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Encyclopedia > Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is a convincing demonstration that some mathematical statement is necessarily true, within the accepted standards of the field. A proof is a logically deduced argument, not an empirical one. That is, the proof must demonstrate that a proposition is true in all cases to which it applies, without a single exception. An unproven proposition believed or strongly suspected to be true is known as a conjecture. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... This article documents the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... Deductive reasoning is reasoning whose conclusions are intended to necessarily follow from its premises. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... In mathematics, a conjecture is a mathematical statement which appears likely to be true, but has not been formally proven to be true under the rules of mathematical logic. ...


Proofs employ logic but usually include some amount of natural language which usually admits some ambiguity. In fact, the vast majority of proofs in written mathematics can be considered as applications of informal logic. Purely formal proofs are considered in proof theory. The distinction between formal and informal proofs has led to much examination of current and historical mathematical practice, quasi-empiricism in mathematics, and so-called folk mathematics (in both senses of that term). The philosophy of mathematics is concerned with the role of language and logic in proofs, and mathematics as a language. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, written, or signed by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic) and... Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ... ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, mathematical practice is used to distinguish the working practices of professional mathematicians (eg. ... Quasi-empiricism in mathematics is the movement in the philosophy of mathematics to direct philosophers attention to mathematical practice, in particular, relations with physics and social sciences, rather than the foundations problem in mathematics. ... As the term is understood by mathematicians, folk mathematics or mathematical folklore means theorems, definitions, proofs, or mathematical facts or techniques that circulate among mathematicians by word-of-mouth but have not appeared in print, either in books or in scholarly journals. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... The central question involved in discussing mathematics as a language can be stated as follows : What do we mean when we talk about the language of mathematics ? To what extent does mathematics meet generally accepted criteria of being a language ? A secondary question is : If it is valid to consider...


Regardless of one's attitude to formalism, the result that is proved to be true is a theorem; in a completely formal proof it would be the final line, and the complete proof shows how it follows from the axioms alone by the application of the rules of inference. Once a theorem is proved, it can be used as the basis to prove further statements. A theorem may also be referred to as a lemma if it is used as a stepping stone in the proof of a theorem. The axioms are those statements one cannot, or need not, prove. These were once the primary study of philosophers of mathematics. Today focus is more on practice, i.e. acceptable techniques. A mathematical picture paints a thousand words: the Pythagorean theorem. ... This article is about a logical statement. ... In mathematics, a lemma is a proven proposition which is used as a stepping stone to a larger result rather than an independent statement, in and of itself. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, mathematical practice is used to distinguish the working practices of professional mathematicians (eg. ...

Contents

Methods of proof

Direct proof

Main article: Direct proof

In direct proof, the conclusion is established by logically combining the axioms, definitions, and earlier theorems. For example, direct proof can be used to establish that the sum of two even integers is always even: In mathematics, a direct proof is a way of showing the truth or falsehood of a given statement by a straightforward combination of established facts, usually existing lemmas and theorems, without making any further assumptions. ... In mathematics, the parity of an object refers to whether it is even or odd. ... Not to be confused with Natural number. ...

For any two even integers x and y we can write x = 2a and y = 2b for some integers a and b, since both x and y are multiples of 2. But the sum x + y = 2a + 2b = 2(a + b) is also a multiple of 2, so it is therefore even by definition.

This proof uses definition of even integers, as well as distribution law. In mathematics, and in particular in abstract algebra, distributivity is a property of binary operations that generalises the distributive law from elementary algebra. ...


Proof by induction

In proof by induction, first a "base case" is proved, and then an "induction rule" is used to prove a (often infinite) series of other cases. Since the base case is true, the infinity of other cases must also be true, even if all of them cannot be proved directly because of their infinite number. A subset of induction is Infinite descent. Infinite descent can be used to prove the irrationality of the square root of two. Mathematical induction is a method of mathematical proof typically used to establish that a given statement is true of all natural numbers. ... Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. ... In mathematics, a proof by infinite descent is a particular kind of proof by mathematical induction. ... The square root of 2 is equal to the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle with legs of length 1. ...


