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Encyclopedia > Matter of Britain
History of Literature
The Medieval and Renaissance Periods
Matter of Rome
Matter of France
Matter of Britain
Matter of fact
Medieval literature
Arabic literature
13th century in literature
14th century in literature
European Renaissance Literature
15th century in literature
Series on
Celtic mythology
Coventina

Celtic polytheism
Celtic deities A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... A Matter of Fact, in the Humean sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of ones interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a Relation of Ideas). ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... See also: Pre 13th century in literature, other events of the 13th century, 14th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... See also: 13th century in literature, other events of the 14th century, 15th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance Renaissance literature is European literature over an extended period, usually considered to be initiated by Petrarch at the beginning of the Italian Renaissance, and sometimes taken to continue to the English Renaissance, including Shakespeare and into the seventeenth... See also: 14th century in literature, other events of the 15th century, 16th century in literature, list of years in literature. ... Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Image File history File links Hope-coventina01a. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ...

Ancient Celtic religion

Druids · Bards · Vates
British Iron Age religion
Celtic religious patterns
Gallo-Roman religion
Romano-British religion Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... The Bard (ca. ... Vates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the British Isles, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non-Romanised parts. ... This article is about the European people. ... Gallo-Roman religion was a fusion of Roman religious forms and modes of worship with Gaulish deities from Celtic polytheism. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...

British mythology

Welsh mythology
Breton mythology
Mabinogion · Taliesin
Cad Goddeu
Trioedd Ynys Prydein
Matter of Britain · King Arthur Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Breton mythology is the mythology or corpus of explanatory and herioc tales originating in Brittany, now in France. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Cad Goddeu (Welsh: The Battle of the Trees) is a sixth-century Welsh poem from the Book of Taliesin. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ...

Gaelic mythology

Irish mythology
Scottish mythology
Hebridean mythology
Tuatha Dé Danann
Mythological Cycle
Ulster Cycle
Fenian Cycle
Immrama · Echtrae The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... Scottish mythology consists of the myths and legends historically told by the people of Scotland. ... // Boy on white horse by Theodor Kittelsen. ... “Áes dána” redirects here. ... The Mythological Cycle is one of the four major cycles of Irish mythology, and is so called because it represents the remains of the pagan mythology of pre-Christian Ireland, although the gods and supernatural beings have been euhemerised by their Christian redactors into historical kings and heroes. ... The Ulster Cycle, formerly the Red Branch Cycle, is a large body of prose and verse centering around the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster. ... The Fenian Cycle also known as the Fionn Cycle, Finn Cycle, Fianna Cycle, Finnian Tales, Fian Tales, Féinne Cycle, Feinné Cycle, Ossianic Cycle and Fianaigecht, is a body of prose and verse centering on the exploits of the mythic hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his warriors the Fianna Éireann. ... An Immram (pl. ... An Echtra or Echtrae (pl. ...

See also

Celts · Gaul
Galatia · Celtiberians
Early history of Ireland
Prehistoric Scotland
Prehistoric Wales
This article is about the European people. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Botorrita: Bronze plate with inscription. ... Newgrange, a famous Irish passage tomb built c3,200 BC // What little is known of pre-Christian Ireland comes from a few references in Roman writings, Irish poetry and myth, and archaeology. ... Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex and dramatic past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 when the Roman army began a campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ...

Index of related articles
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The Matter of Britain or the Arthurian legend is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, especially those focused on King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. The 12th century French poet Jean Bodel created the name in the following lines of his epic Chanson de Saisnes: For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... In the legend of King Arthur, the Round Table was a mystical table in Camelot around which King Arthur and his knights sat to discuss matters crucial to the security of the realm. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Jean Bodel, who lived in the late twelfth century, was an Old French poet who wrote a number of chansons de geste. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ...

Ne sont que iii matières à nul homme atandant,
De France et de Bretaigne, et de Rome la grant.
(translation: "There are but 3 literary cycles that no one should be without: the matter of France, of Britain, and of great Rome". Jean Bodel, Chanson de Saisnes)

The name distinguishes and relates the Matter of Britain from the mythological themes taken from classical antiquity, the "matter of Rome", and the tales of the paladins of Charlemagne and their wars with the Moors and Saracens, which constituted the "matter of France". While Arthur is the chief subject of the Matter of Britain, other lesser-known legendary history of the British Isles, including the stories of Brutus of Britain, Old King Cole, King Lear, and Gogmagog, is also included in the subjects covered by the Matter of Britain: see King of the Britons. Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... A paladin or paladine (derivative terms from palatine, and Latin palatinus, plural palatini) is a certain high-level official found in numerous countries of medieval and early modern Europe. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... Leir was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... The tradition of Gog and Magog begins in the Hebrew Bible with the reference to Magog, son of Japheth, in the Book of Genesis and continues in cryptic prophecies in the Book of Ezekiel, which are echoed in the Book of Revelation and in the Quran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Themes and subjects

Legendary history of Britain

Artist Britton LaRoche. In Welsh legend, Arthur's sword is known as Caledfwlch.
Artist Britton LaRoche. In Welsh legend, Arthur's sword is known as Caledfwlch.

