadh in 1923) is the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ...

The national armed forces and security forces have unanimously decided to put a definitive end to the oppressive activities of the defunct authority, which our people have suffered from during the past years. (BBC)

The Military Council later issued another statement naming Colonel Vall as president and director of the national police force, the Sûreté Nationale. Sixteen other officers were listed as members. Colonel Vall was once regarded as a firm ally of the now-ousted president Sid'Ahmed Taya, even aiding him in the original coup that brought him to power, and later serving as his security chief. Typical police van in the streets of Paris. ...


Applauded by the Mauritanian people, but cautiously watched by the international community, the coup has since been generally accepted, while the military junta has organized elections within the promised two year timeline. In a referendum on 26 June 2006, Mauritanians overwhelmingly (97%) approved a new constitution which limited the duration of a president's stay in office. The leader of the junta, Col. Vall, promised to abide by the referendum and relinquish power peacefully. Mauritania's establishment of relations with the State of Israel - it is one of only four Arab states to recognize Israel - was maintained by the new regime, despite widespread criticism from the opposition, who viewed it as a legacy of the Taya regime's attempts to curry favor with the West. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Parliamentary and municipal elections in Mauritania took place on 19 November and 3 December 2006. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


2007 Presidential election

The first fully democratic Presidential election since 1960 occurred on 11 March 2007. The election is the final transfer from military to civilian rule following the military coup in 2005. This is the first time the president has been selected by ballot in the country's history[2]. is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ...


The election was won by Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi. Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi (Arabic: ‎) (born 1938[1]) is a Mauritanian politician. ...


Regions and departments

Mauritania is divided into 12 regions (régions) and one capital district, which in turn are subdivided into 44 departments (départements). The regions and capital district (in alphabetical order) and their capitals are: Mauritania is divided into 12 regions (capitals in parentheses): Adrar (Atar) Assaba (Kiffa) Brakna (Aleg) Dakhlet Nouadhibou (Nouadhibou) Gorgol (Kaédi) Guidimaka (Sélibaby) Hodh Ech Chargui (Néma) Hodh El Gharbi (Aioun el Atrouss) Inchiri (Akjoujt) Tagant (Tidjikdja) Tiris Zemmour (Zouérate) Trarza (Rosso) The national capital, Nouakchott, comprises... Departments of Mauritania The Regions of Mauritania are subdivided into 44 departments. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4748x1511, 348 KB) Summary FR: Panorama de la ville dAtar en Mauritanie en soirée. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (4748x1511, 348 KB) Summary FR: Panorama de la ville dAtar en Mauritanie en soirée. ... Atar is a town in north western Mauritania, the capital of the Adrar region and the main settlement on the airport, a museum and a historic mosque, constructed in 1674. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 88 KB) Description Mosquée de Chinguetti en Mauritanie Source photo personnelle de lutilisateur Jgremillot Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Chinguetti ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 88 KB) Description Mosquée de Chinguetti en Mauritanie Source photo personnelle de lutilisateur Jgremillot Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Chinguetti ... Chinguetti (Arabic: شنقيط) is a ksour or ancient trading centre in northern Mauritania, lying on the Adrar Plateau east of Atar. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Capital District is an imprecise regional definition (much like Upstate New York) that generally refers to the four counties surrounding Albany, the capital of New York: Albany County, Schenectady County, and Rensselaer County. ... The word department has a number of meanings: It can mean an administrative sector of the government. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...

Region Capital
Adrar Atar
Assaba Kifa
Brakna Aleg
Dakhlet Nouadhibou Nouadhibou
Gorgol Kaédi
Guidimaka Sélibaby
Hodh Ech Chargui Néma
Region Capital
Hodh El Gharbi Ayoun el Atrous
Inchiri Akjoujt
Nouakchott (capital district)
Tagant Tidjikdja
Tiris Zemmour F'dérik
Trarza Rosso