The principle of mathematical induction states that: Let N = { 1, 2, 3, 4, ... } be the set of natural numbers and P(n) be a mathematical statement involving the natural number n belonging to N such that (i) P(1) is true, ie, P(n) is true for n = 1 (ii) P(m + 1) is true whenever P(m) is true, ie, P(m) is true implies that P(m + 1) is true. Then P(n) is true for the set of natural numbers N.


Proof by transposition

Main article: Transposition (logic)

Proof by Transposition establishes the conclusion "if p then q" by proving the equivalent contrapositive statement "if not q then not p". In the methods of deductive reasoning in classical logic, transposition is the rule of inference that permits one to infer from the truth of A implies B the truth of Not-B implies not-A, and conversely.[1] Its symbolic expression is: (P → Q) ↔ (¬Q → ¬P)[2] The → is the... In predicate logic, the contrapositive (or transposition) of the statement p implies q is not-q implies not-p. ...


Proof by contradiction

Main article: Reductio ad absurdum

In proof by contradiction (also known as reductio ad absurdum, Latin for "reduction into the absurd"), it is shown that if some statement were false, a logical contradiction occurs, hence the statement must be true. This method is perhaps the most prevalent of mathematical proofs. A famous example of a proof by contradiction shows that sqrt{2} is irrational: Reductio ad absurdum (Latin: reduction to the absurd) also known as an apagogical argument, reductio ad impossibile, or proof by contradiction, is a type of logical argument where one assumes a claim for the sake of argument, derives an absurd or ridiculous outcome, and then concludes that the original assumption... In mathematics, an irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number — that is, it is a number which cannot be expressed as a fraction m/n, where m and n are integers, with n non-zero. ...

Suppose that sqrt{2} is rational, so sqrt{2} = {aover b} where a and b are non-zero integers with no common factor (definition of rational number). Thus, bsqrt{2} = a. Squaring both sides yields 2b2 = a2. Since 2 divides the left hand side, 2 must also divide the right hand side (as they are equal and both integers). So a2 is even, which implies that a must also be even. So we can write a = 2c, where c is also an integer. Substitution into the original equation yields 2b2 = (2c)2 = 4c2. Dividing both sides by 2 yields b2 = 2c2. But then, by the same argument as before, 2 divides b2, so b must be even. However, if a and b are both even, they share a factor, namely 2. This contradicts our assumption, so we are forced to conclude that sqrt{2} is irrational.

Proof by construction

Main article: Proof by construction

Proof by construction, or proof by example, is the construction of a concrete example with a property to show that something having that property exists. Joseph Liouville, for instance, proved the existence of transcendental numbers by constructing an explicit example. In mathematics, a constructive proof is a method of proof that demonstrates the existence of a mathematical object with certain properties by creating or providing a method for creating such an object. ... Joseph Liouville (born March 24, 1809, died September 8, 1882) was a French mathematician. ... In mathematics, a transcendental number is any complex number that is not algebraic, that is, not the solution of a non-zero polynomial equation with integer (or, equivalently, rational) coefficients. ... In number theory, a Liouville number is a real number x with the property that, for any positive integer n, there exist integers p and q with q > 1 and such that 0 < |x − p/q| < 1/qn. ...


Proof by exhaustion

Main article: Proof by exhaustion

In Proof by exhaustion, the conclusion is established by dividing it into a finite number of cases and proving each one separately. The number of cases sometimes can become very large. For example, the first proof of the four colour theorem was a proof by exhaustion with 1,936 cases. This proof was controversial because the majority of the cases were checked by a computer program, not by hand. The shortest known proof of the four colour theorem today still has over 600 cases. Proof by exhaustion, also known as the brute force method or case analysis, is a method of mathematical proof in which the statement to be proved is split into a finite number of cases, and each case is proved separately. ... Example of a four color map The four color theorem states that every possible geographical map can be colored with at most four colors in such a way that no two adjacent regions receive the same colour. ...


