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Encyclopedia > Matriarchy

Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community.[1] Some authors consider it as a hypothetical form of human society. There exist many matriarchal animal societies including bees, lions, elephants, and killer whales. The word matriarchy is coined as the opposite of patriarchy, from Greek matēr "mother" and archein "to rule". Gynecocracy (γυναικοκρατία), is sometimes used synonymously. For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Mom and Mommy redirect here. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae. ... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca (Orcinus orca), also known as the Killer Whale or Grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


Most modern anthropologists and sociologists assert that there are no known examples of human matriarchies from any point in history,[2][3][4][5][6][7] and Encyclopedia Britannica describes their views as "consensus", listing matriarchy as a "hypothetical social system.[8] Some examples of matrifocal societies, however, are known to exist. The Britannica article goes on to note, "The view of matriarchy as constituting a stage of cultural development is now generally discredited. Furthermore, the consensus among modern anthropologists and sociologists is that a strictly matriarchal society never existed."[9] For more information see the appendix Patriarchies in dispute. Hypotheticals are situations, statements or questions about imaginary rather than real things. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


There is also dispute about matrifocality (see Matriarchy vs. matrifocality). Matriarchy is defined by some as distinct from matrilocality, which some anthropologists use to describe societies where the maternal side of the family manages domestic relations, owing to the husband joining the wife's family, rather than the wife moving to the husband's village or tribe. If, additionally, family property passes down the maternal line (matrilineality), the wife is effectively supported by her extended family, especially her brothers, these maternal uncles serving children of the couple as "social fathers", while the husbands tend to be more isolated. Matrilocality is a term used in social anthropology. ... See Anthropology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


While there are many existing matrilinear and matrilocal societies, such as those of the Minangkabau or Mosuo, no matriarchal societies are known in historical sources, and hypothetical prehistoric matriarchy has been discredited. However, strongly matrilocal societies are sometimes refered to as matrifocal, and there is still some debate concerning the terminological delineation of matrifocality from matriarchy. Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ...

Contents

Matriarchal social organization in non-human animals

There are many animal societies that are matriarchal, these are not limited to, but include:

For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison in winter. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The orca (Orcinus orca), commonly known as the killer whale, and sometimes called the grampus, is the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae. ... Binomial name (Erxleben, 1777) Spotted Hyena range The Spotted Hyena, or Laughing Hyena, (Crocuta crocuta) is a mammal of the order Carnivora. ... Binomial name Rüppell, 1842 Distribution of the Naked Mole Rat The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), also known as the sand puppy, or desert mole rat, is a burrowing rodent native to parts of East Africa and the only species currently classified in genus Heterocephalus. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ...

History of the concept in relation to humans

The notion of prehistoric matriarchy and of its replacement by patriarchy can be linked to the historical "inevitabilities" which the nineteenth century's concept of progress through cultural evolution introduced into anthropology.[citation needed] Friedrich Engels, among others, formed the notion that some primitive peoples did not grasp the link between sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Research indicated that sexual intercourse occurred from early ages and pregnancy only occurred much later, seemingly unrelated to the sexual activity. He proposed that they had no clear notion of paternity, according to this hypothesis; women produced children mysteriously, without necessary links to the man or men with whom they had sex. When realization of paternity was discovered, according to the hypothesis, men acted to claim a power to monopolize women and claim their offspring as possessions. For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cultural evolution is the structural change of a society and its values over time. ... This article is about the social science. ... Engels redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Paternity is the social and legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Records of these belief systems were the result of errors in early ethnographic techniques, which in return were the result of unsophisticated methods of field work. Some respondents in cultures studied denied the concept of paternity and discussed culturally determined religious concepts, myths, and legends about the origin of children. In other cultures, when strangers arrived and start asking where babies come from, the urge to respond imaginatively was hard to resist, as Margaret Mead discovered in Samoa. Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Field work is a general descriptive term for the collection of raw data in the natural and social sciences, such as archaeology, biology, ecology, environmental science, geology,geography geophysics, paleontology, anthropology, linguistics, and sociology. ... For other uses, see Imagination (disambiguation). ... Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901, Philadelphia – November 15, 1978, New York City) was an American cultural anthropologist. ...