The legendary history of Britain was created in part to form a body of patriotic myth for the island. Several agendas appear in this body of literature. Image File history File links ExcaliburStone. ... Image File history File links ExcaliburStone. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Excalibur, as imagined in the poster art for the 1981 movie of the same name. ...


The Historia Britonum, the earliest known source of the story of Brutus of Britain, seems to have been devised to create a distinguished genealogy for a number of Welsh princes in the 9th century. Traditionally attributed to Nennius, its actual compiler is unknown; it exists in several recensions. This tale went on to achieve greater currency because its inventor linked Brutus to the diaspora of heroes that followed the Trojan War, and thus provided raw material which later mythographers such as Geoffrey of Monmouth, Michael Drayton, and John Milton could draw upon, linking the settlement of the British Isles to the heroic age of Greek literature, for their several and diverse literary purposes. As such, this material could be used for patriotic mythmaking just as Virgil linked the mythical founding of Rome to the Trojan War in The Æneid. Geoffrey of Monmouth also introduced the fanciful claim that the Trinovantes, reported by Tacitus as dwelling in the area of London, had a name he interpreted as Troi-novant, "New Troy". The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... This article is about the country. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... “Heroine” redirects here. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... The Heroic Age was the period of Greek mythological history that lay between the purely divine events of the Theogony and Titanomachy and the advent of historical time after the Trojan War. ... // Main article: Ancient Greek literature Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in Ancient Greek from the oldest surviving written works in the Greek language until the 4th century and the rise of the Byzantine Empire. ... Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), later called Virgilius, and known in English as Virgil or Vergil, was a classical Roman poet, the author of the Eclogues, the Georgics and the substantially completed Aeneid, the last being an epic poem of twelve books that became... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story... The Trinovantes or Trinobantes were one of the Celtic tribes that lived in pre-Roman Britain. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


More speculative claims link Celtic mythology with several of the rulers and incidents compiled by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniæ. It has been suggested, for instance, that Leir of Britain, who later became Shakespeare's King Lear, was originally the Irish sea-god Lir. Various Celtic deities have been identified with characters from Arthurian literature as well: Morgan le Fay was often thought to have originally been the Irish goddess Mórrígan. Many of these identifications come from the speculative comparative religion of the late 19th century, and have been questioned in more recent years. Template:Buttface mythology Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism annas hippo butt, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is based on the legend of King Lear, a legendary king of Britain, and is considered to be one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... In Celtic mythology, Lir (the sea) was the god of the sea, father of Manannan mac Lir, Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun and a son of Danu and Beli. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... Statue of Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture For the 1934 film, see, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... The Mórrígan (great queen) or Morrígan (terror or phantom queen) (aka Morrígu, Mórríghan, Mór-Ríogain) is a figure from Irish mythology widely considered to be a goddess or former goddess. ... The Major religious groups of the world. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


William Shakespeare seems to have been deeply interested in the legendary history of Britain, and to have been familiar with some of its more obscure byways. Shakespeare's plays contain several tales relating to these legendary kings, such as King Lear and Cymbeline. It has been suggested that Shakespeare's Welsh schoolmaster Thomas Jenkins introduced him to this material, and perhaps directed him to read Geoffrey of Monmouth. These tales also figure in Raphael Holinshed's The Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, which also appears in Shakespeare's sources for Macbeth. A Welsh schoolmaster appears as the character Sir Hugh Evans in The Merry Wives of Windsor. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... This article is about the country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Jenkins was the headmaster of the King Edward VI Grammar School in Stratford-upon-Avon in England starting in 1575. ... Raphael Holinshed (died c. ... Macbeth and Banquo meeting the witches on the heath by Théodore Chassériau. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff and is Shakespeares only play to deal exclusively with contemporary English life. ...


