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Encyclopedia > Mathematical Greek

Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. In these contexts, the capital letters and the small letters represent distinct and unrelated entities. Those Greek letters which have the same form as Latin letters are usually not used: capital A, B, E, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, T, X, Y, Z; small o. Small ι (iota) and υ (upsilon) are also rarely used, since they closely resemble the Latin letters i and u. Sometimes font variants of Greek letters are used as distinct symbols in mathematics. Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Alpha (uppercase Î‘, lowercase Î±) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Beta (upper case Î’, lower case Î²) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Gamma (uppercase Î“, lowercase Î³) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Delta. ... For the 2005 hurricane, see Hurricane Epsilon. ... Zeta (upper case Î–, lower case Î¶) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Eta. ... Theta (upper case Î˜, lower case Î¸ or ) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For programming language, see Iota and Jot. ... For other uses, see Kappa. ... Lambda (uppercase Î›, lowercase Î») is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Mu. ... For other uses, see Nu. ... Xi (upper case &#926;, lower case &#958;) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Omicron (upper case ÎŸ, lower case Î¿, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Î , lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Rho (upper case Î¡, lower case Ï) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Sigma (upper case &#931;, lower case &#963;, alternative &#962;) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Tau (upper case Î¤, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Phi (upper case Î¦, lower case Ï† or ) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Chi (upper case Î§, lower case Ï‡) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Digamma (upper case , lower case ) is an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet, used primarily as a Greek numeral. ... Image File history File links Greek_alphabet_san. ... San (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter of the Greek alphabet, appearing between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetical order, corresponding in position although not in name to the Phoenician tsade. ... Qoppa Qoppa is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 90. ... Sampi (Upper case &#992;, lower case &#993;) is an obsolete letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 900. ... For other meanings of mathematics or math, see mathematics (disambiguation). ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any system of knowledge attained by verifiable means. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... In mathematics and the mathematical sciences, a constant is a fixed, but possibly unspecified, value. ... In mathematics, several functions are important enough to deserve their own name. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (sometimes called a pronumeral) is a symbol denoting a quantity or symbolic representation. ...

In mathematical finance, The Greeks are the variables denoted by Greek letters used to describe the risk of certain investments. Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ...

English-speaking mathematicians use neither the modern nor the historical Greek pronunciations of the names of the letters, but the traditional English names, e.g. [ˈθeɪtʌ] for θ cf. ancient [tʰɛ̂ːta] and modern [ˈθita]. Greek (, IPA â€” Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... Ancient Greek phonology is the study of the phonology, or pronunciation, of Ancient Greek. ... This article describes the way in which Ancient Greek has been pronounced by those studying Ancient Greek literature, in particular in schools and colleges. ...

The OpenType font format has the feature tag 'mgrk' "Mathematical Greek" to identify a glyph as representing a Greek letter to be used in mathematical (as opposed to Greek language) contexts. OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... These are the astrological glyphs as most commonly used in Western Astrology A glyph is a specific symbol representing a semantic or phonetic unit of definitive value in a writing system. ...

#### Αα (Alpha)

Alpha (uppercase Î‘, lowercase Î±) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three vertices and three sides which are straight line segments. ... In mathematics, a root (or a zero) of a function f is an element x in the domain of f such that f(x) = 0. ... Graph of a quadratic function: y = x2 â€“ x â€“ 2 = (x + 1)(x â€“ 2) The x-coordinates of the points where the graph crosses the x-axis, x = â€“1 and x = 2, are the roots of the quadratic equation: x2 â€“ x â€“ 2 = 0 In mathematics, a quadratic equation is a polynomial... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... Scientists recognize two different sorts of error: Statistical error: the difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value that is caused by random, and inherently unpredictable fluctuations in the measurement apparatus. ... The fine-structure constant or Sommerfeld fine-structure constant, usually denoted , is the fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. ...