In fact, while prior to the relatively recent discovery of egg cells and genetics there have been many different explanations of the mechanics of pregnancy and the relative contributions of either sex, no human group studied after the late nineteenth century, however primitive, has been found to be unaware of the link between intercourse and pregnancy in humans. For the video-related acronym, see OVA. A human ovum An ovum (or loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


There were, however, concepts of parthenogenesis among some animals and deities in the earliest of human records that persisted for thousands of years in the writings of Ancient Egypt and other early historical cultures. Even more interestingly, there also were myths and legends that asserted that males had given birth among both deities and humans in some early historical cultures. For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...


The fact that each child has a single father has come more recently, however; by 400 B.C. classical Greek and Roman writers thought that the seed of two men might both contribute to the character of the child.


By the time these ethnographic records were corrected in anthropology, however, the idea that a pan-cultural matriarchy had once existed had been integrated into theories of comparative religion and archaeology, and was used as the basis of new hypotheses that were unrelated to the professed ignorance of primitive people about paternity. The Major religious groups of the world. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


Archaeological hypotheses

Whether matriarchal societies might have existed at some time before historical records is unknown, and opinions about this remain controversial.


The controversy began in reaction to the book by Johann Jakob Bachofen Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World in 1861. Several generations of ethnologists were inspired by his pseudo-evolutionary theory of archaic matriarchy. Following him and Jane Ellen Harrison, several generations of scholars, usually arguing from known myths or oral traditions and examination of Neolithic female cult-figures, suggested that many ancient societies might have been matriarchal, or even, that there existed a wide-ranging matriarchal society prior to the ancient cultures of which we are aware. The Swiss Johann Jakob Bachofen (1815–1887), is most often connected with his theory of matriarchy, or Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book This presented a radically new view of the role of women in a broad range of ancient societies. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ...


This was reinforced further by the publication of The White Goddess by Robert Graves and his later analysis of classical Greek mythology and the vestiges of earlier myths that had been rewritten after a profound change in the religion of Greek civilization that occurred within very early historical times. The author and poet Robert Graves study of the nature of poetic myth-making, The White Goddess, first published in 1948, and revised, amended and enlarged in 1966, represents a tangential approach to the study of mythology from a decidedly idiosyncratic perspective. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...


From the 1950s, Marija Gimbutas developed a theory of an Old European culture in neolithic Europe which had matriarchal traits, replaced by the patriarchal system of the Proto-Indo-Europeans with the spread of Indo-European languages beginning in the Bronze Age. Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... Some archaeologists and ethnographers use the term Old Europe to characterize the autochthonous (aboriginal) peoples who were living in Neolithic southeastern Europe before the immigration of Indo-European peoples (for this reason also called Pre-Indo-European). ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


From the 1970s these ideas were taken up by second-wave feminism and, expanded with the speculations of Margaret Murray on witchcraft, by the Goddess movement, feminist Wicca, as well as (Elizabeth Gould Davis, Riane Eisler, and Merlin Stone). Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the early 1960s and lasted through the late 1980s. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Witch redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dianic Wicca, also known as Womens Spirituality, Feminist Spirituality, Feminist Witchcraft, and Feminist Wicca. ... Elizabeth Gould Davis (1910 - 1974) was an American librarian who wrote a contentious book called The First Sex. ... Riane Eisler is an Austrian born American scholar, writer, and social activist. ... Merlin Stone is a sculptor and professor of art and art history who became interested, in adulthood, in archaeology and ancient religions from her study of ancient art. ...


The concept of a matriarchal golden age in the Neolithic has been denounced as feminist wishful thinking in The Inevitability of Patriarchy, Why Men Rule, more recently by Philip G. Davis (Goddess Unmasked, 1998, and Cynthia Eller, professor at Montclair State University The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory, 2000. According to Eller, Gimbutas had a large part in constructing a myth of historical matriarchy by examining Eastern Europe cultures that she asserts, by and large, never really bore any resemblance in character to the alleged universal matriarchal suggested by Gimbutas and Graves. She asserts that in "actually documented primitive societies" of recent times, paternity is never ignored and that the sacred status of goddesses does not automatically increase female social status, and believes that this affirms that utopian matriarchy is simply an inversion of antifeminism. The unscientific feminist scenarios of neolithic matriarchy have been called into question and are not emphasized in third-wave feminism. The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... Third-wave feminism is a term identified with several diverse strains of feminist activity and study beginning in the early 1990s. ...