Adrar (Arabic: ولاية آدرار) is a large region in Mauritania, named for the Adrar Plateau. ... Atar is a town in north western Mauritania, the capital of the Adrar region and the main settlement on the airport, a museum and a historic mosque, constructed in 1674. ... Assaba is a region in southern Mauritania. ... Kiffa is a city in south-central Mauritania. ... Brakna is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... Aleg is a capital town of the Brakna Region, Mauritania. ... Dakhlet Nouadhibou is the western-most region of Mauritania. ... A street in Nouadhibou Nouadhibou (Arabic: نواذيبو; formerly Port-Étienne; pop. ... Other use: see Gorgol (region) for the region of Mauritania. ... Kaédi (Arabic: كيهيدي) is a city of over 60,000 people and is the largest city and administrative center of the Gorgol region of Southern Mauritania. ... Guidimaka is the southern-most region of Mauritania. ... Sélibaby is a capital town of the Guidimaka Region, Mauritania. ... Hodh Ech Chargui is a large region in eastern Mauritania. ... Nema is a town in southeastern Mauritania, close to the border with Mali. ... Hodh El Gharbi is a region in southern Mauritania. ... Ayoun al Atrous (also known as Aioun el Atrouss) is a town in southern Mauritania. ... Inchiri is a region in western Mauritania. ... Akjoujt is a town in western Mauritania. ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] Nawākšūṭ) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... Tagant is a region in south-central Mauritania named for the Tagant plateau. ... Tidjikja is the capital of the Tagant region of central Mauritania, lying on the Tagant plateau. ... Tiris Zemmour (Arabic: ولاية تيرس زمور) is the northern-most region of Mauritania. ... Fderîck or Fdérick is a city in the north of Mauritania. ... Trarza is a region in south-west Mauritania. ... Rosso is a city and ferry crossing in Mauritania on the Senegal River, located approximately 250 km South of Nouakchott and 300 km West of Kaedi. ...

Geography

Satellite image of Mauritania, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Satellite image of Mauritania, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library
Sand dunes altered by traces of the Dakar Rally; Desert scenes continue to define the Mauritanian landscape.
Sand dunes altered by traces of the Dakar Rally; Desert scenes continue to define the Mauritanian landscape.
Richat Structure, Mauritania
Richat Structure, Mauritania

At 397,929 mi² (1,030,700 km² [5]), Mauritania is the world's 29th-largest country (after Bolivia). It is comparable in size to Egypt. map of Mauritania, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Mauritania Geography of Mauritania Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Mauritania, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Mauritania Geography of Mauritania Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1470x1511, 2547 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1470x1511, 2547 KB) ECW to TIFF to PNG (compression level 9). ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... Satellite image of Congo, generated from raster graphics data supplied by The Map Library. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1258, 230 KB) Found on fr: Traces laissées par le Rallye Dakar dans le Sahara Mauritanien Photo prise en janvier 2005. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1258, 230 KB) Found on fr: Traces laissées par le Rallye Dakar dans le Sahara Mauritanien Photo prise en janvier 2005. ... For information about the 2007 Dakar Rally, see 2007 Dakar Rally. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2259x1244, 495 KB) PIA04963: Richat Structure, Mauritania, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation Source: http://photojournal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2259x1244, 495 KB) PIA04963: Richat Structure, Mauritania, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation Source: http://photojournal. ... Satellite picture of the Richat Structure The Richat Structure, a prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of Mauritania near Ouadane, has attracted attention since the earliest space missions because it forms a conspicuous bull’s-eye in the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. ... // Location Mauritania is a country in Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara, Mali and Algeria. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


Mauritania is generally flat, its 1,030,700 square kilometers (397,850 sq mi) forming vast, arid plains broken by occasional ridges and clifflike outcroppings. A series of scarps face southwest, longitudinally bisecting these plains in the center of the country. The scarps also separate a series of sandstone plateaus, the highest of which is the Adrar Plateau, reaching an elevation of 500 meters (1,640 ft). Spring-fed oases lie at the foot of some of the scarps. Isolated peaks, often rich in minerals, rise above the plateaus; the smaller peaks are called guelbs and the larger ones kedias. The concentric Guelb er Richat (also known as the Richat Structure) is a prominent feature of the north-central region. Kediet Ijill, near the city of Zouîrât, has an elevation of 1,000 meters (3,280 ft) and is the highest peak. A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Adrar Plateau is a highland area of the Sahara Desert in northern Mauritania. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Satellite picture of the Richat Structure The Richat Structure, a prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of Mauritania near Ouadane, has attracted attention since the earliest space missions because it forms a conspicuous bull’s-eye in the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. ... Zouérat (Arabic: الزويرات) is the largest town in northern Mauritania and is the capital of Tiris Zemmour. ...


Approximately three-fourths of Mauritania is desert or semidesert. As a result of extended, severe drought, the desert has been expanding since the mid-1960s. To the west, between the ocean and the plateaus, are alternating areas of clayey plains (regs) and sand dunes (ergs), some of which shift from place to place, gradually moved by high winds. The dunes generally increase in size and mobility toward the north.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Mauritania

A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for almost 50% of total exports. With the current rises in metal prices, gold and copper mining companies are opening mines in the interior. The nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years, drought and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank-IMF mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF). The economic objectives have been set for 1999-2002. Privatization remains one of the key issues. Mauritania is unlikely to meet ESAF's annual GDP growth objectives of 4%-5%. Economy - overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Nouakchott department Nouakchott (Arabic: ‎ or ‎ [alleged translation from Berber The place of the winds] Nawākšūṭ) is the capital and by far the largest city of Mauritania, and is Saharas largest city if one excludes marginal cases like Cairo (in the Nile River Delta) and the cities north of... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ...


