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Encyclopedia > Maurice Duplessis
Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election.
Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election.

Maurice Le Noblet Duplessis (20 April 18907 September 1959) served as the premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and 1944 to 1959. A founder and leader of the conservative Union Nationale party, he built his reputation by exposing the misconduct and patronage of Liberal Premier Louis-Alexandre Taschereau. He was a very strong supporter of provincial rights, but was critical of certain individual civil rights. He was a life-long bachelor-one reason being his alcoholic habits. Image File history File linksMetadata Maurice_Duplessis. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Maurice_Duplessis. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Premier of Quebec (in French Premier ministre du Québec, sometimes literally translated to Prime Minister of Quebec) is the first minister for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... Louis-Alexandre Taschereau (March 5, 1867 - July 6, 1952) was a Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1920 to 1936. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...

Contents

Profile

Born in Trois-Rivières, Duplessis studied at the Séminaire Saint-Joseph de Trois-Rivières, obtained a law degree from Université Laval in Quebec City and was admitted to the Barreau du Quebec in 1913. He returned to his home town to practice law until running for public office. He first won a seat as a Conservative Party of Quebec candidate in the 1927 Quebec election. In the 1931 election, Duplessis was reelected in his seat, but Conservative leader Camillien Houde lost both the election and his own seat. In 1932, the Conservative caucus chose Duplessis to be the leader of the Opposition, and he formally won the leadership of the party in 1933. Location City Information Established: January 1, 2002 Area: 228. ... The Séminaire Saint-Joseph de Trois-Rivières is an important, historical private scholar institution in the Quebec region of Mauricie. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in America to offer higher education in French. ... Motto : « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Quebec Official logo Country  Canada Province Québec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Constitution date 1833 Geographical code 24 23027 Founder Foundation... The Barreau du Québec is the bar association for lawyers in Quebec. ... The Parti conservateur du Québec (in English: Conservative Party of Quebec) was a political party in Quebec, Canada. ... In the Quebec general election on May 16, 1927, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Louis-Alexandre Taschereau was re-elected, defeating the Quebec Conservative Party under Arthur Sauvé. It was the second general election victory in a row for Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, who had held office since 1920. ... In the Quebec general election on August 24, 1931, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Louis-Alexandre Taschereau was re-elected, defeating the Quebec Conservative Party under Camillien Houde. ... Camillien Houde on the cover of Time Magazine, August 5, 1946. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Two weeks before the 1935 provincial election, he engineered a coalition with the Action libérale nationale (A.L.N.), a party of dissident reform Liberals and nationalists who had quit the governing Parti libéral du Québec. While he lost that election, Duplessis was soon able to exploit a patronage scandal involving the family of Premier Louis-Alexandre Taschereau to force Taschereau's resignation. The A.L.N. and Conservatives had by now formally merged into a single party, the Union Nationale. In the Quebec general election on November 25, 1935, the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Louis-Alexandre Taschereau were re-elected, defeating the Action libérale nationale under Paul Gouin and the Quebec Conservative Party under Maurice Duplessis. ... The Action libérale nationale was a short-lived political party in Quebec, Canada, led by Paul Gouin and founded by dissident Liberal party members in 1934. ... Quebec nationalism is the subject of many international studies together with the contemporary nationalism of Scotland, Catalonia and other non-sovereign regions of the world. ... The Parti libéral du Québec (Liberal Party of Quebec, although it refers to itself in English as the Québec Liberal Party), or PLQ, is a liberal political party in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... Generally, patronage is the act of a so-called patron who supports or favors some individual, family, group or institution. ... Louis-Alexandre Taschereau (March 5, 1867 - July 6, 1952) was a Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec from 1920 to 1936. ...