The original evidence recognized by Gimbutas, however, of neolithic societies being more egalitarian than the Bronze Age Indo-European and Semitic patriarchies remains valid. Del Giorgio in The Oldest Europeans (2006) insists in on a matrifocal, matrilocal, matrilineal Paleolithic society. The records of the earliest human writings in Ancient Egypt support the concept that prior to that time, egalitarian social organization existed in other locations as well. Ancient Egyptian women held property, positions of power in the religious and social organization, were able to divorce, and Ancient Egyptian lineage was traced along the maternal lines. Some of their traditions seem to have roots in the paleolithic culture that proceeded their historically documented records. Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ...


Matriarchy versus matrifocality

Due to a lack of any clear and consistent definition of the word matriarchy the term matrifocality has began to be preferred by several anthropologists. They use the new term to refer to societies with focus on women and especially mothers although not necessarily being dominated by women or mothers.[10] Anthropologist R. L. Smith (2002) refers to 'matrifocality' as the kinship structure of a social system where the mothers assume structural prominence.[10] The Nair community in Kerala in South India is a prime example of matrifocality. This can be attributed to the fact that the community being warriors by profession, were bound to lose male members at youth, leading to a situation where the females assumed the role of running the family. Some consider the use of the term a euphemism, lacking a parallel to patriarchy, which is not redefined in the same fashion. This article is about a Hindu caste. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ...


The Wemale culture of western Seram, studied by A. E. Jensen during the Frobenius Institute expedition of 1938, often is indicated as an example of matriarchy. See: Karl Kerenyi noted in passing (introduction to Eleusis : Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter 1967, p. xxxii). On the other hand, anthropologist Donald Brown's list of "human universals" (i.e. features shared by all current human societies) includes men being the "dominant element" in public political affairs (Brown 1991, p. 137), which he asserts is the contemporary opinion of mainstream anthropology. Feminist Joan Bamberger argues that the historical record contains no reliable evidence of any society in which women dominated (Bamberger 1974), although there are many known matrilineal societies. Seram (formerly Ceram, also called Seran or Serang) is an island in the Maluku province of Indonesia. ... Leo Frobenius (29 June 1873 - 9 August 1938) was an ethnologist and archaeologist and a major figure in German ethnography. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... This article concerns how a man differs from women. ... This article is about the social science. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


The Trobriand Islands were considered a matriarchy by anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski, however, Malinowski defined that matriarchy as the rule of a the family by the wife's male relatives, such as her brothers, rather than literal patriarchy (the rule of the family by its father); the dispute this view has engendered is discussed at that entry. The Trobriand Islands are a 170 mi² archipelago of coral atolls off the eastern coast of New Guinea. ... BronisÅ‚aw Kasper Malinowski (April 7, 1884 – May 16, 1942) was a Polish anthropologist widely considered to be one of the most important anthropologists of the twentieth century because of his pioneering work on ethnographic fieldwork, the study of reciprocity, and his detailed contribution to the study of Melanesia. ...


Peter N. Stearns and other historians have speculated as to whether or not agricultural Japan was a matriarchy prior to contact with patriarchal China (Stearns 2000, p. 51).


Anthropologist Peggy Reeves Sanday favors redefining and reintroducing the word matriarchy, especially in reference to modern, matrilineal societies such as the Minangkabau. This group lives in West Sumatra and numbers about four million; it is considered the largest and most stable matrilineal society in the modern world. Sanday argues that this society is a modern matriarchy defined, not in polar opposition to patriarchy, but on unique terms. Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ...


A clear and consistent definition has been given by Heide Goettner-Abendroth, who did cross-cultural research on all of the remaining contemporary matriarchal societies (in her major work on matriarchy). Her viewpoint is close to that of Sanday. One of her examples is the Mosuo people of Southwestern China. Furthermore, the Minicoy islanders also are considered to be one of the living matrilineal societies today. The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ... Minicoy Island (Maliku) Minicoy Island or Maliku is the second largest and the southern-most island of the Laccadive Archipelago north of the Maldives. ...


Regardless of these documented cultures, the existence of any true matriarchal societies (as opposed to matrilineal or matrifocal societies) remains controversial among scholars.