#### Ββ (Beta)

Beta (upper case Î’, lower case Î²) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. ... A separate article treats the beta-function (written with a hyphen) of physics. ... A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three vertices and three sides which are straight line segments. ... Graph of a quadratic function: y = x2 â€“ x â€“ 2 = (x + 1)(x â€“ 2) The x-coordinates of the points where the graph crosses the x-axis, x = â€“1 and x = 2, are the roots of the quadratic equation: x2 â€“ x â€“ 2 = 0 In mathematics, a quadratic equation is a polynomial... Assorted transistors The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device that can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. ... Scientists recognize two different sorts of error: Statistical error: the difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value that is caused by random, and inherently unpredictable fluctuations in the measurement apparatus. ... The Beta coefficient, or financial elasticity (sensitivity of the asset returns to market returns, relative volatility), is a key parameter in the Capital asset pricing model (CAPM). ... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ...

#### Γγ (Gamma)

Gamma (uppercase Î“, lowercase Î³) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Gamma function along part of the real axis In mathematics, the Gamma function extends the factorial function to complex and non integer numbers (it is already defined on the naturals, and has simple poles at the negative integers). ... In mathematics, the factorial of a natural number n is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. ... In mathematics, the gamma function is defined by a definite integral. ... In probability theory and statistics, the gamma distribution is a continuous probability distribution. ... The Gamma function along part of the real axis In mathematics, the Gamma function extends the factorial function to complex and non integer numbers (it is already defined on the naturals, and has simple poles at the negative integers). ... In mathematics and physics, the Christoffel symbols, named for Elwin Bruno Christoffel (1829-1900), are coordinate-space expressions for the Levi-Civita connection derived from the metric tensor. ... A triangle is one of the basic shapes of geometry: a polygon with three vertices and three sides which are straight line segments. ... The Euler-Mascheroni constant is a mathematical constant, used mainly in number theory, and is defined as the limiting difference between the harmonic series and the natural logarithm: Its approximate value is Î³ â‰ˆ 0. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... The specific heat capacity (symbol c or s, also called specific heat) of a substance is defined as heat capacity per unit mass. ... â€¹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

#### Δδ (Delta)

For other uses, see Delta. ... In mathematics, a finite difference is like a differential quotient, except that it uses finite quantities instead of infinitesimal ones. ... In mathematics, a difference operator maps a function f(x) to another function f(x + a) &#8722; f(x + b). ... In mathematics and physics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian, denoted by Î”, is a differential operator, specifically an important case of an elliptic operator, with many applications. ... Calculus of variations is a field of mathematics that deals with functions of functions, as opposed to ordinary calculus which deals with functions of numbers. ... In mathematics, the Kronecker delta or Kroneckers delta, named after Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), is a function of two variables, usually integers, which is 1 if they are equal, and 0 otherwise. ... The Dirac delta function, often referred to as the unit impulse function and introduced by the British theoretical physicist Paul Dirac, can usually be informally thought of as a function Î´(x) that has the value of infinity for x = 0, the value zero elsewhere. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ...

#### Εε (Epsilon)

For the 2005 hurricane, see Hurricane Epsilon. ... In mathematics, the concept of a limit is used to describe the behavior of a function as its argument either gets close to some point, or as it becomes arbitrarily large; or the behavior of a sequences elements, as their index increases indefinitely. ... Set theory is the mathematical theory of sets, which represent collections of abstract objects. ... Ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... In computer programming and some branches of mathematics, strings are sequences of various simple objects. ... The Levi-Civita symbol, also called the permutation symbol or antisymmetric symbol, is a mathematical symbol used in particular in tensor calculus. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... A dielectric, or electrical insulator, is a substance that is highly resistant to electric current. ... Permittivity is a physical quantity that describes how an electric field affects and is affected by a dielectric medium and is determined by the ability of a material to polarize in response to an applied electric field, and thereby to cancel, partially, the field inside the material. ... In mathematics, a set can be thought of as any collection of distinct things considered as a whole. ...