Duplessis and the U.N. won the August 1936 election in a landslide, putting an end to thirty-nine consecutive years of Liberal rule. Duplessis's first government was defeated in the 1939 election, a snap election called by the premier in hopes of exploiting the issue of Canadian participation in World War II. In the Quebec general election on August 17, 1936, the Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis defeated the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Adélard Godbout. ... The Quebec general election of 1939 was held on October 25, 1939 to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... In the Westminster parliamentary system a snap election is an early election called when the Prime Minister (or Premier) dissolves the legislature mid-way in a governments mandate. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict...


Duplessis returned as premier in the 1944 election, and held power without serious opposition for the next fifteen years, until his death. He became known simply as le Chef (the chief, the boss). He was elected to five terms of office in all, the last four of them consecutive. After him, no political party in Quebec elections at the provincial level has managed to win more than two terms of office in a row. In the Quebec general election on August 8, 1944, the Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis defeated the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Adélard Godbout. ...


Duplessis Policy

The Duplessis governments were characterized by an arguably authoritarian rule, the lavish use of patronage, anti-Communist propaganda, strong-arm methods against labour unions, and the limiting of access to education for the general population. Also notable was his opposition to the military: he opposed conscription and Canadian involvement during World War II. Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict...


Duplessis favoured rural areas over city development and introduced various agricultural credits during his first term. He also was noted for meagre investment in social services and effective electoral campaigning.


During his terms, while saying that he was not against unions, he made several laws that drew heavy criticism from especially the international union groups such the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada (TLC). His most notable antiunion initiative was the Padlock Law which initially was a law that would eliminate communism propaganda. It was believed that it was also used as a legal weapon against the Jehovah's Witnesses [citation needed]. The Trades and Labour Congress of Canada was a Canada-wide central federation of trade unions from 1883 to 1956. ... In Quebec, on March 24, 1937, the Union Nationale government of Maurice Duplessis passed the Padlock Law, which permitted closing any premises suspected of producing or distributing communist propaganda. ...


In 1949, Duplessis also tried to introduce a copycat law of the U.S Taft-Hartley Act, created in 1947, which would have eliminated certain rights for union groups that were acquired by the Labour Relations Law of 1944, the equivalent of the American Wagner Act of 1935. It was withdrawn due to the fierce opposition by union groups but would later reintroduced a nearly similar law in 1954, known as Bill 19. The law would force union groups to ban any members that would support communism and would any group would lose its trade-union accreditation if any there is a single member that had ties with communism groups or supported the ideology. The party lost even the support of the Catholic union group and forced it to review its structure which would led to the creation of the CSN. The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that severely restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... National Labor Relations Act - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Confédération des syndicats nationaux (CSN) (English: Confederation of National Labour Unions) (CNTU), is the second largest trade union in the Province of Quebec, Canada, by membership. ...


During Duplessis' mandates, several significant labour strikes occured such as the Dominion Textile in Valleyfield in 1946, the asbestos in the Beauce region in 1949 and the Murdochville copper mine strike in 1957. In those conflicts, Duplessis used rapidly with force the provincial police to disperse picket lines and restore order. Several arrests were made in these conflicts. However, the latter led to a major victory to union groups which acquired several rights. The Dominion Textile Inc. ... Salaberry-de-Valleyfield is a city in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the south shore of the St. ... Fibrous asbestos on muscovite Asbestos Asbestos Asbestos (a misapplication of Latin: asbestos quicklime from Greek : a, not and sbestos, extinguishable) describes any of a group of minerals that can be fibrous, many of which are metamorphic and are hydrous magnesium silicates. ... Beauce is an historical region in northern France, located between the Seine and Loire rivers. ... A small mining community at the tender age of 50, the town of Murdochville is learning to live without the stacks of Mines Gaspe. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ...