Some traditional matrifocal societies have been presented by scholars and indigenous speakers at two conferences. World Congresses on Matriarchal Studies The first one was held in 2003 in Luxembourg, Europe; it was sponsored by the Minister for Women's Affairs of Luxembourg, Marie-Josée Jacobs, and was organized and guided by Heide Goettner-Abendroth. The second one took place in 2005 in San Marcos, Texas, USA, it was sponsored by Genevieve Vaughan and again led by Heide Goettner-Abendroth.


Existing matrifocal cultures

  • The Bunts community in Mangalore and Udupi (South India) historically follow a matrilineal system. This system was common to many communities in coastal Karnataka and Kerala. It was called Aliya-Sanatana and as well Aliya Kattu. The Gotras or bari were passed from mother to children. In Aliya-Santana, inheritance is passed through the matrilineal family. The brother managed the land on behalf of his sister. His sister's son in turn would inherit the management of the matrilineal family land. There are many Bunt households, each with their own name. In addition, each matrilineal household had a surname associated with it, and the children would take their matrilineal family surname. Traditionally, a Bunt would put the name of his matrilineal household in front of his name and his matrilineal surname at the end.
  • The traditional Nair community in Kerala, South India fits the new definition of 'matrifocality'. (Nowadays this system is rarely practiced. The members of the Nair community now live in nuclear families). A traditional Nair matrifocal family is called a Tarawad or Marumakkathayam family. A traditional Nair Tarawad consists of a mother and her children living together with their mother's eldest surviving brother or the eldest surviving maternal uncle, who is called Karanavan. The Karnavan exercises full powers over the affairs of the family. Until recently, the main significance of this system was that the heirs to the property were the women in the family and the men were only allowed to enjoy the benefits during their lifetime, not being able to pass any property as a posession. The naming system of the Nair community had the prefix of their mother's 'family name' and they adopted the maternal uncle’s surname. The Marumakkathayam system of Kerala was a legal right which determined inheritance through the female line. Thus if a family property was to be partitioned all female members would receive one share and all male members who were their direct offspring would receive one share. Thus a brother might receive only one share while his sister and her children (and grandchildren by her daughters) would each receive a share. This traditional right was removed by the Kerala Joint Hindu Family System (Abolition) Act, 1975.
  • Mosuo people - Lugu Lake, bordering between Yunnan and Sichuan province, China
  • The people of Western Sahara (the former Spanish Sahara), occupied by Morocco retain semi-matriarchal customs [1]. See also Polisario Front
  • The people of the Bolama archipelago in Guinea-Bissau[2]
  • Guajiro tribes - inhabiting the Guajira Department in Colombia and the adjacent region in the Caribbean coast in Venezuela, South America, whose children are raised not by their father, but by their mother's brother (avunculism)

This article is about a Hindu caste. ... The geographical south of India includes all Indian territory below the 20th parallel. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Mosuo (also spelled Moso) (Chinese: 摩梭; pinyin: Mósuō) are a small ethnic group living in the Yunnan Province in China, south of Sichuan Province. ... Yunan redirects here. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Spanish Sahara was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was ruled by Spain, created from the Spanish territories of Rio de Oro and La Aguera in 1924. ... The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and [[Río de Oro]]) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the separation... Bolama is the closest of the Bijagós Islands to the mainland of Guinea-Bissau, and is also the name of the islands main town, the capital of the Bolama Region. ... La Guajira is a department of Colombia. ... West Indies redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Avunculism is custom in some societies where the mothers brothers are very important in the heritages or in childrens upbringing. ...

The meaning of matriarchy in classical works

Matriarchy was recognized by J. Bachofen ("Das Mutterrecht") and was deeply investigated by Lewis H. Morgan, LL. D. [11] Many researchers studied the phenomenon of matriarchy afterward, but the basis was laid by the classics of sociology. In their works Bachofen and Morgan used such terms and expressions as mother-right, female rule, gyneocracy, and female authority. All these terms meant the same: the rule by females (mother or wife). Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ...


The following excerpts from Morgan's "Ancient Society" will explain the use of the terms:


"In a work of vast research, Bachofen has collected and discussed the evidence of female authority, mother-right, and of female rule, gyneocracy."


"Common lands and joint tillage would lead to joint-tenant houses and communism in living; so that gyneocracy seems to require for its creation, descent in the female line. Women thus entrenched in large households, supplied from common stores, in which their own gens so largely predominated in numbers, would produce the phenomena of mother right and gyneocracy, which Bachofen has detected and traced with the aid of fragments of history and of tradition."


