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Encyclopedia > Matterhorn
Cervino - Matterhorn

The Matterhorn, seen from the Gornergrat railway
Elevation 4,478 metres (14,692 ft)
Location Flag of Italy Italy / Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
Range Pennine Alps
Prominence 1,029 m (3,376 ft)[1]
Coordinates 45°58′35″N 7°39′30″E / 45.97639, 7.65833Coordinates: 45°58′35″N 7°39′30″E / 45.97639, 7.65833
First ascent 14 July 1865 by Edward Whymper and party
Easiest route Hörnli ridge (AD, rock/mixed climb)

The Matterhorn (German) or Cervino (Italian), (French: Mont Cervin or Le Cervin) is perhaps the most familiar mountain in the European Alps. On the border between Switzerland and Italy, it towers over the Swiss village of Zermatt and the Italian village Breuil-Cervinia in the Val Tournanche. The mountain derives its name from the German words Matte, meaning meadow, and Horn, which means peak.[2] A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... The Pennine Alps (also: Valais Alps) are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps. ... In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Edward Whymper, 1881 Edward Whymper (April 27, 1840–September 16, 1911), was a British climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... Alp redirects here. ... In June, the Matterhorn is still snow-covered, while it is spring in Zermatt below. ... Breuil-Cervinia (Valdôtain (Valdoten): Breuil) is a renowned high mountain alpine resort in the Valle dAosta autonomous region of Italy. ...


The Matterhorn has four faces, facing the four compass points, the north face overlooking the Zmutt Valley, the south face Breuil-Cervinia, the east and west faces looking towards the Gornergrat and the Dent d'Hérens, respectively, with the north and south faces meeting to form a short east-west summit ridge. The faces are steep, and only small patches of snow and ice cling to them; regular avalanches send the snow down to accumulate on the glaciers at the base of each face. The Hörnli ridge of the northeast (in the center of the view from Zermatt) is the usual climbing route. Zmutt Valley with Mischabelhörner group, 1890s photochrom postcard. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Gornergrat is a ridge of the Pennine Alps, overlooking the Gorner Glacier to the south. ... The Dent dHérens (4,171 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps of Italy and Switzerland. ... The toe of an avalanche in Alaskas Kenai Fjords. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Southern and northern Mount Everest climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. ...

Contents

Climbing

The Matterhorn was climbed later than most of the main mountains of the Alps, not because of its technical difficulty, but because of the fear it inspired in early mountaineers. The first serious attempts began around 1857, mostly from the Italian side; but despite appearances, the southern routes are harder, and parties repeatedly found themselves on difficult rock and had to turn back. Alp redirects here. ... An open crevasse. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


It was not until 14 July 1865, after several failed attempts and nationalistically motivated backstabbing, that the party of Edward Whymper, Charles Hudson, Lord Francis Douglas, and Douglas Robert Hadow was able to reach the summit, along with Michel Croz and the two Peter Taugwalders (father and son). The party tried the Hörnli route and found it considerably easier than expected. On the descent, Hadow slipped, knocking Croz off his feet, and dragging Hudson and Douglas with him. The rope connecting them to the other three men broke; the four fell to their deaths on the Matterhorn Glacier 1,400 metres (4,600 ft) below. The bodies of all but Douglas were later found, and are buried in the Zermatt churchyard. Whymper's ascent is considered to be the last of the golden age of alpinism. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Edward Whymper, 1881 Edward Whymper (April 27, 1840–September 16, 1911), was a British climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. ... The Golden age of alpinism was the period between Alfred Willss ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whympers ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major Alpine peaks saw their first ascents. ...

East face of the Matterhorn reflected in the Riffelsee lake
East face of the Matterhorn reflected in the Riffelsee lake
Matterhorn at Zermatt village.
Matterhorn at Zermatt village.

Three days later, on 17 July, a party led by Jean-Antoine Carrel reached the summit from the Italian side. Julius Elliott made the second ascent from the Zermatt side, in 1868, and in the same year John Tyndall traversed the summit, together with J. J. Maquinaz and J. P. Maquinaz. In 1871, Lucy Walker became the first woman to stand on top of the mountain, followed a few weeks later by her rival Meta Brevoort. Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 545 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 545 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Tyndall. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Lucy Walker (1836 – 1916), a British mountaineer, is credited as being the first woman to conquer the Matterhorn. ... Meta Brevoort (1825 – 1876) , an American mountain climber, spent her early years in a Paris convent school. ...


