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Encyclopedia > Match
An igniting match
An igniting match

A match is a consumable tool for lighting a fire under controlled circumstances on demand. Matches are readily available, being sold by tobacconists and many other kinds of shops. Matches are rarely sold singly; they are sold in multiples, packaged in match boxes or matchbooks. A match is typically a wooden stick (usually sold in match boxes) or stiff paper stick (usually sold in matchbooks) coated at one end (the match head) with a material often containing the element phosphorus, which will ignite from the heat of friction if rubbed ("struck") against a suitable surface.[1] Gelatin is used as a binder in match heads. Look up match in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Beschreibung: Match Fire Wood Quelle: Fotografiert im Dezember 2004 Fotograf: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Match ... Image File history File links Beschreibung: Match Fire Wood Quelle: Fotografiert im Dezember 2004 Fotograf: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures please use this discussion page File links The following pages link to this file: Match ... This article is about the instrument. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... A tobacconist is someone licensed to sell tobacco in various forms as well as smoking supplies. ... Matchbook (open) A matchbook is a small cardboard container that holds a quantity of matches inside and has a coarse striking surface on the exterior. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ...


There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface; and strike-anywhere matches, for which any solid surface can be used.


Match-type compositions may also be used to produce electric matches, which are fired electrically. These items do not rely on the heat of friction. In pyrotechnics, an electric match is a device to ignite the end of a fuse under control of an externally applied electrical current. ...

Contents

History of the term match

match: 1350–1400; Middle English macche (wick) < Middle French meiche, Old French mesche < Vulgar Latin *mesca (lamp wick), metathetic variant of Latin myxa < Greek mýxa, μυξα, (mucus, nostril, nozzle of a lamp)[2] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... a mechanism, known as capillary action, to transport the fuel, typically melted candle wax, to the flame. ... Middle French (French: ) is a historical division of the French language which covers the period from (roughly) 1340 to 1611 [1]. It is a period of transition during which: the French language becomes clearly distinguished from the other competing Oïl languages which are sometimes subsumed within the concept of... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Mucus cells. ... A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. ... Rocket Nozzle A nozzle is a mechanical device designed to control the characteristics of a fluid flow as it exits from an enclosed chamber into some medium. ...


Historically, the term match referred to lengths of cord, or later cambric, impregnated with chemicals, and allowed to burn continuously.[1] These were used to light fires and set off guns and cannons. Such matches were characterised by their burning speed, e.g. quick match and slow match; depending on their formulation, they could provide burning rates of between, typically, 1 second and 15 seconds per centimetre. Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace and needlework. ... This article is about the video game. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


The modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition. The original meaning of the word still persists in some pyrotechnics terms, such as black match (a black powder–impregnated fuse) and Bengal match (a firework producing a relatively long-burning, coloured flame). But, when friction matches were developed, they became the main object meant by the term. In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... In pyrotechnics, black match is a type of fuse, constructed of cotton string fibers intimately coated with a black powder slurry. ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ...


History of the modern match

A predecessor of the match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur were developed in China in 577 A.D.[citation needed]. This article is about the chemical element. ... Events The Anglo-Saxons under Ceawlin of Wessex defeat the British (Welsh) at the Battle of Deorham. ...


The first modern, self-igniting match was invented in 1805 by K. Chancel, assistant to Professor Louis Jacques Thénard of Paris. The head of the match consisted of a mixture of potassium chlorate, sulfur, sugar, and rubber. They were ignited by dipping the tip of the match in a small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid. This kind of match was quite expensive and its usage was dangerous, so Chancel's matches never gained much popularity. Louis Jacques Thénard. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Friction matches

Ignition of a match
Ignition of a match

The first "friction match" was invented by English chemist John Walker in 1827. Early work had been done by Robert Boyle in the 1680s with phosphorus and sulfur, but his efforts had not produced useful results. Walker discovered a mixture of antimony(III) sulfide or stibnite, potassium chlorate, gum, and starch could be ignited by striking against any rough surface. Walker called the matches congreves, but the process was patented by Samuel Jones and the matches were sold as lucifer matches. The early matches had a number of problems - the flame was unsteady and the initial reaction was disconcertingly violent; additionally, the odor produced by the burning match was unpleasant. It is described as a firework odor. Despite these problems, the new matches were responsible for a marked increase in the number of smokers[citation needed]. Lucifers reportedly could ignite explosively, sometimes throwing sparks at a considerable distance. In the Netherlands matches are still called lucifers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2073x2079, 114 KB) Ignition of a match. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2073x2079, 114 KB) Ignition of a match. ... John Walker was an English chemist from Stockton-on-Tees, who in 1826 accidentally invented the friction match by mixing potash and antimony. ... For the American art director and production designer, see Robert F. Boyle Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was a natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Stibnite, sometimes also called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the chemical composition Sb2S3. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ...