Although Bachofen and Morgan confined the "mother right" inside households, it was the basis of female influence upon the whole society. The classics never thought that gyneocracy could mean "female government" in polity. They were aware of the fact that sexual structure of government had no relation to domestic rule and to roles of both sexes.


Matriarchies in mythology

Another area where written myths are available from an early period is the Aegean culture-zone, where the Minoan Great Goddess was worshipped in a society where according to early historians, women and men were equals. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ...


A famous legendary gynecocracy related by classical Greek writers was the Amazon society, which was based on reports of the earlier Scythian and Sarmatian female status and female warriors. The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ...


Bamberger (1974) examines several matriarchal myths from South American cultures and concludes that, portraying the women from this matriarchal period as evil, often serves to restrain contemporary women.


Historian Ronald Hutton has argued that there is no necessary correlation between the worship of female deities and relative levels of social or legal egalitarianism, noting the late classical Greek and Roman religions, where goddesses play an important role. Hutton has also pointed out that in more recent European history, in 17th century Spain, there were many religious institutions staffed exclusively by women. Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europes greatest power. ...


Historical information often overlooked

[original research?]


Many of these discussions fail to take into account historical information that contradicts the negative perspective against records of historical matriarchies. Alexander the Great fled a confrontation with the queen of Kush, a matriarchy documented by the Egyptians. In 332 BC Alexander attempted to lead his army into Nubia. He was confronted with the brilliant military formation devised by their warrior queen, Candace of Meroë. She led her army in the opposition to his invasion from on top of a war elephant. He concluded it would be best to withdraw his forces and chose to enter Egypt instead.[12] The queens of Nubia were traditionally called the Candace and some put men they called their sons into a position as a king, but they were subject to the queen and could be directed to commit suicide for failing to fulfill their duties.[citation needed] Historians from other cultures often reported their personal name as Candace. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Candace of Meroe was the queen of Nubia at the time of the conquest of Alexander the Great. ...


More careful examination of historical records reveals similar descriptions by Roman historians about German tribes and Celts[citation needed]. The cultures encountered in the New World often were misunderstood and destroyed before being documented. The Dutch explorers of New Netherlands failed to negotiate for the lands they desired in what is now New Jersey because they insisted in discussions with the men, when women were the property holders who controlled where the people would reside in a seasonally changing use of several sites[citation needed]. Certainly more scientific and historical research needs to be conducted before the issues around this topic are resolved.


In Feminism

Austrian writer Bertha Diener, also known by her American pseudonym as Helen Diner 1874 - 1948 who wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), which was the first work to focus on women's cultural history. She is regarded as a classic of feminist Matriarchal study. [13] Her view is that in the past all human societies were matriarchal, then, at some point, most shifted to patriarchal and degenerated.


In popular culture

The idea of peaceful matriarchal civilizations being destroyed by patriarchal, nomadic barbarian invaders has lived on as a powerful literary trope. The Nazi ideology of a master race of Aryan patriarchal conquerors was based in part on Müller's hypothesis about conquering Aryans being the founders of what he described as '"the European race". A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The master race (German: die Herrenrasse,  ) is a concept in Nazi ideology, which holds that the Germanic and Nordic people represent an ideal and pure race. It derives from nineteenth century racial theory, which posited a hierarchy of races placing African Bushmen and Indigenous Australians at the bottom of the... Aryan (/eÉ™rjÉ™n/ or /ɑːrjÉ™n/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


More recent uses of the theme share essentially the same narrative. Mary Renault's historical novels about Greek mythology and history such as The King Must Die combine motifs of political conflict between goddess and god worshippers with The Golden Bough's hypothesis about dying and reviving gods. The patriarchal conquest of matriarchy motif is found in literally dozens of fantasy novels, from Marion Zimmer Bradley's historical revisions of Arthurian romance and the Trojan War to works such as Guy Gavriel Kay's A Song for Arbonne. Gender roles and the conflict of patriarch vs. matriarchy is a major theme in the Wheel of Time books by Robert Jordan. Mary Renault (pronounced Ren-olt[1]) (4 September 1905 – 13 December 1983) born Mary Challans, was an English writer best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. ... A historical novel a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (June 3, 1930 – September 25, 1999) was an American author of fantasy novels such as The Mists of Avalon and the Darkover series, often with a feminist outlook. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... This article is about a fantasy series. ... For other persons named Robert Jordan, see Robert Jordan (disambiguation). ...