Other early authors also drew from the early Arthurian and pseudo-historical sources of the Matter of Britain. The Scots, for instance, formulated a mythical history in the Picts and the Dál Riata royal lines. While they do eventually become factual lines, unlike those of Geoffrey, their origins are vague and often incorporate both aspects of mythical British history and mythical Irish history. The story of Gabhran especially incorporates elements of both those histories. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority... The list of kings of the Picts is based on the Pictish Chronicle which survives in a late copy and did not record the dates the kings reigned. ... The following is a List of the Kings of Dál Riata. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Arthurian cycle

The Arthurian literary cycle is the best known part of the Matter of Britain. It has succeeded largely because it tells two interlocking stories that many later authors have been intrigued by. One concerns Camelot, usually envisioned as a doomed utopia of chivalric virtue, undone by the fatal flaws of Arthur and Sir Lancelot. The other concerns the quests of the various knights to achieve the Holy Grail; some succeed (Galahad, Percival), and others fail (Lancelot). Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... Gustave Doré’s illustration of Camelot from “Idylls of the King”, 1868 Camelot is the most famous fictional castle associated with the legendary King Arthur. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ... For historical artifacts associated with the cup of the Last Supper, see Holy Chalice. ... A portrait of Sir Galahad by George Frederick Watts. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation). ...


The medieval tale of Arthur and his knights is full of Christian themes; those themes involve the destruction of human plans for virtue by the moral failures of their characters, and the quest for an important Christian relic. Finally, the relationships between the characters invited treatment in the tradition of courtly love, such as Lancelot and Guinevere, or Tristan and Iseult. In more recent years, the trend has been to attempt to link the tales of King Arthur and his knights with Celtic mythology, usually in highly romanticized, early twentieth century reconstructed versions. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... Queen Guinevere, by William Morris Guinevere was the legendary queen consort of King Arthur. ... Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1863–1920). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Characters and subjects

Legendary kings and founders

Brutus of Troy, also of Britain (Welsh: Bryttys), was the legendary founding king of Britain and great grandson of Aeneas, according to Italy for the accidental killing of his natural father Silvius, Brutus liberated a group of Trojans living in slavery in Greece and led them forth, received a vision... Corineus, or Corin, eponymous founder of Cornwall, was descended from the heroes of the Trojan War, and was one of the companions of Brutus of Britain, and is spoken of in Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Leir was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is based on the legend of King Lear, a legendary king of Britain, and is considered to be one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli. ... Caradocus (middle Welsh: Karadawc) was titular king of the Britons in the absence of Emperor Magnus Maximus, who had left to campaign in Gaul according to Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus (incorrectly referred to in the Historia Regum Britanniae as Aurelius Ambrosius ) was a leader of the Romano-British, who won important battles against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas and to the legends preserved in the Historia Britonum. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon ( 633–682, reigned from 655) (Latin: Catuvelladurus; English: Cadwallader), also known as Cadwaladr Fendigaid (the Blessed) was a king of Gwynedd. ...

Arthur and his entourage

A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... In the legend of King Arthur, the Round Table was a mystical table in Camelot around which King Arthur and his knights sat to discuss matters crucial to the security of the realm. ... Queen Guinevere, by William Morris Guinevere was the legendary queen consort of King Arthur. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... Gustave Doré’s illustration of Camelot from “Idylls of the King”, 1868 Camelot is the most famous fictional castle associated with the legendary King Arthur. ... Mordred or Modred (Welsh: Medrawd, Latin: Medraut) is a character in the Arthurian legend, known as a notorious traitor who fought King Arthur at the Battle of Camlann, where he was killed and Arthur fatally wounded. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Sir Edward Burne-Jones Avalon (probably from the Celtic word abal: apple; see Etymology below) is a legendary island somewhere in the British Isles, famous for its beautiful apples. ...

Knights of the Round Table

For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation). ... A portrait of Sir Galahad by George Frederick Watts. ... Tristan and Iseult as depicted by Herbert Draper (1864 -1920). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... Geraint, with his wife Enid, from The Idylls of the King Geraint is a character from Welsh folklore and Arthurian legend, a king of Dumnonia and a valiant warrior. ... Sir Gareth was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian Legend. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... Sir Lamorak was the son of King Pellinore and the brother of Sir Tor, Sir Aglovale, Sir Dornar, Sir Percival, and Dindrane. ... Gaheris is a figure of Arthurian legend, a knight of the Round Table, and a son of Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... Sir Agravain or Sir Agravaine was a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Sir Sagramore is a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. ...