#### Ζζ (Zeta)

Zeta (upper case Î–, lower case Î¶) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In mathematics, the Riemann zeta-function, named after Bernhard Riemann, is a function of significant importance in number theory, because of its relation to the distribution of prime numbers. ... There are a number of mathematical functions with the name zeta-function, named after the Greek letter Î¶. Of these, the most famous is the Riemann zeta-function. ... For other meanings of mathematics or math, see mathematics (disambiguation). ... The pitch drop experiment at the University of Queensland. ... Polymer is a term used to describe molecules consisting of structural units and a large number of repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Damping is any effect, either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system, that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system. ... A dynamical system is a concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. ...

#### Ηη (Eta)

For other uses, see Eta. ... In statistics, regression analysis is used to model relationships between random variables, determine the magnitude of the relationships between variables, and can be used to make predictions based on the models. ... In statistics, the correlation ratio is a measure of the relationship between the statistical dispersion within individual categories and the dispersion across the whole population or sample. ...

#### Ιι (Iota)

For programming language, see Iota and Jot. ...

#### Κκ (Kappa)

For other uses, see Kappa. ... The kappa curve has two vertical asymptotes. ... In numerical analysis, the condition number associated with a numerical problem is a measure of that quantitys amenability to digital computation, that is, how well-posed the problem is. ... In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of numbers or, more generally, a table consisting of abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... Curvature refers to a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry. ...

#### Λλ (Lambda)

Lambda (uppercase Î›, lowercase Î») is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In mathematics, an axiomatic system is any set of axioms from which some or all axioms can be used in conjunction to logically derive theorems. ... It has been suggested that Predicate calculus be merged into this article or section. ... The cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Î›) occurs in Einsteins theory of general relativity. ... See:- Physical unit for relevance in physics. ... Volume, also called capacity, is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... Micro is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10âˆ’6 (one millionth). ... The litre or liter (see spelling differences) is a unit of volume. ... Milli (symbol m) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ... The metre, or meter (US), is a measure of length. ... The lambda calculus is a formal system designed to investigate function definition, function application, and recursion. ... In mathematics, a number is called an eigenvalue of a matrix if there exists a nonzero vector such that the matrix times the vector is equal to the same vector multiplied by the eigenvalue. ... Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear transformations, and systems of linear equations in finite dimensions. ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ... In probability theory and statistics, the exponential distributions are a class of continuous probability distribution. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. ... In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution is a discrete probability distribution. ...

#### Μμ (Mu)

For other uses, see Mu. ... The classical MÃ¶bius function is an important multiplicative function in number theory and combinatorics. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: the average in ordinary English, which is more correctly called the arithmetic mean, to distinguish it from geometric mean or harmonic mean. ... In probability theory (and especially gambling), the expected value (or mathematical expectation) of a random variable is the sum of the probability of each possible outcome of the experiment multiplied by its payoff (value). Thus, it represents the average amount one expects to win per bet if bets with identical... Informally, probable is one of several words applied to uncertain events or knowledge, being closely related in meaning to likely, risky, hazardous, and doubtful. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... In mathematics, a measure is a function that assigns a number, e. ... In mathematics, a measure is a function that assigns a number, e. ... Micro is a SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10âˆ’6 (one millionth). ... An SI prefix is a prefix that can be applied to an SI unit to form a decimal multiple (supramultiple or submultiple). ... It has been suggested that Coefficient of friction be merged into this article or section. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Service rate is a performance metric used to to measure the customer service in a supply organization. ... Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... In electromagnetism, permeability is the degree of magnetisation of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ...

#### Νν (Nu)

For other uses, see Nu. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ...

#### Ξξ (Xi)

Xi (upper case &#926;, lower case &#958;) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... A random variable is a mathematical function that maps outcomes of random experiments to numbers. ...

#### Οο (Omicron)

• The big O notation apparently uses a capital Omicron, not a capital O.

Omicron (upper case ÎŸ, lower case Î¿, literally small o) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Asymptotic notation. ...