In the StarCraft universe, the Dark Templar Tribes of Shakuras are ruled over by Matriarch Raszagal. Near the end of StarCraft: Brood War, she is killed, and names her Prelate, Zeratul (a male), the new leader of the Dark Templar, thus ending the Dark Templar matriarchy. “Starcraft” redirects here. ... StarCraft: Brood War is an expansion pack released in 1998 for StarCraft — an award winning real-time strategy computer game developed by Blizzard Entertainment. ... Look up prelate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The near future sci-fi trilogy by Kim Stanley Robinson features several matriarchal themes, including worshiping the mother earth and mars. The underground resistance centres round the matriarchal Hiroko Ai who secretly mothers the first generation of Martians using her DNA.


In the expanded universe of Star Wars, the women of Dathomir are portrayed as the ruling sex. Another matriarchy is the Hapan Consortium, a cluster of 63 planets, that are all ruled by the Queen Mother of Hapes. This article is about the series. ...


In the fantasy world of Forgotten Realms, the evil Drow race is a highly matriarchal society. The females rule drow societies—a gynocracy; males are merely servants and are regarded as pets. The same goes for the aptly-named gynocracy of Telchos in the Lone Wolf setting. It has been suggested that Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting be merged into this article or section. ... A Lone Wolf is a wolf that lives by itself rather than in a pack. ...


The webcomic Sinfest sometimes parodies The Matrix as "The Matriarchy." Webcomics, also known as online comics and internet comics, are comics that are available to read on the Internet. ... Sinfest is a webcomic written and drawn by Japanese-American comic strip artist Tatsuya Ishida. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ...


Dreamfall, a game by Funcom, features a Goddess worshipping Matriarchal people, the Azadi. Men are described as having less freedom than women, but are in no way regarded as pets. The Azadi, though very religious with a very strict code of honor, have taken to conquering other races. Though their intentions are good, their "the cause justifies the means" attitude and their discrimination against Magicals make them responsible for many horrible crimes, as well as good deeds. Dreamfall (Drømmefall: Den lengste reisen) is an action-adventure video game released for the Windows and Xbox platforms on April 17, 2006. ...


The Wicker Man, starring Nicolas Cage, takes place within a fictional matriarchy in the state of Washington. The society, Summersisle, is modeled after honeybee culture and behavior. This article is about the 2006 remake. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...


In the Warcraft Universe, the Night Elves lived in a highly matriarchal society, due to the fact that almost all men became druids and spent large amounts of their time in meditative slumber, leaving the women to protect them and serve their goddess. This has changed in the recent game World of Warcraft, with gender roles being abolished due to a dip in population[citation needed]. “The world of Warcraft” redirects here. ... ÔNight Elves are a fictional race of elves in Blizzard Entertainments Warcraft series of computer games. ... Female Night Elf Druid wearing Cenarion Raiment item set Druids in World of Warcraft are a hybrid class, able to transform into various forms to suit a variety of tasks. ... World of Warcraft (commonly abbreviated as WoW) is a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Blizzard Entertainment and is the fourth game in the Warcraft series, excluding expansion packs and the cancelled Warcraft Adventures: Lord of the Clans. ...


