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Encyclopedia > Materials science
The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center
The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center

Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. This science investigates the relationship between the structure of materials and their properties. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering. With significant media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology in the recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities, sometimes controversially. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Engineering is the applied science of acquiring and applying knowledge to design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Cutout of the ITER project Applied physics is physics that is intended for a particular technological or practical use, as for example in engineering, as opposed to basic research. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... A mite next to a gear chain produced using nanotechnology Nanotechnology as a collective term refers to technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0. ... Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ...

Contents

History

The material of choice of a given era is often its defining point; the stone age, Bronze Age, and steel age are examples of this. Materials science is one of the oldest forms of engineering and applied science, deriving from the manufacture of ceramics. Modern materials science evolved directly from metallurgy, which itself evolved from mining. A major breakthrough in the understanding of materials occurred in the late 19th century, when Willard Gibbs demonstrated that thermodynamic properties relating to atomic structure in various phases are related to the physical properties of a material. Important elements of modern materials science are a product of the space race: the understanding and engineering of the metallic alloys, and silica and carbon materials, used in the construction of space vehicles enabling the exploration of space. Materials science has driven, and been driven by, the development of revolutionary technologies such as plastics, semiconductors, and biomaterials. Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Thermodynamics (Greek: thermos = heat and dynamic = change) is the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a combination, either in solution or compound, of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resultant material has metallic properties. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ...


Before the 1960s (and in some cases decades after), many materials science departments were named metallurgy departments, from a 19th and early 20th century emphasis on metals. The field has since broadened to include every class of materials, including: ceramics, polymers, semiconductors, magnetic materials, medical implant materials and biological materials. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ...


In 2006, the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) voted on and published the Top 50 Moments in the History of Materials. [1] Thanks


Fundamentals of Materials Science

In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, one instead aims to understand materials fundamentally so that new materials with the desired properties can be created.


The basis of all materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms and phases in that material through characterization. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. These, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics, govern a material’s microstructure, and thus its properties. A physical property is any aspect of an object or substance that can be measured or perceived without changing its identity. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Al-Si microstructure at 40x magnification Microstructure refers of the microscopic description of the individual constituents of a material. ...


An old adage in materials science says: "materials are like people; it is the defects that make them interesting". The manufacture of a perfect crystal of a material is physically impossible. Instead materials scientists manipulate the defects in crystalline materials such as precipitates, grain boundaries (Hall-Petch relationship), interstitial atoms, vacancies or substitutional atoms, to create materials with the desired properties. For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Crystalline solids have a very regular atomic structure: that is, the local positions of atoms with respect to each other are repeated at the atomic scale. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ...


Not all materials have a regular crystal structure. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity. Glasses, some ceramics, and many natural materials are amorphous, not possessing any long-range order in their atomic arrangements. These materials are much harder to engineer than crystalline materials. Polymers are a mixed case, and their study commonly combines elements of chemical and statistical thermodynamics to give thermodynamic, rather than mechanical, descriptions of physical properties. A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... This article is about the material. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Wax and paraffin are amorphous. ...


In addition to industrial interest, materials science has gradually developed into a field which provides tests for condensed matter or solid state theories. New physics emerge because of the diverse new material properties which need to be explained.


Materials in Industry

Radical materials advances can drive the creation of new products or even new industries, but stable industries also employ materials scientists to make incremental improvements and troubleshoot issues with currently used materials. Industrial applications of materials science include materials design, cost-benefit tradeoffs in industrial production of materials, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin-film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc.), and analytical techniques (characterization techniques such as electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, calorimetry, nuclear microscopy (HEFIB), Rutherford backscattering, neutron diffraction, etc.). Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC... This article is about the manufacturing process. ... Rolling is a fabricating process in which the metal, plastic, paper, glass, etc. ... Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. ... Ion implantation is a materials engineering process by which ions of a material can be implanted into another solid, thereby changing the physical properties of the solid. ... Crystals are entities of atoms, ions or even polymer strings in which the subunits (i. ... Thin-film deposition is any technique for depositing a thin film of material onto a substrate or onto previously deposited layers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sculpting hot blown glass. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... Nuclear microscopy uses a device called a microprobe. ... Rutherford backscattering (or RBS, for Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) is an analytical technique in materials science. ... Neutron diffraction is a crystallography technique that uses neutrons to determine the atomic structure of a material. ...