In 1830, Frenchman Charles Sauria added white phosphorus to remove the odor. These new matches had to be kept in an airtight box but were popular. Unfortunately, those involved in the manufacture of the new matches were afflicted with phossy jaw and other bone disorders, and there was enough white phosphorus in one pack to kill a person. There was a vociferous campaign to ban these matches once the dangers became known. Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Anthem: La Marseillaise France() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Paris Official languages French Demonym French Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Nicolas Sarkozy  -  Prime Minister François Fillon Formation  -  French State 843 French State Formed   -  Current... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Phossy-jaw is a deadly occupational hazard for those who work with white phosphorus in an environment without proper safeguards. ...


Noiseless matches

The noiseless match was invented in 1836 by the Hungarian János Irinyi, who was a student of chemistry.[3] An unsuccessful experiment by his professor, Meissner, gave Irinyi the idea to replace potassium chlorate with lead dioxide[4] in the head of the phosphorus match.[3] He liquefied phosphorus in warm water and shook it in a glass foil, until it became granulated. He mixed the phosphorus with lead and gum arabic, poured the paste-like mass into a jar, and dipped the pine sticks into the mixture and let them dry. When he tried them that evening, all of them lit evenly. Irinyi thus invented the noiseless match and sold the invention to István Rómer, a match manufacturer. Rómer, a rich Hungarian pharmacist living in Vienna, bought the invention and production rights from Irinyi, the poor student, for 60 forints. The production of matches was now fully underway. István Rómer became richer off Irinyi's invention, and Irinyi himself went on to publish articles and a textbook on chemistry and founded several match factories.[3] External links János Irinyi ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Lead(IV) oxide, PbO2, also plumbic oxide and lead dioxide, is an oxide of lead, with lead in oxidation state +4. ... A granular material is a conglomeration of discrete solid, macroscopic particles characterized by a loss of energy whenever the particles interact (the most common example would be friction when grains collide). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Forint, or HUF (Hungarian forint) is the official currency of Hungary. ...


Reformulation to remove white phosphorus

The early matches, including the Noiseless match, were dangerous to both the users and the people making them. This was due to the use of white phosphorus.


The search for a replacement for white phosphorus led to what was known as the safety match. However, this term is now confusing as it covers both the modern safety match and the modern strike anywhere match. These two different types of matches are discussed separately below.


Both of these types of matches were more expensive to make than white phosphorus-based matches, and customers continued to buy white-phosphorus based matches. Laws prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches generally had to be passed before these safer types of matches came into widespread usage. Finland banned white-phosphorus based matches in 1872; Denmark in 1874; Sweden in 1879; Switzerland in 1881 and the Netherlands in 1901. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


An agreement, the Berne Convention, was reached at Berne, Switzerland, in 1906 to prohibit the use of white phosphorus in matches.[citation needed] This required each country to pass laws prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches. Great Britain passed a law in 1908 prohibiting its use in matches after 31 December 1910. The United States did not pass a law, but instead placed a punitive tax on white-phosphorus based matches in 1913. India and Japan banned them in 1919; and China in 1925. For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Safety matches

Household safety matches, including one burnt match
Household safety matches, including one burnt match

The safety match was invented in 1844 by the Swede Gustaf Erik Pasch and was improved by John Edvard Lundström a decade later. Pile of household matches File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pile of household matches File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. ... Gustaf Erik Pasch (1788-1862) was a Swedish inventor and professor of chemistry at Karolinska institute in Stockholm and inventor of the safety match. ... John Edvard Lundström (1815-1888) was the Swedish inventor of the improved safety match. ...


Their safety is due to the separation of the combustible ingredients between a match head on the end of a paraffin-impregnated splint and a special striking surface; and the replacement of white phosphorus with red phosphorus. The striking surface is composed of typically 25% powdered glass, 50% red phosphorus, 5% neutralizer, 4% carbon black and 16% binder; and the match head is typically composed of 45-55% potassium chlorate, with a little sulphur and starch, a neutralizer (ZnO or CaCO3), 20-40% of siliceous filler, diatomite and glue.[5] Some heads contain antimony(III) sulfide so they burn more vigorously. The act of striking converts some of the red phosphorus to white by friction heat. The small amount of white phosphorus then ignites, and this starts the combustion of the match head. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the material. ... Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the chemical formula KClO3. ... Stibnite, sometimes also called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral. ...


