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Encyclopedia > Maulana Azad

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in India's struggle for Independence from Britain. He had an illustrious career being a journalist, a cabinet minister in Free India's government and posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honor Bharat Ratna.


Early years

He was born in Mecca. His forefathers came from Herat, Afghanistan in Babar's days. Azad was a descendent of a lineage of learned Muslim scholars, or maulanas. His father was Maulana Khairuddin and his mother was the daughter of Sheikh Mohammad Zaher Watri. In 1890, Azad's father moved to Calcutta. Educated according to the traditional curriculum, Azad learned Arabic and Persian first and then philosophy, geometry, mathematics and algebra. He was taught at home, first by his father, later by appointed teachers who were eminent in their respective fields. Seeing that English was fast becoming the international language, Azad taught himself to read, write and speak the language. He adopted the pen name "Azad" to signify his freedom from traditional Muslim ways.

Freedom Struggle

Azad was introduced to the freedom struggle by revolutionary Shri Shyam Sunder Chakravarthy. Most revolutionaries in Bengal were Hindus. Azad greatly surprised his fellow Hindu revolutionaries with his willingness to join the freedom struggle. At first his peers were skeptical of his intentions. Azad found the revolutionary activities restricted to Bengal and Bihar. Within two years, Azad helped setup secret revolutionary centers all over north India and Bombay.

Most revolutionaries were anti-Muslim because they felt that the British Government was using the Muslim community against India's freedom struggle. Azad tried to convince his colleagues that indifference and hostility toward the Muslims would only make the path to freedom more difficult.

Azad began publication of a journal called Al Hilal (the Crescent) in June 1912 to increase revolutionary recruits amongst the Muslims. The Al Hilal reached a circulation of 26,000 in two years. The British Government used the Press Act and then the Defense of India Regulations Act in 1916 to shut the journal down. Azad roused the Muslim community through the Khilafat Movement. The aim of the movement was to re-instate the Khalifa as the head of British captured Turkey.

Non-Cooperation movement

He supported Gandhiji's Non-Cooperation Movement and joined the Indian National Congress (I.N.C) in January 1920. He presided over the special session of Congress in September 1923 and is said to be at the age of 35, the youngest man elected as the President of the Congress. He was arrested in 1930 for violation of the salt laws as part of Gandhhiji's Salt Satyagraha. He was put in Meerut jail for a year and a half.

Maulana Azad was the staunchest opponent of partition of India into India and Pakistan. He supported a confederation of autonomous provinces with their own constitutions but common defense and economy, an arrangement suggested in the British Cabinet Mission Plan of May 1946. According to Azad partition was against the grain of the Indian culture which did not believe in "divorce before marriage." Partition shattered his dream of a unified nation where the Hindu and Muslim faiths would learn to co-exist in harmony.

Post Independence

Maulana Azad served as the Minister of Education in Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet from 1947 to 1958. He was honored with the Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1992.

  Results from FactBites:
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5038 words)
Azad was one of the main organizers of the Dharasana Satyagraha in 1931, and would emerge as one of the most important national leaders of the time, prominently leading the causes of Hindu-Muslim unity as well as espousing secularism and socialism.
Azad initially evoked surprise and suspicion from other revolutionaries, who were skeptical of Muslim commitment to their cause, but Azad won their praise and confidence by working secretly to organize revolutionaries activities and meetings in Bengal, Bihar as well as in the western port city of Mumbai (then Bombay).
Azad's persuasion was instrumental in obtaining the approval of Muslim representatives to end the communal electorates, and was a forceful advocate of enshrining the principle of secularism, religious freedom and equality for all Indians.
 Articles - ... (4681 words)
Maulana Azad not only reminded the Muslims of their duty concerning the revival of Islam, he also took the initiative in 1913 to practically launch a movement on the basis of bai´yah - by organizing an Islamic party, the Hizbullah.
Maulana Maududi´s virtual indifference to the spiritual side of Islam meant that this vital element was conspicuously low in his movement from the beginning, and, in our opinion, it was this very shortcoming which later proved instrumental in the degeneration of the Jama´at from an ideal Islamic revivalist movement to a mere political party.
However, since Maulana Maududi himself was inclined towards the system of bai´yah, this contradiction in the Jama´at´s organizational structure led to a continuos tension for a period of 15 years, ultimately erupting in the crisis of 1956-57 and causing a great deal of damage to the whole movement.
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