Besides material characterisation, the material scientist/engineer also deals with the extraction of materials and their conversion into useful forms. Thus ingot casting, foundry techniques, blast furnace extraction, and electrolytic extraction are all part of the required knowledge of a metallurgist/engineer. Often the presence, absence or variation of minute quantities of secondary elements and compounds in a bulk material will have a great impact on the final properties of the materials produced, for instance, steels are classified based on 1/10th and 1/100 weight percentages of the carbon and other alloying elements they contain. Thus, the extraction and purification techniques employed in the extraction of iron in the blast furnace will have an impact of the quality of steel that may be produced.


The overlap between physics and materials science has led to the offshoot field of materials physics, which is concerned with the physical properties of materials. The approach is generally more macroscopic and applied than in condensed matter physics. See important publications in materials physics for more details on this field of study. Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... This is a list of important publications in physics, organized by field. ...


The study of metal alloys is a significant part of materials science. Of all the metallic alloys in use today, the alloys of iron (steel, stainless steel, cast iron, tool steel, alloy steels) make up the largest proportion both by quantity and commercial value. Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels. For the steels, the hardness and tensile strength of the steel is directly related to the amount of carbon present, with increasing carbon levels also leading to lower ductility and toughness. The addition of silicon and graphitization will produce cast irons (although some cast irons are made precisely with no graphitization). The addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more than 10%) gives us stainless steels.


Other significant metallic alloys are those of aluminium, titanium, copper and magnesium. Copper alloys have been known for a long time (since the Bronze Age), while the alloys of the other three metals have been relatively recently developed. Due to the chemical reactivity of these metals, the electrolytic extraction processes required were only developed relatively recently. The alloys of aluminium, titanium and magnesium are also known and valued for their high strength-to-weight ratios and, in the case of magnesium, their ability to provide electromagnetic shielding. These materials are ideal for situations where high strength-to-weight ratios are more important than bulk cost, such as in the aerospace industry and certain automotive engineering applications.


Other than metals, polymers and ceramics are also an important part of materials science. Polymers are the raw materials (the resins) used to make what we commonly call plastics. Plastics are really the final product, created after one or more polymers or additives have been added to a resin during processing, which is then shaped into a final form. Polymers which have been around, and which are in current widespread use, include polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl-chloride, polystyrene, nylons, polyesters, acrylics, polyurethane, and polycarbonates. Plastics are generally classified as "commodity", "specialty" and "engineering" plastics.


PVC (polyvinyl-chloride) is a commodity plastic; it is widely used, inexpensive, and annual production quantities are huge. It lends itself to an incredible array of applications, from faux leather to electrical insulation to cabling to packaging and vessels. Its fabrication and processing are simple and well-established. The versatility of PVC is due to the wide range of additives that it accepts. The term "additives" in polymer science refers to the chemicals and compounds added to the polymer base to modify its material properties.


Polycarbonate would be normally considered an engineering plastic (other examples include PEEK, ABS). Engineering plastics are valued for their superior strengths and other special material properties. They are usually not used for disposable applications, unlike commodity plastics.


Specialty plastics are materials with unique characteristics, such as ultra-high strength, electrical conductivity, electro-florescence, high thermal stability, etc.


It should be noted here that the dividing line between the various types of plastics is not based on material but rather on their properties and applications. For instance, polyethylene (PE) is a cheap, slippery polymer commonly used to make disposable shopping bags and trash bags, and is considered a commodity plastic, whereas Medium-Density Polyethylene (MDPE) is used for underground gas and water pipes, and another variety called Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is an engineering plastic which is used extensively as the glide rails for industrial equipment.