Probabilistic proof

Main article: Probabilistic method

A probabilistic proof is one in which an example is shown to exist, with certainty, by using methods of probability theory. This is not be confused with an argument that a theorem is 'probably' true. The latter type of reasoning can be called a 'plausibility argument' and is not a proof; in the case of the Collatz conjecture it is clear how far that is from a genuine proof.[1] Probabilistic proof, like proof by construction, is one of many ways to show existence theorems. This article is not about probabilistic algorithms, which give the right answer with high probability but not with certainty, nor about Monte Carlo methods, which are simulations relying on pseudo-randomness. ... Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. ... The Collatz conjecture is an unsolved conjecture in mathematics. ... In mathematics, an existence theorem is a theorem with a statement beginning there exist(s) .., or more generally for all x, y, ... there exist(s) .... That is, in more formal terms of symbolic logic, it is a theorem with a statement involving the existential quantifier. ...


Combinatorial proof

Main article: Combinatorial proof

A combinatorial proof establishes the equivalence of different expressions by showing that they count the same object in different ways. Usually a bijection is used to show that the two interpretations give the same result. A combinatorial proof is a method of proving a statement, usually a combinatorics identity, by counting some carefully chosen object in different ways to obtain different expressions in the statement (see also double counting). ... A bijective function. ...


Nonconstructive proof

Main article: Nonconstructive proof

A nonconstructive proof establishes that a certain mathematical object must exist (e.g. "Some X satisfies f(X)"), without explaining how such an object can be found. Often, this takes the form of a proof by contradiction in which the nonexistence of the object is proven to be impossible. In contrast, a constructive proof establishes that a particular object exists by providing a method of finding it. A famous example of a nonconstructive proof shows that there exist two irrational numbers a and b such that ab is a rational number: In mathematics, a nonconstructive proof, is a mathematical proof that purports to demonstrate the existence of something, but which does not say how to construct it. ... In mathematics, an irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number — that is, it is a number which cannot be expressed as a fraction m/n, where m and n are integers, with n non-zero. ... In mathematics, a rational number is a number which can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. ...

Either sqrt{2}^{sqrt{2}} is a rational number and we are done (take a=b=sqrt{2}), or sqrt{2}^{sqrt{2}} is irrational so we can write a=sqrt{2}^{sqrt{2}} and b=sqrt{2}. This then gives left (sqrt{2}^{sqrt{2}}right )^{sqrt{2}}=sqrt{2}^{2}=2, which is thus a rational of the form ab

Proof nor disproof

There is a class of mathematical statements for which neither a proof nor disproof exists, using only ZFC, the standard form of axiomatic set theory. Examples include the continuum hypothesis; see further List of statements undecidable in ZFC. Under the assumption that ZFC is consistent, the existence of such statements follows from Gödel's (first) incompleteness theorem. Whether a particular unproven proposition can be proved or disproved using a standard set of axioms is not always obvious, and can be extremely technical to determine. The Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of set theory (ZF) are the standard axioms of axiomatic set theory on which, together with the axiom of choice, all of ordinary mathematics is based in modern formulations. ... In mathematics, axiomatic set theory is a rigorous reformulation of set theory in first-order logic created to address paradoxes in naive set theory. ... In mathematics, the continuum hypothesis is a hypothesis about the possible sizes of infinite sets. ... The following is a list of mathematical statements that are undecidable in ZFC (the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms plus the axiom of choice), assuming that ZFC is consistent. ... Consistency has three technical meanings: In mathematics and logic, as well as in theoretical physics, it refers to the proposition that a formal theory or a physical theory contains no contradictions. ... In mathematical logic, Gödels incompleteness theorems are two celebrated theorems proven by Kurt Gödel in 1931. ...


Elementary proof

Main article: Elementary proof

An elementary proof is (usually) a proof which does not use complex analysis. For some time it was thought that certain theorems, like the prime number theorem, could only be proved using "higher" mathematics. However, over time, many of these results have been reproved using only elementary techniques. In mathematics a proof is said to be elementary if uses only ideas from within its field and closely related issues. ... In number theory, the prime number theorem (PNT) describes the approximate, asymptotic distribution of the prime numbers. ...


End of a proof

Main article: Q.E.D.