The U.N. often had the active support of the Roman Catholic Church in its political campaigns. Referring to the two parties' campaign colours, a slogan commonly heard from the pulpit was Le ciel est bleu; l'enfer est rouge: The sky/heaven is blue (UN); Hell is red (Liberal). [1] The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


On January 21, 1948, he made one of his most enduring contributions to Quebec with the adoption of an official Flag of Quebec, the fleurdelysé, which replaced the Union Jack at the top of the Quebec Parliament Building. January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Flag of Quebec The flag of Quebec, called the Fleurdelisé, was adopted by the provincial government of Quebec, Canada, during the government of Maurice Duplessis. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 Union Jack is the commonly used name for the Union Flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... The Quebec Parliament Building at night The National Assembly of Quebec (French: Assemblée nationale du Québec) is the name for the legislative body of the province of Quebec, Canada which was defined in the Canadian constitution as the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (lassemblée législative de...


Death and Legacy

He died in office in Schefferville, Quebec, on September 7, 1959. Afterwards, Quebec society was caught in a very swift socio-cultural change away from his conservative, Church-oriented policies toward a highly secular, socially liberal welfare state. This was called the Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) and also went by simultaneously with the radical church reforms during and after the liberalizing Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), which highly influenced the previously very Catholic region of Quebec. Schefferville is a town in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... The Quiet Revolution (Révolution tranquille) was the 1960s period of rapid change in Quebec, Canada. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...


The Quebec born newspaper baron Conrad Black wrote a biography, Duplessis (ISBN 0-7710-1530-5), now out of print. Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour PC, OC, KCSG, (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec), is a British biographer, financier and former newspaper magnate. ...


The period of Duplessis's reign is often referred to in Quebec as "The Great Darkness"(La Grande Noirceur) due to his very conservative, rural and Church-oriented policies. Major changes occurred when the Liberals regained power in 1960 under Jean Lesage. Jean Lesage, PC, CC, CD (June 10, 1912 – December 12, 1980) was a lawyer and politician in Quebec, Canada. ...


Elections as party leader

He won the 1936 election, lost the 1939 election, won the 1944 election, 1948 election, 1952 election, and 1956 election and died in office in 1959. In the Quebec general election on August 17, 1936, the Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis defeated the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Adélard Godbout. ... The Quebec general election of 1939 was held on October 25, 1939 to elect members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec, Canada. ... In the Quebec general election on August 8, 1944, the Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis defeated the incumbent Quebec Liberal Party under Adélard Godbout. ... In the Quebec general election on July 28, 1948, the incumbent Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis won re-election, defeating the Quebec Liberal Party under Adélard Godbout. ... In the Quebec general election on July 16, 1952, the incumbent Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis won re-election, defeating the Quebec Liberal Party under Georges-Émile Lapalme. ... In the Quebec general election on June 20, 1956, the incumbent Union Nationale under Maurice Duplessis won re-election, defeating the Quebec Liberal Party under Georges-Émile Lapalme. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most of his surviving relatives have not handed down the "Duplessis" name to their children, although one of his nieces, Berthe Brunet-Dufresne, has taken it upon herself to rehabilitate her uncle.


See also

This is an article about the government and politics of Quebec, Canada. ... This is a list of Quebec general elections since Canadian confederation in 1867, when Quebec was created as one of the Canadas provinces. ... This article presents a detailed timeline of Quebec history both as part of the British Empire and the Dominion of Canada. ... A peculiar custom of Quebecers is to give nicknames to their politicians (and some personalities), quite especially their Premiers. ... The Duplessis Orphans (French: les Orphelins de Duplessis) refers to a scandal where several thousand orphaned children were falsely certified as mentally ill by the government of the province of Quebec, Canada and confined to psychiatric institutions. ... In Quebec, on March 24, 1937, the Union Nationale government of Maurice Duplessis passed the Padlock Law, which permitted closing any premises suspected of producing or distributing communist propaganda. ...