Other important figures

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... Sir Ector (sometimes Hector, Antor, or Ectorius) is the father of Sir Kay and the foster father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ... In an Arthurian legend, the Lady of the Lake gave King Arthur the sword known as Excalibur. ...

Noteworthy authors

Medieval

Béroul is a juggler and storyteller of trade (trouvere) Norman of XIIe century. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... Geoffrey Chaucer (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Portrait of Hartmann von Aue from the Codex Manesse (folio 184v). ... Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ... Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts Bouron, Beron) was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries, originally from the village of Boron, in the arrondissement of Montbéliard. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Thomas of Britain is an Anglo-Norman poet of the 12th century. ... Wace (c. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ...

Modern

René Barjavel (January 24, 1911 - November 24, 1985) was a French author, journalist and critic who supposedly was the first to think of the Grandfather paradox. ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was a prolific author of largely feminist fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, and a steadfast encourager of equality (and quality) in writing. ... Gillian Marucha Bradshaw (born May 14, 1956) is an American writer of historical fiction, childrens literature, science fiction and contemporary novels with a strong scientific background who lives in Britain. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... Drayton, 1628 Michael Drayton (1563 – December 23, 1631) was an English poet who came to prominence in the Elizabethan era. ... Harold Rudolph Foster (August 18, 1892 in Halifax, Nova Scotia - July 25, 1982) created the comic Prince Valiant. ... Parke Godwin is an author, known for his popular reinterpretations of the Robin Hood and King Arthur legends. ... Raphael Holinshed (died c. ... David Jones CH (November 1, 1895-1974) was both an artist and one of the most important first generation British modernist poets. ... authors historical fiction fantasy fiction Arthurian literature Debra A. Kemp (born 7 March, 1957) is an author born and raised in Highland, IN. She now lives near Indianapolis with her husband. ... Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... Rosalind Miles was born and raised in England and now lives in both Los Angeles & Kent, England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Ernst Steinbeck (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was one of the best-known and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. ... Mary Stewart (born 12 September 1916 in Sunderland, County Durham) is a popular English novelist, best known for her trilogy about Merlin, which straddles the boundary between the historical novel and the fantasy genre. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, writer, and lecturer. ... Charles White (born January 22, 1958 in Los Angeles) went to San Fernando, CA High School. ... Thomas Archibald (T.A.) Barron (born March 26, 1952 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an American writer of young adult and fantasy literature. ... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 – January 17, 1964) was an English writer, born in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. ... Jack Whyte (Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1939) is an author and writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in Canada since 1967. ... Charles Walter Stansby Williams (September 20, 1886 – May 15, 1945), was a British writer and poet, and a member of the loose literary circle called the Inklings. ... Elizabeth E. Wein (pronounced WEEN) is an American author (but a resident of Scotland) of historical fiction for young adults. ...

Anonymous

The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ... The Prose Tristan is an adaptation of the Tristan and Iseult story into a long prose romance, and the first to tie the subject entirely into the arc of the Arthurian legend. ...

See also

Look up mystery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For historical artifacts associated with the cup of the Last Supper, see Holy Chalice. ... The Mists of Avalon is a 1979 novel by Marion Zimmer Bradley, in which she relates the Arthurian legends from the perspective of the female characters. ... Corineus, or Corin, eponymous founder of Cornwall, was descended from the heroes of the Trojan War, and was one of the companions of Brutus of Britain, and is spoken of in Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... Glastonbury is a small town in Somerset, England, situated at a dry spot on the Somerset Levels, 50km (31 miles) south of Bristol. ... In the Battle of Mount Badon (Latin Mons Badonicus, Welsh Mynydd Baddon) Romano-British and Celts inflicted a severe defeat on an invading Anglo-Saxon army sometime in the decade before or after 500. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is an English epic poem by Edmund Spenser, published first in three books in 1590, and later in six books in 1596. ... Knights of the Round Table were those men awarded the highest order of Chivalry at the Court of King Arthur in the literary cycle the Matter of Britain. ... The Arthurian legend featured many characters, whose names often differed from version to version, and language to language. ... The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... There is considerable debate among historians about the historical basis of King Arthur. ... English historians in the Middle Ages is an overview of the history of English historians and their works in the Middle Ages. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

References

  • Derek Pearsall, Arthurian Romance: a short introduction, Blackwell, Oxford, 2005
  • D. H. Green, The Beginnings of Medieval Romance: Fact and fiction, 1150-1220, CUP Cambridge 2005
  • Carol Dover (ed), A Companion to the Lancelot-Grail Cycle, Boydell & Brewer, 2005

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