Sometimes, the abbreviation "Q.E.D." is written to indicate the end of a proof. This abbreviation stands for "Quod Erat Demonstrandum", which is Latin for "that which was to be demonstrated". An alternative is to use a square or a rectangle, such as or , known as a "tombstone" or "halmos". This article is about Latin phrase Q.E.D., as used in proofs. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The tombstone, or halmos, symbol — (Unicode U+220E) — is used in mathematics to denote the end of a proof. ...


See also

Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... A computer-assisted proof is a mathematical proof that has been generated by computer. ... Automated theorem proving (ATP) or automated deduction, currently the most well-developed subfield of automated reasoning (AR), is the proving of mathematical theorems by a computer program. ... In mathematics, there are a variety of spurious proofs of obvious contradictions. ... In mathematics, a nonconstructive proof, is a mathematical proof that purports to demonstrate the existence of something, but which does not say how to construct it. ... Wikipedia contains a number of articles with mathematical proofs: Theorems of which articles are primarily devoted to proving them Bertrands postulate and a proof Erdős-Ko-Rado theorem Estimation of covariance matrices Fermats little theorem and some proofs Gödels completeness theorem and its original proof Mathematical induction... Proofs from THE BOOK is a book of mathematical proofs by Martin Aigner and Günter M Ziegler. ...

References

  1. ^ While most mathematicians do not think that probabilistic evidence ever counts as a genuine mathematical proof, a few mathematicians and philosophers have argued that at least some types of probabilistic evidence (such as Rabin’s probabilistic algorithm for testing primality) are as good as genuine mathematical proofs. See, for example, Davis, Philip J. (1972), "Fidelity in Mathematical Discourse: Is One and One Really Two?" American Mathematical Monthly 79:252-63. Fallis, Don (1997), "The Epistemic Status of Probabilistic Proof." Journal of Philosophy 94:165-86.

A randomized algorithm is an algorithm which is allowed to flip a truly random coin. ...

Sources

  • Polya, G. Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning. Princeton University Press, 1954.
  • Fallis, Don (2002) “What Do Mathematicians Want? Probabilistic Proofs and the Epistemic Goals of Mathematicians.” Logique et Analyse 45:373-88.
  • Franklin, J. and Daoud, A. Proof in Mathematics: An Introduction. Quakers Hill Press, 1996. ISBN 1-876192-00-3
  • Solow, D. How to Read and Do Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Thought Processes. Wiley, 2004. ISBN 0-471-68058-3
  • Velleman, D. How to Prove It: A Structured Approach. Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-67599-5