External links

Reference works

  • Conrad Black, Duplessis, ISBN 0-7710-1530-5, McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, 1977.
  • Jacques Rouillard, Le syndicalisme quebecois, Boreal, Montreal, 2004
  • CSN-CSQ, Histoire du mouvement ouvrier au Quebec, 2001
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Maurice Duplessis
Preceded by
Adélard Godbout
Premier of Quebec
1936-1939
Succeeded by
Adélard Godbout
Preceded by
Adélard Godbout
Premier of Quebec
1944-1959
Succeeded by
Paul Sauvé
Preceded by
Camillien Houde
Leader of the Quebec Conservative Party
1933-1936*
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
none
Leader of the Union Nationale
1935-1959
Succeeded by
Paul Sauvé
Preceded by
Charles Ernest Gault
Leader of the Opposition in Quebec
1932-1936
Succeeded by
Télesphore-Damien Bouchard
Preceded by
Télesphore-Damien Bouchard
Leader of the Opposition in Quebec
1939-1944
Succeeded by
Adélard Godbout

*The Union Nationale was founded as an alliance in 1935 with Duplessis as leader. In 1936 the UN formally became a unitary political party with the Quebec Conservative Party dissolving into it Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour PC, OC, KCSG, (born 25 August 1944, in Montreal, Quebec), is a British biographer, financier and former newspaper magnate. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Joseph-Adélard Godbout (24 September 1892 – 18 September 1956) was an agronomist and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... This is a list of the Premiers of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Joseph-Adélard Godbout (24 September 1892 – 18 September 1956) was an agronomist and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... Joseph-Adélard Godbout (24 September 1892 – 18 September 1956) was an agronomist and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... This is a list of the Premiers of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Paul Sauvé. Joseph-Mignault-Paul Sauvé (March 24, 1907 – January 2, 1960) was a Quebec politician. ... Camillien Houde on the cover of Time Magazine, August 5, 1946. ... The Parti conservateur du Québec (in English: Conservative Party of Quebec) was a political party in Quebec, Canada. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Union Nationale was a political party in Quebec, Canada, that identified with conservative French-Canadian nationalism. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Paul Sauvé. Joseph-Mignault-Paul Sauvé (March 24, 1907 – January 2, 1960) was a Quebec politician. ... Charles Ernest Gault (September 19, 1861 _ December 25, 1946) served as Conservative leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1931 to 1932, after Conservative leader Camillien Houde lost the 1931 Quebec election and also failed to win a seat. ... This is a list of the leaders of the Opposition of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Télesphore-Damien Bouchard (December 20, 1881 - November 13, 1962) was a politician in Quebec, Canada. ... Télesphore-Damien Bouchard (December 20, 1881 - November 13, 1962) was a politician in Quebec, Canada. ... This is a list of the leaders of the Opposition of Quebec, Canada since Confederation (1867). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Joseph-Adélard Godbout (24 September 1892 – 18 September 1956) was an agronomist and politician in Quebec, Canada. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Maurice Duplessis (1890-1959) - Quebec History - Histoire du Québec (0 words)
First elected to the Quebec House of Assembly in 1927, Duplessis became the leader of the Conservative Party of Quebec in 1933; his party joined forces with Paul Gouin's Action libérale nationale in 1935 to form the Union Nationale party which was successful at the polls in 1936.
Prime Minister of Quebec in a period of widespread centralization, in the war and post-war periods, Duplessis became the most important proponent of provincial autonomy.
Such harsh judgments have been nuanced by the more recent research and writing on Duplessis; some praise the stability of the province and its economic performance under his rule; others increasingly recognized him as having initiated the modernisation of Quebec.
Duplessis, Maurice Le Noblet (772 words)
Duplessis, Maurice Le Noblet, prime minister and attorney general of Québec 1936-39 and 1944-59 (b at Trois-Rivières, Qué 20 Apr 1890; d at Schefferville, Qué 7 Sept 1959).
Duplessis himself lived riotously (he was a lusty and somewhat alcoholic bachelor in these times, and never did marry), and he blundered disastrously in September 1939 by calling a snap election on the issue of participation in the war effort.
Maurice Duplessis was an enigmatic and picturesque character, the public demagogue at some variance with his urbane, elegant and witty private personality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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