Dispute with Woodside Petroleum

In February 2006, the Mauritanian government denounced amendments to an oil contract made by former leader Maaouiya Ould Taya with Woodside Petroleum, an Australian company. In 2004, Woodside had agreed to invest $US 600 million in developing Mauritania's Chinguetti offshore oil project. The controversial amendments, which Mauritanian authorities declared had been signed "outside the legal framework of normal practice, to the great detriment of our country", could cost Mauritania up to $200 million a year, according to BBC News. Signed by Woodside two weeks after the February 1, 2005 legislation authorizing the four amendments, they provided for a lower state quota in the profit-oil, and reduced taxes by 15 percent in certain zones. They also eased environmental constraints, and extended the length and scope of the exploitation and exploration monopoly, among other measures. Woodside Petroleum Limited is an Australian petroleum mining company. ... The Chinguetti deposit is a petroleum deposit off the Mauritanian coast, discovered by the Australian firm Woodside Petroleum in 2001. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Environmental policy is any (course of) action delibaretely taken (or not taken) to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans [1]. // It is... This article is about the economic term. ...


The disputed amendments were signed by former oil minister Zeidane Ould Hmeida in February 2004 and March 2005. Hmeida was arrested in January 2006 on charges of "serious crimes against the country's essential economic interests". Zeidane Ould Hmeida is a former politician in Mauritania. ...


Nouakchott's authorities declared that the government would likely seek international arbitration, which Woodside (which operated for Hardman, BG Group, Premier, ROC Oil, Fusion, Petronas, Dana Petroleum, Energy Africa and the Hydrocarbons Mauritanian Society) also contemplated. Hardman is a surname, which could refer to several people, including: Edward Hardman E. Chambré Hardman Bill Hardman Lamartine Griffin Hardman Category: ... BG Group Plc (LSE: BG.) is an energy production and distribution company which has its headquarters in Reading outside London, England. ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... Motto: شرف إخاء عدل  (Arabic) Honneur, Fraternité, Justice  (French) Honor, Fraternity, Justice Anthem: National Anthem of Mauritania Capital (and largest city) Nouakchott Arabic (de jure) also Hassaniya and French Government Military junta  - President Ely Ould Mohamed Vall[1]  - Prime Minister Sidi Mohamed Ould Boubacar Independence from France   - Date November 28, 1960  Area  - Total... Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ...


Discovered in 2001, Chinguetti has proven reserves of about 120 million barrels of oil. At the end of December 2005, authorities estimated that in 2006, the oil profits would be 47 billion ouguiyas (about US$180 million) and represent a quarter of the state budget, according to RFI.[3] MRO is also the acronym for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter The Mauritanian ouguiya ( ISO 4217: MRO) is the currency of Mauritania. ... Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... ...


The Australian Federal Police are currently investigating Woodside for allegations of bribery and corruption in Mauritania (according to the Sydney Morning Herald [6] [7]).


Demographics

Population  
3,270,065 (July 2007 estimated)[citation needed]
Life expectancy at birth 
53.12 years (2006 estimate)[citation needed]
Ethnic groups 
40% mixed Arab/black; 30% Arab; 30% Black
Religions  
99.84% Muslim, most of whom are Sunnis.
Languages  
Hassaniya dialect of Arabic (official and national);

Other languages spoken include: Pulaar, Soninke, Wolof and French. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Demographics of Mauritania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... ḤassānÄ«ya is a Bedouin dialect derived from the Arabic dialect spoken by the Beni Hassān tribes, who extended their authority over most of the Mauritanian Sahara between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Fula language is a language of West Africa, spoken by the Fula people from Senegal to Cameroon and Sudan. ... The Soninke language (Soninke: Soninkanxaane) is a Mande language spoken by the Soninke people of West Africa. ... Wolof is a language spoken in Senegal, the Gambia, and Mauritania, and it is the native language of the ethnic group of the Wolof people. ...