The Lundström brothers - James and Gray - had obtained a sample of red phosphorus from Arthur Albright at The Great Exhibition, held at The Crystal Palace in 1851, and made safety matches with it.[6] They misplaced the matches and did not try them until just before the Paris Exhibition of 1855. They were still usable.[6] Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and phosphorus for the match industry. ... The Great Exhibition in Hyde Park 1851. ... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


The Swedes long held a virtual world-wide monopoly on safety matches, with the industry mainly situated in Jönköping.[6] In France, they sold the rights to their safety match patent to Coigent Père & Fils of Lyon, but Coigent contested the payment in the French courts, on the basis that the invention was known in Vienna before the Lundström brothers patented it.[6] The British match manufacturer Bryant and May visited Jönköping in 1858 to try to obtain a supply of safety matches but were unsuccessful. In 1862 they set up their own factory and bought the rights for the British safety match patent from the Lundström brothers.[6] This article is about the economic term. ... Location in Sweden Jönköping is a city in SmÃ¥land in southern Sweden with 84,423 inhabitants (2005). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Bryant and May was a United Kingdom company involved in making matches. ... The former match factory in Bow East London, home of the famous 1888 Match Girls strike is now a residential development known as the Bow Quarter. ...


Safety matches are classed as dangerous goods, "U.N. 1944, Matches, safety", and they are not universally forbidden on aircraft; however, they must be declared as dangerous goods and individual airlines and/or countries may impose tighter restrictions.[7] A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ... Flying machine redirects here. ...


Strike anywhere matches

Two French chemists, Savene and Cahen, developed a safety match using phosphorus sesquisulfide. They proved that the substance was not poisonous, that it could be used in a "strike anywhere" match and that the match heads were not explosive.[6] They patented a safety match composition in 1898 based on phosphorus sesquisulfide and potassium chlorate.[6] Albright and Wilson developed a safe means of making commercial quantities of phosphorus sesquisulfide in the United Kingdom in 1899 and started selling it to match makers.[6] Phosphorus sesquisulfide, also called phosphorus trisulfide, tetraphosphorus trisulfide or phosphorus sulfide, is an inorganic compound of phosphorus and sulfur. ... Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and phosphorus for the match industry. ...


In 1901 Albright and Wilson started making phosphorus sesquisulfide at their Niagara Falls plant for the U.S. market, but American manufacturers continued to use white phosphorus based matches.[6] The Niagara Falls plant stopped making it until 1910, when the United States Congress forbade the shipment of white phosphorus matches in interstate commerce.[6] At the same time the largest producer of matches in the USA granted free use, in the USA, of its phosphorus sesquisulfide safety match patents.[6] In 1913 Albright and Wilson also started making red phosphorus at Niagara Falls.[6] Niagara Falls is a city in Niagara County, New York, United States. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


Strike-anywhere matches are classed as dangerous goods, "U.N. 1331, Matches, strike anywhere"; and their carriage is forbidden on both passenger aircraft and cargo-only aircraft.[7] A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ...


Special purpose matches

Extra long matches for extra safety
Extra long matches for extra safety

Storm matches (also known as lifeboat matches or flare matches), a component of many a survival kit, have a strikeable tip like a normal match but much of the remainder of the stick is coated with a combustible compound which will keep burning even in a strong wind. They have a wax coating to make them waterproof. Survival kit is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared in advance as an aid to survival in an emergency. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...


Bengal matches are small hand-held fireworks akin to sparklers. They are similar to storm matches in form but include compounds of strontium or barium in the compound on the stick to produce a red or green flame respectively. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... For the Sparkers software label, see Creative Sparks. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ...


Matchbooks

Main article: matchbook
A box of safety matches, some of which are greatly prized by phillumenists

The development of a specialised matchbook with both matches and a striking surface did not occur until the 1890s with the American Joshua Pusey, who later sold his patent to the Diamond Match Company. The Diamond Match Company was later bought by Bryant and May. Matchbook (open) A matchbook is a small cardboard container that holds a quantity of matches inside and has a coarse striking surface on the exterior. ... A packet of matches from the Sianów matches factory File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A packet of matches from the Sianów matches factory File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Czechoslovak matches (between 1919-1952) Phillumeny is the hobby of collecting different match-related items: matchboxes, matchbox labels, matchbooks, matchcovers, matchsafes, etc. ... Matchbook (open) A matchbook is a small cardboard container that holds a quantity of matches inside and has a coarse striking surface on the exterior. ... Joshua Pusey (March 27, 1842 - May 8, 1906 (?)), was an American inventor and a prominent attorney. ...