Another application of material science in industry is the making of composite materials. Composite materials are structured materials composed of two or more macroscopic phases. An example would be steel-reinforced concrete; another can be seen in the "plastic" casings of television sets, cell-phones and so on. These plastic casings are usually a composite made up of a thermoplastic matrix such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) in which calcium carbonate chalk, talc, glass fibres or carbon fibres have been added for added strength, bulk, or electro-static dispersion. These additions may be referred to as reinforcing fibres, or dispersants, depending on their purpose.


Classes of materials (by bond types)

Materials science encompasses various classes of materials, each of which may constitute a separate field. Materials are sometimes classified by the type of bonding present between the atoms:

  1. Ionic crystals
  2. Covalent crystals
  3. Metals
  4. Intermetallics
  5. Semiconductors
  6. Polymers
  7. Composite materials
  8. Vitreous materials

Electron configurations of lithium and fluorine. ... “Covalent” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Intermetallics are chemical compounds formed by two metallic chemical elements. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ...

Sub-fields of materials science

Some practitioners often consider rheology a sub-field of materials science, because it can cover any material that flows. However, modern rheology typically deals with non-Newtonian fluid dynamics, so it is often considered a sub-field of continuum mechanics. See also granular material. Buckminsterfullerene C60, also known as the buckyball, is the simplest of the carbon structures known as fullerenes. ... A potential well is the region surrounding a local minimum of potential energy. ... The Gibbs-Thomson effect (not to be confused with the Thomson effect) relates surface curvature to vapor pressure and chemical potential. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... Crystalline solids have a very regular atomic structure: that is, the local positions of atoms with respect to each other are repeated at the atomic scale. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... Galvanized surface with visible crystallites of zinc. ... For the syntaxic operation, see Dislocation (syntax) For the medical term, see Dislocation (medicine) In materials science a dislocation is a linear crystallographic defect, or irregularity, in crystal structure. ... Characterization, when used in materials science, refers to the use of external techniques to probe into the internal structure and properties of a material. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Extremely high resolution spectrogram of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between radiation (electromagnetic radiation, or light, as well as particle radiation) and matter. ... Analytical chemistry is the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS or EDX) is an analytical tool predominantly used for chemical characterization. ... For the Second Person album, see Chromatography (album). ... Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... List of surface analysis methods LIBS - Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy EBSD - Electron backscatter diffraction XRF - X-ray fluorescence analysis LOES - Laser optical emission spectroscopy LS - Light (Raman) scattering IRS - Infra Red spectroscopy SEIRA -Surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy FTIR - Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy; e. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Al-Si microstructure at 40x magnification Microstructure refers of the microscopic description of the individual constituents of a material. ... In surgery, a biomaterial is a synthetic or natural material used to replace part of a living system or to function in intimate contact with living tissue. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... A semiconductor is a material that is an insulator at very low temperature, but which has a sizable electrical conductivity at room temperature. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... A sensor is a technological device or biological organ that detects, or senses, a signal or physical condition. ... Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... The term refractory can refer to multiple things: A refractory clergyman is one who refused to swear an oath to the French Revolution-era French state under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. ... Mock-up of a space shuttle leading edge, showing brittle failure of RCC due to foam impact reproducing the conditions of Columbias final launch. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon that is manufactured on a large scale for use mainly as an abrasive but also occurs in... ... Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ...

  • Glass Science --- any non-crystalline material including inorganic glasses, vitreous metals and non-oxide glasses.