#### Ππ (Pi)

For other uses, see Pi (disambiguation) Pi (upper case Î , lower case Ï€ or Ï–) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Lower-case Ï€ (the lower case letter is usually used for the constant) A visual definition of Ï€ as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter The mathematical constant Ï€ is an irrational number, approximately equal to 3. ... In Euclidean geometry, a circle is the set of all points in a plane at a fixed distance, called the radius, from a fixed point, the centre. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... Diameter is an AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) protocol for applications such as network access or IP mobility. ... In mathematics, the prime counting function is the function counting the number of primes less than or equal to some real number x. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources  , typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... In mathematics, a Markov chain is a discrete-time stochastic process with the Markov property named after Andrey Markov. ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing a Pi-bond at the bottom right of the picture In chemistry, pi bonds (Ï€ bonds) are bonds with a single nodal plane containing the line segment between the two atoms. ...

#### Ρρ (Rho)

Rho (upper case Î¡, lower case Ï) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its boundary. ... The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which points are given by an angle and a distance from the pole, called the origin in the Cartesian coordinate system. ... In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... In mathematical finance, the Greeks are the quantities representing the market sensitivities of options or other derivatives. ... Mathematical finance is the branch of applied mathematics concerned with the financial markets. ... Density (symbol: Ï - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ...

#### Σσ (Sigma)

Sigma (upper case &#931;, lower case &#963;, alternative &#962;) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... 3 + 2 with apples, a popular choice in textbooks Addition is the basic operation of arithmetic. ... Sigma (upper case &#931;, lower case &#963;, alternative &#962;) is the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In mathematics, and specifically in number theory, a divisor function is an arithmetical function related to the divisors of an integer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In probability and statistics, the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is defined as the square root of the variance. ... In finance a spread is the difference between the price bid and the price offered on a commodity or security. ... Informally, probable is one of several words applied to uncertain events or knowledge, being closely related in meaning to likely, risky, hazardous, and doubtful. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing among others the sigma bond of two s-orbitals and a sigma bond of two p-orbitals In chemistry, sigma bonds (Ïƒ-bonds) are bonds where there is no nodal plane containing the line segment between the two bonded species. ...

#### Ττ (Tau)

Tau (upper case Î¤, lower case Ï„) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In probability theory and statistics, correlation, also called correlation coefficient, is a numeric measure of the strength of linear relationship between two random variables. ... In statistics, rank correlation is the study of relationships between different rankings on the same set of items. ... The term interval is used in the following contexts: cricket mathematics music time This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

#### Υυ (Upsilon)

Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ...

#### Χχ (Chi)

Chi (upper case Î§, lower case Ï‡) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet. ... In probability theory and statistics, the chi distribution is a continuous probability distribution. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... In probability theory and statistics, the chi-square distribution (also chi-squared distribution), or Ï‡2  distribution, is one of the theoretical probability distributions most widely used in inferential statistics, i. ... A 3_coloring suits this graph, but fewer colors would result in adjacent verticies of the same color. ... A labeled graph with 6 vertices and 7 edges. ... It has been suggested that Vertex/Face/Edge relation in a convex polyhedron be merged into this article or section. ... Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics in which tools from abstract algebra are used to study topological spaces. ... Algebraic chess notation is the method used today by all competition chess organizations and most books, magazines, and newspapers to record and describe the play of chess games. ...

#### Ψψ (Psi)

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article discusses the concept of a wavefunction as it relates to quantum mechanics. ... In physics, the SchrÃ¶dinger equation, proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin SchrÃ¶dinger in 1925, is the definition of energy of a quantum system. ... Fig. ...

#### Ωω (Omega) Results from FactBites:

 Greek mathematics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (631 words) Greek mathematics, as that term is used in this article, is the mathematics written in Greek, developed from the 6th century BC to the 5th century AD around the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean. Greek mathematics studied from the time of the Hellenistic period onwards (from 323 BC) refers to all mathematics of those who wrote in the Greek language, since Greek mathematics was now not only written by Greeks but also non-Greek scholars throughout the Hellenistic world, which was spread across the Eastern end of the Mediterranean. Greek mathematics constitutes a major period in the history of mathematics, fundamental in respect of geometry and the idea of formal proof.
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