Culture

Qur'an collection in a library in Chinguetti.
Qur'an collection in a library in Chinguetti.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 78 KB) Description bibliothèque à Chinguetti en Mauritanie Source photo personnelle de lutilisateur Jgremillot retouchée par Nataraja Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Chinguetti ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 78 KB) Description bibliothèque à Chinguetti en Mauritanie Source photo personnelle de lutilisateur Jgremillot retouchée par Nataraja Statut File links The following pages link to this file: Chinguetti ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Chinguetti (Arabic: شنقيط) is a ksour or ancient trading centre in northern Mauritania, lying on the Adrar Plateau east of Atar. ... [Mauritania]s largest ethnic group is the Moors. ... Slavery in Africa, as in some other regions of the world, continues today. ... Virtually all Mauritanians are Sunni Muslims. ... The state of Mauritania has a constitution which establishes the country as an Islamic republic and decrees that Islam is the religion of its citizens and the State; the Government limits freedom of religion. ... Decimal currency is the term used to describe any currency for which the ratio between the basic unit of currency and its sub-unit is a power of 10. ... 2000 MRO issued in 2004 The ouguiya (Arabic: أوقية; ISO 4217: MRO) is the currency of Mauritania. ... The khoums (Arabic خمس, fifth) is the subdivisory unit of the Mauritanian Ouguiya. ...

See also

Lists

The Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie, the national Scouting organization of Mauritania, was founded in 1946, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1983 and is also an associate member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 26,500 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 35,000 (2001) Telephone system: general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations (improvements being made) domestic: mostly cable and open-wire lines; a recently completed domestic satellite... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Guard, National Police, Presidential Guard Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 644,294 (2002 est. ... [Mauritania]s largest ethnic group is the Moors. ... Mauritania has an international soccer team. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... This is a list of cities in Mauritania: Atar Bir Mohreïn Bougé Boutilimit Chinguetti Fdérik Kaédi Kifa Néma Nouadhibou Nouakchott Ouadane Oualata Rosso Tichit Tidjikdja Zouérat Categories: Lists of cities | Mauritania ...

Notes

  1. ^ For more information please read slave owner Abdel Nasser Ould Yasser account in "Enslaved, True stories of Modern Day Slavery" edited by Jesse Sage and Liora Kasten, directors of the American Anti-Slavery Group
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6440597.stm
  3. ^ "Mauritania and firm row over oil", BBC News, February 6, 2006. "Crise ouverte avec la compagnie pétrolière Woodside", Radio France International, February 6, 2006. 
  4. ^ Includes the ten largest cities' populations according to the 2000 census.

References

World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

External links

Template:CIA Factbook Entry

  • [9] CIA Factbook Site (Secure)
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Government
  • République Islamique de Mauritanie official government site
  • Assemblée Nationale Mauritanienne official site
Discussion boards
Slavery
  • One of many sites about slavery in modern Mauritania
  • Slavery still exists in Mauritania
News
  • AllAfrica.com - Mauritania news headline links
  • (French) (Arabic) (English) News and Views of the Maghreb
Overviews
  • Arab Gateway - Mauritania
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, Mauritania - Country Page
  • BBC News Country Profile - Mauritania
  • CIA World Factbook - Mauritania
  • US State Department - Mauritania includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
  • Mauritania's location on a 3D globe (Java)
  • US Library of Congress - Country Studies
  • (French) (Arabic) (English) country info & who's who
Directories
  • Columbia University Libraries - African Studies: Mauritania directory category
  • Open Directory Project - Mauritania directory category
  • Stanford University - Africa South of the Sahara: Mauritania directory category
  • The Index on Africa - Mauritania directory category
  • Yahoo! - Mauritania directory category
History
  • RaceandHistory.com: Present day slavery in Mauritania
Articles
  • Mauritania : a small country gives a big lesson in democracy, Sens Public Review
Tourism
Geographic locale
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mauritania (05/07) (2066 words)
From the 3rd to 7th centuries, the migration of Berber tribes from North Africa displaced the Bafours, the original inhabitants of present-day Mauritania and the ancestors of the Soninke.
Mauritania was under military rule from 1978 to 1992, when the country's first multi-party elections were held following the July 1991 approval by referendum of a constitution.
Mauritania held series of elections that began in November 2006 with a parliamentary vote and culminated March 25, 2007 with the second round of the presidential election.
Mauritania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2361 words)
Mauritania, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in northwest Africa.
From the 3rd to 7th centuries, the migration of Berber tribes from North Africa displaced the Bafours, the original inhabitants of present-day Mauritania and the ancestors of the Soninke.
Mauritania is generally flat, its 1,030,700 square kilometers (397,850 sq mi) forming vast, arid plains broken by occasional ridges and clifflike outcroppings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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