Topics that form the basis of materials science

Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics is the study of reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... Physical chemistry is the application of physics to macroscopic, microscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems[1]within the field of chemistry traditionally using the principles, practices and concepts of thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and kinetics. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... For other uses, see Mechanic (disambiguation). ... Solid-state physics, the largest branch of condensed matter physics, is the study of rigid matter, or solids. ... Fig. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... The wave equation is an important partial differential equation which generally describes all kinds of waves, such as sound waves, light waves and water waves. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Polymer chemistry or macromolecular chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers or macromolecules. ... The term plastics covers a range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic condensation or polymerization products that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or fibers. ... Solid-state chemistry is the study of solid materials, which may be molecular. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Continuum mechanics is a branch of physics (specifically mechanics) that deals with continuous matter, including both solids and fluids (i. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... A field of study at the boundary of two disciplines, Applied mechanics and Materials Science and Engineering, focussing on relations between the mechanical behavior of materials and their microstructures. ...

A short list of non-academic materials facilities

Government labs

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Aerial photo of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ...

Corporate facilities

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the worlds third largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of fine... GE Global Research is one of the world’s most diversified industrial research organizations, providing innovative technology for all of GE’s businesses. ... The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for the IBM Research Division. ...

Important Journals

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... January 2006 cover of Nature Materials Nature Materials is a monthly multi-disciplinary journal aimed at bringing together cutting-edge research across the entire spectrum of materials science. ... Published monthly by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) (a member-based professional society), JOM is a technical journal devoted to exploring the many aspects of materials science and engineering. ... Advanced Materials is a leading peer-reviewed materials science journal published every two weeks. ... Advanced Functional Materials is a leading peer-reviewed materials science journal published eighteen times per year. ... Published in two volumes, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A and B are highly respected, peer-reviewed archival journals for metallurgy and materials science. ...

See also

Timeline of materials technology // 29,000–25,000 BCE - First ceramic appears 3rd millennium BC - Copper metallurgy is invented and copper is used for ornamentation 2nd millennium BC - Bronze is used for weapons and armour 1st millennium BC - Pewter beginning to be used in China and Egypt 16th century BC... A bio-based material is simply an engineering material made from substances derived from living tissues. ... Schlieren texture of Liquid Crystal nematic phase Liquid crystals are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal. ... The backbone dihedral angles are included in the molecular model of a protein. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... The following is a partial list of scientific journals. ... This is a list of important publications in physics, organized by field. ... List of surface analysis methods LIBS - Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy EBSD - Electron backscatter diffraction XRF - X-ray fluorescence analysis LOES - Laser optical emission spectroscopy LS - Light (Raman) scattering IRS - Infra Red spectroscopy SEIRA -Surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy FTIR - Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy; e. ... Thermal analysis is a branch of materials science where the properties of materials are studied as they change with temperature. ...

Bibliography

  • Askeland, Donald R.; Pradeep P. Phulé (2005). The Science & Engineering of Materials, 5th edition, Thomson-Engineering. ISBN 0-534-55396-6. 
  • Gaskell, David R. (1995). Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials, 4th edition, Taylor and Francis Publishing. ISBN 1-56032-992-0. 
  • Eberhart, Mark (2003). Why Things Break: Understanding the World by the Way It Comes Apart. Harmony. ISBN 1-4000-4760-9. 
  • Gordon, James Edward (1984). The New Science of Strong Materials or Why You Don't Fall Through the Floor, eissue edition, Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02380-8. 
  • Callister, Jr., William D. (2000). Materials Science and Engineering - An Introduction, 5th edition, John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-32013-7. 
  • Walker, Peter (Ed), (1993) Chambers Dictionary of Materials Science and Technology, Chambers Publishing, ISBN-10: 055013249X

References

  • Timeline of Materials Science at The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) - Accessed March 2007

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemistry - Materials science (455 words)
Materials science is a multidisciplinary field focusing on functional solids, whether the function served is structural, electronic, thermal, chemical, magnetic, optical, or some combination of these.
Evaluation of material performance is grounded in the field of engineering where that material is applied, and applying materials science requires a knowledge of the processing technologies of the material in question.
Material properties, structure, performance, and processing are so essential and interrelated that they are often presented as the vertices of the materials science tetrahedron.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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