The hobby of collecting match-related items, such as matchcovers and matchbox labels, is called phillumeny. A Matchcover, or matchbook cover, is a thin cardboard covering that folds over match sticks in a book or pack of matches. ... Czechoslovak matches (between 1919-1952) Phillumeny is the hobby of collecting different match-related items: matchboxes, matchbox labels, matchbooks, matchcovers, matchsafes, etc. ...


Fires due to lit matches

  • The Cocoanut Grove fire of 1942, the deadliest nightclub fire in U.S. history, was started when an artificial palm tree caught fire when a busboy struck a match for illumination while changing a light bulb.
  • The King's Cross fire was a devastating underground fire in London on 18 November 1987 which killed 31 people. It was caused by rubbish and grease beneath wooden escalators being ignited, probably by a discarded match.
  • A 10-year-old boy started the Buckweed Fire, of the October 2007 California wildfires, by playing with matches. With a series of wildfires blazing across the southern part of the state, Buckweed destroyed over 38000 acres of land and 63 structures. [8]

// The Cocoanut Grove was a nightclub in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Light bulb redirects here. ... The Kings Cross fire was a fatal underground fire in London which broke out at approximately 19:30 on 18 November 1987, and which killed 31 people. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Petro redirects here. ... Escalators at Canary Wharf, London. ... The October 2007 California wildfires were a series of wildfires that began burning across Southern California on October 20. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Concise Oxford
  2. ^ match. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/match (accessed: February 05, 2007).
  3. ^ a b c János Irinyi. Hungarian Patent Office. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
  4. ^ Development of matches. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved on 2008-03-18.
  5. ^ Phosphorus
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Threfall
  7. ^ a b IATA(2007). Dangerous Goods Regulations: Effective 1 January - 31 December 2007. Produced in consultation with ICAO. Montreal: International Air Transport Association. ISBN 92-9195-780-1.
  8. ^ "Police: Boy playing with matches started 38,000-acre fire", CNN, 2001-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Air Transport Association is an international trade organization of airlines headquarted in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Beaver, Patrick, (1985). The Match Makers: The story of Bryant & May. London: Henry Melland Limited. ISBN 0-907929-11-7.
  • Emsley, John, (2000). The Shocking History of Phosphorus: A biography of the Devil's element. Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN 0-333-76638-5.
  • Threlfall, Richard E., (1951). The story of 100 years of Phosphorus making: 1851 - 1951. Oldbury: Albright & Wilson Ltd.
  • Oxford (1999). Concise Oxford Dictionary. Tenth Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Steele, H. Thomas (1987). Close Cover Before Striking: The Golden Age of Matchbook Art. Abeville Press.

See also

Ivar Kreuger (March 2, 1880 – March 12, 1932) was a Swedish financier, entrepreneur and industrialist. ... Snus, a tobacco product marketed by Swedish Match. ... A lighter is a portable device used to create a flame. ... The London matchgirls strike of 1888 was a strike of the women and teenage girls working at the Bryant and May Factory in Bow, London. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Phossy-jaw is a deadly occupational hazard for those who work with white phosphorus in an environment without proper safeguards. ... The Little Match Girl (Den Lille Pige med Svovlstikkerne) is a Danish fairy tale by Hans Christian Andersen about a young girl who dies selling matches during the cold winter. ... A vesta case made of silver Vesta case is a small portable box made in a great variety of forms with snapshut covers to contain vestas (short matches) and keep them dry. ... Czechoslovak matches (between 1919-1952) Phillumeny is the hobby of collecting different match-related items: matchboxes, matchbox labels, matchbooks, matchcovers, matchsafes, etc. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Match - LoveToKnow 1911 (1363 words)
The first attempt to make matches in the modern sense may probably be ascribed to Godfrey Haukwitz, who, in 1680, acting under the direction of Robert Boyle, who at that time had just discovered how to prepare phosphorus, employed small pieces of that element, ignited by friction, to light splints of wood dipped in sulphur.
The matches so prepared, when brought into contact with the sulphuric acid in the bottle, ignited, and thus, by chemical action, fire was produced.
In France matches are a government monopoly, and are both dear in price and inferior in quality, as compared with other countries where the industry is left to private enterprise.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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