External links

Leslie Lamport Dr. Leslie Lamport (born 1941) is an American computer scientist. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... The history of logic documents the development of logic as it occurs in various rival cultures and traditions in history. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Philosophical logic is the application of formal logical techniques to problems that concern philosophers. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... The metalogic of a system of logic is the formal proof supporting its soundness. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Deductive reasoning is reasoning whose conclusions are intended to necessarily follow from its premises. ... Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... Abduction, or inference to the best explanation, is a method of reasoning in which one chooses the hypothesis that would, if true, best explain the relevant evidence. ... Informal logic is the study of arguments as presented in ordinary language, as contrasted with the presentations of arguments in an artificial (technical) or formal language (see formal logic). ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... Inference is the act or process of deriving a conclusion based solely on what one already knows. ... Look up argument in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In logic, the form of an argument is valid precisely if it cannot lead from true premises to a false conclusion. ... An argument is cogent if and only if the truth of the arguments premises would render the truth of the conclusion probable (i. ... Traditional logic, also known as term logic, is a loose term for the logical tradition that originated with Aristotle and survived broadly unchanged until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A syllogism (Greek: — conclusion, inference), usually the categorical syllogism, is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two others (the premises) of a certain form. ... Argumentation theory, or argumentation, embraces the arts and sciences of civil debate, dialogue, conversation, and persuasion. ... Philosophy of logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature and justification of systems of logic. ... Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals after the Greek philosopher Plato who lived between c. ... Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy. ... Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic. ... In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ... Fictionalism is a doctrine in philosophy that suggests that statements of a certain sort should not be taken to be literally true, but merely a useful fiction. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism, or neointuitionism (opposed to preintuitionism), is an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or construct) a mathematical object to prove that it exists. ... In the philosophy of mathematics, finitism is an extreme form of constructivism, according to which a mathematical object does not exist unless it can be constructed from natural numbers in a finite number of steps. ... Mathematical logic is a major area of mathematics, which grew out of symbolic logic. ... In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a formal language is a language that is defined by precise mathematical or machine processable formulas. ... In computer science and linguistics, a formal grammar, or sometimes simply grammar, is a precise description of a formal language — that is, of a set of strings. ... In logic and mathematics, a formal system consists of two components, a formal language plus a set of inference rules or transformation rules. ... ... In theoretical computer science formal semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages and models of computation. ... In mathematical logic, a formula is a formal syntactic object that expresses a proposition. ... In logic, WFF is an abbreviation for well-formed formula. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct objects considered as a whole. ... In mathematics, an element (also called a member) is an object contained in a set (or more generally a class). ... In set theory and its applications throughout mathematics, a class is a collection of sets (or sometimes other mathematical objects) that can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. ... This article is about a logical statement. ... In logic, especially in mathematical logic, a rule of inference is a scheme for constructing valid inferences. ... In mathematics, the concept of a relation is a generalization of 2-place relations, such as the relation of equality, denoted by the sign = in a statement like 5 + 7 = 12, or the relation of order, denoted by the sign < in a statement like 5 < 12. Relations that involve two... A mathematical picture paints a thousand words: the Pythagorean theorem. ... Logical consequence is the relation that holds between a set of sentences and a sentence when the latter follows from the former. ... Look up Consistency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... (This article discusses the soundess notion of informal logic. ... Look up completeness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A logical system or theory is decidable if the set of all well-formed formulas valid in the system is decidable. ... 3SAT redirects here. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ... In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems. ... Proof theory is a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects, facilitating their analysis by mathematical techniques. ... In mathematics, model theory is the study of the representation of mathematical concepts in terms of set theory, or the study of the structures that underlie mathematical systems. ... Recursion theory, or computability theory, is a branch of mathematical logic dealing with generalizations of the notion of computable function, and with related notions such as Turing degrees and effective descriptive set theory. ... At the broadest level, type theory is the branch of mathematics and logic that first creates a hierarchy of types, then assigns each mathematical (and possibly other) entity to a type. ... Syntax in logic is a systematic statement of the rules governing the properly formed formulas (WFFs) of a logical system. ... Propositional logic or sentential logic is the logic of propositions, sentences, or clauses. ... A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ... In logic, the monadic predicate calculus is the fragment of predicate calculus in which all predicate letters are monadic (that is, they take only one argument), and there are no function letters. ... In logic and mathematics, a propositional calculus (or a sentential calculus) is a formal system in which formulas representing propositions can be formed by combining atomic propositions using logical connectives, and a system of formal proof rules allows to establish that certain formulas are theorems of the formal system. ... In logic, a logical connective is a syntactic operation on sentences, or the symbol for such an operation, that corresponds to a logical operation on the logical values of those sentences. ... Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ... ... First-order logic (FOL) is a formal deductive system used by mathematicians, philosophers, linguists, and computer scientists. ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... In mathematical logic, second-order logic is an extension of first-order logic, which itself is an extension of propositional logic. ... In formal logic, a modal logic is any logic for handling modalities: concepts like possibility, existence, and necessity. ... Deontic logic is the field of logic that is concerned with obligation, permission, and related concepts. ... Michaels the greatest boyfriend in the whole wide world, and Id love to call him in a phonebooth sometime. ... In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ... doxastic logic is a modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about beliefs. ... Classical logic identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. ... Introduced by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003, Computability logic is a research programme and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. ... For the Super Furry Animals album, see Fuzzy Logic (album). ... In mathematical logic, linear logic is a type of substructural logic that denies the structural rules of weakening and contraction. ... Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is any of a family of non-classical substructural logics that impose certain restrictions on implication. ... A non-monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. ... A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal nontrivially with contradictions. ... Dialetheism is a paraconsistent logic typified by its tolerance of at least some contradictions. ... Intuitionistic logic, or constructivist logic, is the logic used in mathematical intuitionism and other forms of mathematical constructivism. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antinomy (Greek anti-, against, plus nomos, law) is a term used in logic and epistemology, which, loosely, means a paradox or unresolvable contradiction. ... Is logic empirical? is the title of two articles that discuss the idea that the algebraic properties of logic may, or should, be empirically determined; in particular, they deal with the question of whether empirical facts about quantum phenomena may provide grounds for revising classical logic as a consistent logical... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Not to be confused with George Boolos. ... Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (March 3, 1845[1] – January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Dharmakirti (circa 7th century), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Dignāga (5th century AD), was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Gerhard Karl Erich Gentzen (November 24, 1909 – August 4, 1945) was a German mathematician and logician. ... Kanada (also transliterated as Kanad and in other ways; Sanskrit कणाद) was a Hindu sage who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika. ... Kurt Gödel (IPA: ) (April 28, 1906 Brünn, Austria-Hungary (now Brno, Czech Republic) – January 14, 1978 Princeton, New Jersey) was an Austrian American mathematician and philosopher. ... The Nyāya SÅ«tras is an ancient Indian text on of philosophy composed by (also Gotama; c. ... | name = David Hilbert | image = Hilbert1912. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Saul Aaron Kripke (born in November 13, 1940 in Bay Shore, New York) is an American philosopher and logician now emeritus from Princeton and teaches as distinguished professor of philosophy at CUNY Graduate Center. ... Mozi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Mo Tzu, Lat. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Indian postage stamp depicting (2004), with the implication that he used (पाणिनि; IPA ) was an ancient Indian grammarian from Gandhara (traditionally 520–460 BC, but estimates range from the 7th to 4th centuries BC). ... Giuseppe Peano Giuseppe Peano (August 27, 1858 – April 20, 1932) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher best known for his contributions to set theory. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher who has been a central figure in Western philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science. ... For people named Quine, see Quine (surname). ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Albert Thoralf Skolem (May 23, 1887 - March 23, 1963) was a Norwegian mathematician. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... // Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1902, Warsaw, Russian-ruled Poland – October 26, 1983, Berkeley, California) was a logician and mathematician who spent four decades as a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861, Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... Lotfali Askar Zadeh (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. ... This is a list of topics in logic. ... For a more comprehensive list, see the List of logic topics. ... This is a list of mathematical logic topics, by Wikipedia page. ... Algebra of sets George Boole Boolean algebra Boolean function Boolean logic Boolean homomorphism Boolean Implicant Boolean prime ideal theorem Boolean-valued model Boolean satisfiability problem Booles syllogistic canonical form (Boolean algebra) compactness theorem Complete Boolean algebra connective -- see logical operator de Morgans laws Augustus De Morgan duality (order... Set theory Axiomatic set theory Naive set theory Zermelo set theory Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory Kripke-Platek set theory with urelements Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Axiom of choice Zorns lemma Empty set Cardinality Cardinal number Aleph number Aleph null Aleph one Beth number Ordinal number Well... A logician is a person, such as a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. ... This is a list of rules of inference. ... This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. ... This is a list of fallacies. ... In logic, a set of symbols is frequently used to express logical constructs. ...


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Metamath Site Selection (984 words)
...let's look at why mathematical proofs are so difficult to understand for most people...any realistic mathematical proof will leave out a great many steps, which are considered to be the "required background knowledge" for anyone who wants to understand the proof.
By the way, a very interesting project called the Metamath project is trying to create an online archive of mathematical proofs which are specified all the way to the bottom, starting from set theory.
But this is a very rare exception to the general rule.
Mathematical proof - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (581 words)
In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that, assuming certain axioms, some statement is necessarily true.
The philosophy of mathematics is concerned with the role of language and logic in proofs, and mathematics as a language.
Proof by contradiction (also known as reductio ad absurdum): where it is shown that if some statement were false, a logical contradiction occurs, hence the statement must be true.
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