FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Maurice Leenhardt

Maurice Leenhardt, (1878 in Montauban, 1954 in Paris) was a French pastor and ethnologist specialising in the Kanak people of New Caledonia. 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 5 km/ 3 mi behind. ... Ethnology (greek ethnos: (non-greek, barbarian) people) is a genre of anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the folklore, beliefs and practices of different societies. ... Kanak (formerly also Canaque) are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia in the South Pacific. ...

Contents


Mission in New Caledonia

Image:Leenhardt.jpg

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Protestant authorities concerned themselves with the evangelisation of the Kanaks, in competition with the Marist Brothers: Maurice Leenhardt was named pastor in 1902 in New Caledonia where he founded the "Dö nèvâ" mission in the valley of Houailou. Going beyond his role of pastor, he applied himself to understanding the mentality of this people on the road to extinction. Kanak (formerly also Canaque) are the indigenous Melanesian inhabitants of New Caledonia in the South Pacific. ... Logo of the Marist Brothers. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


When he arrived in new Caledonia, Maurice Leenhardt was welcomed by these words from the mayor of Nouméa: What have you come to do here? In ten years there will be no more Kanaks. He applied himself to the fight against this slow genocide; he combatted the alcoholism that slowly ravaged the Kanak people. He translated the New Testament into the Houaïlou language with the help fo his first students.


He returned to the mother country in 1927 where he founded the Société des Océanistes and the Musée de l'Homme, and where he took the chair of Lucien Lévy-Bruhl at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales. Following a second stay of nearly ten years in New Caledonia, he began teaching Oceanic languages at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales in 1944. 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Musée de lHomme (French for Museum of Man) was created in 1937 by Paul Rivet, for the event of the Worlds Fair. ... Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and ethnographer, whose primary field of study involved primitive mentality. ... The École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) is a French institution of higher learning, a Grand Établissement within the system of Grandes Écoles. ... The Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) is located in Paris, France. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...


Contributions to Ethnology

Without having theorised them, Maurice Leenhardt's contributions to ethnology are considerable.


Before Bronislaw Malinowski, he practiced the ethnology advocated by Marcel Mauss from his office in Paris. For twenty-five years he practiced participant observation and active research, the virtues of which were not rediscovered until the 1960s. For the Olympic champion athlete see Bronislaw Malinowski (athlete). ... Marcel Mauss (May 10, 1872- February 10, 1950) was a French sociologist best known for his role in elaborating on and securing the legacy of his uncle, Émile Durkheim and the Annee Sociologique. ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ...


Maurice Leenhardt was not a dogmatist and through all these contributions, he never sought followers. He was nevertheless one of the first to consider social phenomena in their totality and to study as well the language, art, myths, and costume of the Kanak people.


Bibliography

Luckily, the most essential works are also the easiest to find.


Works by Maurice Leenhardt

  • 1902 : Le Mouvement éthiopien au sud de l'Afrique. (republished 1976, Académie des sciences d'outre-mer)
  • 1909 : La Grande Terre. (Brochure, Société des missions évangéliques, expanded edition 1922)
  • 1922 : Traduction du Nouveau Testament en langue houaïlou.
  • 1930 : Notes d'ethnologie néo-calédonienne. (Institut d'ethnologie)
  • 1932 : Documents néo-calédoniens. (Institut d'ethnologie)
  • 1935 : Vocabulaire et grammaire de la langue houaïlou. (Institut d'ethnologie)
  • 1937 : Gens de la Grande Terre. (Gallimard)
  • 1938 : Alfred Boegner. (Société des missions évangéliques)
  • 1946 : Langues et dialectes de l'Austro-Mélanésie. (Institut d'ethnologie)
  • 1947 : L'art océanien. (Ed. du Chêne)
  • 1947 : Do Kamo. La personne et le mythe dans le monde mélanésien. (Gallimard, 1947, 1971, 1985)
  • Plusieurs articles dans le journal de la société des océanistes.
  • 1958 Notes de sociologie religieuse sur la région de Canala (Nouvelle-Calédonie), Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie (FRA), 1958, Vol. 24. (preface and annotated by Jean Guiart).) [1]

1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1930 (MCMXXX) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

About Maurice Leenhardt

  • Maurice Leenhardt. Personne et mythe en Nouvelle Calédonie. James Clifford (Éditions Jean-Michel Place, 1987).
  • Maurice Leenhardt, missionnaire et sociologue. Jean Guiart, Monde Non Chrétien, 1955, 13 p. L'article est téléchargeable sur le serveur de l'IRD (ex. ORSTOM)[2]
  • Destin d'une église et d'un peuple : Nouvelle-Calédonie 1900-1959 : étude monographique d'une œuvre missionnaire protestante. Jean Guiart (Paris FR), 1959, 88 p). [3]
  • Historique de la section langues océaniennes de l'INALCO, avec une longue notice biographique sur Maurice Leenhardt par J. de Lafontinelle. Article extrait de l'ouvrage : "Langues'O 1795-1995 : deux siècles d'histoire de l'Ecole des Langues Orientales", textes réunis par Pierre Labrousse. Editions Hervas. Paris 1995. http://www.langues-oceaniennes.org/texte/historique.pdf

  Results from FactBites:
 
Traditional Environmental Knowledge (6086 words)
Leenhardt (1930) gives a general description of the yam calendar from clearing the land in July through planting in September and October, to the start of the new yam harvest in March.
Leenhardt (1947 see 1979) notes that erythrine flowers are the signal for the shark hunt.
Leenhardt (1947 see 1979) describes a skilled sculptor and surgeon whose confidence rested in the gift from his deified ancestors; when he became a Christian, this confidence was destroyed and his skill was lost.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m