Today, all ridges and faces of the Matterhorn have been ascended in all seasons, and mountain guides take a large number of people up the Hörnli route each summer. By modern standards, the climb is fairly difficult (AD Difficulty rating), but not hard for skilled mountaineers. There are fixed ropes on parts of the route to help. Still, because of the scale of the climb and inherent dangers, inexperience, falling rocks, and overcrowded routes, several climbers die each year. The usual pattern is to take the Schwarzsee cable car up from Zermatt, hike up to the Hörnli-hütte (elev. 3,260 m/10,695 ft), a large stone building at the base of the main ridge, and spend the night. The next day the climber rises at 3:30 am, so as to reach the summit and descend before the regular afternoon clouds and storms come in. Austrian mountain guides Anselm Klotz (left) and Josef Frey (right), 19th century This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In mountaineering and related climbing sports, climbers give a climbing grade to a route that attempts to assess the difficulty and danger of climbing the route. ... The practice of fixing in place bolted ropes to assist climbers and walkers in exposed mountain locations. ...


Other routes on the mountain include the Italian ridge (D, first ascent by Jean-Antoine Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich on 17 July 1865), the Zmutt ridge (D, first ascent by Albert F. Mummery, Alex­ander Burgener, J. Petrus and A. Gentinetta on 3 September 1879) and the north face route, one of the six classic north faces in the Alps (TD+, first ascent by Franz and Toni Schmid on 31 July1 August 1931). is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Albert F. Mummery (1855-1895), was a highly respected British mountaineer. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The six great north faces of the Alps are known for their difficulty and great height. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A panorama of the Matterhorn (photo taken near the Gornergrat)
A panorama of the Matterhorn (photo taken near the Gornergrat)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Matterhorn ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Matterhorn ... This article is an overview of the term Panorama. ...

Cultural references

The Disneyland Matterhorn
The Disneyland Matterhorn

A miniature imitation of the Matterhorn featuring a bobsled ride is one of the attractions at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. Matterhorn Bobsleds opened in 1959 as the world's first tubular steel coaster, partially enclosed by a 1/100 scale replica (147 feet in height) of its namesake. Unlike the real Alpine peak, this artificial structure has waterfalls and various holes in its surface, though it still has the characteristic shape of the Matterhorn. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Matterhorn ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1680x1050, 266 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Matterhorn ... Historic bobteam from Davos around 1910 Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-02-04, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Disneyland is a theme park that is located at 1313 South Harbor Boulevard in Anaheim, California, USA. It opened on July 17, 1955. ... Anaheim redirects here. ... The Matterhorn Bobsleds or the Matterhorn is an attraction made up of two intertwining steel roller coasters at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The individual pieces of the chocolate bar Toblerone are claimed by its maker Kraft, to be formed in the likeness of the Matterhorn.[3] An opened Toblerone Toblerone (IPA pronunciation: ) is a chocolate bar made by Kraft Foods Switzerland. ...


In the 1957 Warner Brothers animated short Piker's Peak, Bugs Bunny and Yosemite Sam try to beat each other to the summit of the Schmatterhorn, towering high above a fictional Swiss village, with the winner receiving 50,000 cronkites. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Warner Bros. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... “”Piker’s Peak”” is a Warner Brothers Looney Tunes animated short directed by Isadore Freleng. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... For the shortwave radio station, see Yosemite Sam (shortwave). ...


The peak is featured prominently in the popular 1974 Japanese anime version of Heidi. This attracts thousands of Japanese tourists to the area every year.[4] Original run January 6, 1974 – December 29, 1974 Episodes 52 Heidi, Girl of the Alps ) was a very popular anime series released by the animation studio Zuiyo Eizo (which later became Nippon Animation) in 1974. ...


In an episode of the television show The Simpsons Homer Simpson climbs the highest mountain in Springfield known as the Murderhorn, an obvious play off the Matterhorn. Simpsons redirects here. ...


Other 'Matterhorns'

Many other prominent mountains around the world are nicknamed the 'Matterhorn' of their respective countries or mountain ranges.[5] Examples include:

  • The 'Mini Matterhorn' is the unofficial name of a 75-cm piece of Martian rock immediately east-southeast of the Mars Pathfinder lander. [1]