References

  1. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  2. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973).
  3. ^ Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280.
  4. ^ Robert Brown, Human Universals, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991.
  5. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993).
  6. ^ Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
  7. ^ Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11.
  8. ^ 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007."
  9. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  10. ^ a b Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  11. ^ L. Morgan, "Ancient Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization"
  12. ^ Jones, David E., Women Warriors: A History, Brasseys, Inc.; (2000)
  13. ^ Helen Diner Who wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), entry at the Brooklyn Museum Dinner Party database of notable women. Accessed March 2008
  1. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  2. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973).
  3. ^ Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280.
  4. ^ Robert Brown, Human Universals, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991.
  5. ^ Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993).
  6. ^ Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001).
  7. ^ Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11.
  8. ^ 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007."
  9. ^ 'Matriarchy', Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  10. ^ a b Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  11. ^ L. Morgan, "Ancient Society Or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization"
  12. ^ Jones, David E., Women Warriors: A History, Brasseys, Inc.; (2000)
  13. ^ Helen Diner Who wrote Mothers and Amazons (1930), entry at the Brooklyn Museum Dinner Party database of notable women. Accessed March 2008
  • Bamberger, Joan. (1974). '"The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society," in Woman, Culture, and Society, edited by Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, pp. 263-280. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.
  • Brown, Donald. (1991). Human Universals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press
  • Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette. (1914). Aboriginal Siberia, a study in social anthropology. Oxford. Clarendon press.
  • Davis, Philip, Goddess Unmasked, Spence Publishing, New York, 1998. ISBN 0-9653208-9-8; review: R. Sheaffer, Skeptical Inquirer (1999)[3]
  • del Giorgio, J.F. (2006). The Oldest Europeans. A.J.Place, ISBN 978-9806898004.
  • Eller, Cynthia (2001). The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future. ISBN 0-8070-6793-8
  • Finley, M.I. (1962). The World of Odysseus. London. Pelican Books.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1991). "The Language of the Goddess".
  • Goldberg, Steven (1993) Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance, rev. ed. ISBN 0-8126-9237-3
  • Hutton, Ronald (1993). The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles ISBN 0-631-18946-7
  • Lapatin, Kenneth (2002). Mysteries of the Snake Goddess: Art, Desire, and the Forging of History. ISBN 0-306-81328-9
  • Sanday, Peggy Reeves. (2004). Woman at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8906-7
  • Stearns, Peter N. (2000). Gender in World History. New York Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22310-5
  • Smith R.T. (2002) Matrifocality, in International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (eds) Smelser & Baltes, vol 14, pp 9416.
  • Yoshamya, Mitjel & Yoshamya, Zyelimer (2005). Gan-Veyan: Neo-Liburnic glossary, grammar, culture, genom. Old-Croatian Archidioms, Monograph I, p. 1 - 1224, Scientific society for Ethnogenesis studies, Zagreb.

The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Wont Give Women A Future[1] is a 2000 book by Cynthia Eller, a professor at Montclair State University. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Inevitability of Patriarchy is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by William Morrow and Company in 1973. ... Why Men Rule is a book by Steven Goldberg, published by the Open Court Publishing Company in 1993. ... The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Wont Give Women A Future[1] is a 2000 book by Cynthia Eller, a professor at Montclair State University. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Maria Antonina Czaplicka (sometimes referred to as Marie Antoinette Czaplicka, 1886-1921) was a cultural anthropologist who is best known for her ethnography of Siberian shamanism. ... The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Wont Give Women A Future[1] is a 2000 book by Cynthia Eller, a professor at Montclair State University. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

See also

Look up Matriarchy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... The Patriarchs, known as the Avot in Hebrew, are Abraham, his son Isaac and his grandson Jacob. ... The Matriarchs, known as the Ima-[h]ot in Hebrew, are four important women mentioned in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible. ... The First Sex was a 1971 book by a then-61-year-old librarian, Elizabeth Gould Davis. ... The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why An Invented Past Wont Give Women A Future[1] is a 2000 book by Cynthia Eller, a professor at Montclair State University. ... When Women Rule the World is an upcoming reality television series that will premiere on FOX in 2008. ... Zygarchy is a form of society in which power is equally shared between men and women, or a family structure where power is shared equally by both parents. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Term Matriarchy (348 words)
The modern studies of matriarchy corrected this misunderstanding in the German-speaking countries in the sixties 20.
In the international science discourse the term matriarchy is maintained, although sometimes it is misconstrued as "mother's rule" or "woman's rule"; both never existed in accordance to today's state of research.
Today Matriarchy is used in the sense of "motherly beginning" as a beginning of a cycle, because these societies are coined by cyclic thinking unlike linear.
matriarchy - Encyclopedia.com (1225 words)
Claims for the existence of matriarchy rest on three types of data: societies in which women make the major contribution to subsistence, societies in which descent is traced through women (i.e., matrilineal), and myths of ancient rule by women.
MATRIARCHY AS A THEORY AND CONCEPT In this essay matriarchy is defined as that form of social organization in which descent is reckoned through...
Upheaval from the depth: the "Zapatistas," the indigenous civilization, the question of matriarchy, and the West.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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