Ama Dablam is a mountain in the Himalaya range of eastern Nepal. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Mount Aspiring is in the South Island of New Zealand. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Mount Assiniboine, also known as Assiniboine Mountain, is a mountain located in eastern British Columbia, Canada. ... North American redirects here. ... The Old Man of Storr, Skye The Isle of Skye, usually known simply as Skye (Scottish Gaelic: An t-Eilean Sgiathanach) is the largest and most northerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. ... Cnicht is a hill in Snowdonia, known as the Matterhorn of Wales because of its appearance when viewed from the south-west. ... This article is about the country. ... Innerdalstårnet or Dalatårnet is a mountain in the municipality Sunndal in Norway, widely known as the Matterhorn of Norway for its characteristic pyramidal shape Innerdalstårnet seen from Innerdalen. ... Machapuchare or Machhaphuchhare is a mountain in the Annapurna Himal of north central Nepal. ... Roseberry Topping is a distinctive hill on the border between North Yorkshire and Cleveland, England, of which it has long been a symbol. ... A View of the North York Moors The North York Moors (also known as the North Yorkshire Moors) is a national park in North Yorkshire, England. ... For the general concept of Shivling, see Shivling. ... Mount Adams in Washington state The Cascade Range is a mountainous region famous for its chain of tall volcanos called the High Cascades that run north-south along the west coast of North America from British Columbia to the Shasta Cascade area of northern California. ... Spitzkoppe is a 1800 metres mountain and over 700 million years-old with a nickname of Matterhorn of Namibia. The peak of the mountain and the surrounding land is 700 metres and Little Spitzkoppe with a height of 1584 metres above sea level and the Pontok mountains. ... Mt. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Matterhorn Peak is a mountain in the U.S. state of California. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... The San Juan Mountains are a rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado. ... Parascotopetl, the Matterhorn of the Andes, is a fictitious mountain of Ecuador that appears in H. G. Wellss short story The Country of the Blind. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... The Country of Blind is a short story by H. G. Wells. ... Grey Friar is a fell is the English Lake District, it is one of the Coniston Fells and is situated 13 kilometres west-south-west of Ambleside. ... The panorama across Eskdale from Ill Crag. ...

See also

Part of the Haute Route; two alpinists can be seen following the trail in the snow. ... This is a list of mountains of the Alps, ordered by elevation. ...

References

  1. ^ Despite its prominence in a local sense, the Matterhorn is not among the top 100 mountains in the Alps measured by topographic prominence. This is because several of its close neighbors, including Monte Rosa, the Dom, Liskamm and the Weisshorn, have higher summits. To appreciate this, see a panoramic photograph of the view from Finsteraarhorn, to the north
  2. ^ Swiss Mountains - Names www.swissworld.org Retrieved 26 November 2007.
  3. ^ Toblerone - Shape & Name www.toblerone.com. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1562770.stm
  5. ^ http://www.cervintopmodel.com/news/jouty.html A list of 109 world 'Matterhorns' Retrieved 15 October 2007.
  • Charles Gos, Le Cervin (Attinger, 1948)
  • Edward Whymper, Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871)

In topography, prominence, also known as autonomous height, relative height or shoulder drop (in America) or prime factor (in Europe), is a concept used in the categorization of hills and mountains, also known as peaks. ... For other uses, see Monte Rosa, São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Dom is a 4545 m high mountain in the Mischabelhörner group of the Pennine Alps. ... Lyskamm is a mountain in the Alps laying on the border between Switzerland and Italy. ... Weisshorn is a mountain in the Swiss Alps, west of Zermatt and north of the Matterhorn. ... Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Oberland region of the Swiss Alps. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Whymper, 1881 Edward Whymper (April 27, 1840–September 16, 1911), was a British climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Virtual ascent of the Hörnli Ridge with 360 degree panoramas
  • Alpinist Magazine Mountain Profile - Issue 16
  • Matterhorn Webcams
  • Matterhorn on Summitpost
  • PeakWare info on Matterhorn
  • Matterhorn on 4000er.de
  • Walt Disney and Zermatt
  • Chronology of climbs - in German
  • Photo gallery dedicated to Matterhorn and surrounding nature (English)
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Matterhorn Project - MUH! and more (the "moo song") (400 words)
There are cows singing and bells tingling, yodelling and alpine horns, all supported by an infectious eigthies disco-beat and a slightly spaced-out sense of humour.
The first album of MATTERHORN PROJECT with the two top ten hits "MOO!" ("MUH!" in the original Swiss release) and "Yo-lollo-diuh" is back again.
matterhorn project is a registered trademark of hypermusic, switzerland.
Matterhorn Zermatt-Mountaineering in Switzerland-Panorama photo at 3280 m (316 words)
Matterhorn 4478 m high, is not the highest mountain in Switzerland but it is probably the most famous and most popular among climbers.
The first ascent of Matterhorn took place on July 14, 1865 by the British Edward Whymper, Lord Francis Douglas, Reverend Charles Hudson, Robert Hadow, Michel Croz and the two guides of Zermatt Peter Taugwalder father and son.
On the descent there was an accident where 4 of the 7 crew members died.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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