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Encyclopedia > Mat Salleh Rebellion
This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series

Prehistoric Malaysia (40,000-2,000 BCE)
Gangga Negara (2nd-11th century CE)
Langkasuka (2nd-14th century)
Pan Pan (3rd-5th century)
Srivijaya (3rd century -1400)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Sultanate of Malacca (1402 - 1511)
Sultanate of Johor (1528-current)
Jementah Civil War (1879)
White Rajahs (1841-1946)
British Malaya (1874-1946)
Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824
Burney Treaty (1826)
Straits Settlements (1826-1946)
Klang War (1867-1874)
Pangkor Treaty of 1874
Federated Malay States (1895-1946)
Unfederated Malay States (19th century-1946)
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Battle of Penang (1914)
North Borneo (1882-1963)
Mat Salleh Rebellion (1896-1900)
World War II (1941-1945)
Battle of Malaya (1941-42)
Parit Sulong Massacre (1942)
Battle of Singapore (1942)
Syburi (1942-1945)
Sandakan Death Marches (1945)
Malayan Union (1946-1948)
Federation of Malaya (1948-1963)
Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
Bukit Kepong Incident (1950)
Independence Day (1957)
Federation of Malaysia (1963-present)
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1962-1966)
Brunei Revolt (1962-1966)
Expulsion of Singapore (1965)
May 13 Incident (1969)
New Economic Policy (1971-1990)
Operation Lalang (1987)
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (1987-88)
Asian financial crisis (1997-98)
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Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major disturbances in North Borneo, now Malaysian state of Sabah, from 1894 to 1900. It was instigated by Datu Muhammad Salleh, or better known as Mat Salleh. The history of Malaysia is a relatively recent offshoot of the history of the wider Malay-Indonesian world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Caves paintings of Tambun, dated 3000 BC, in Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era is the period beginning with a year near the birth of Jesus, coinciding with the period from AD 1 onwards. ... Gangga Negara was believed to be a lost Hindu kingdom somewhere in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Christian Era or Current Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 (the traditional birthdate of Jesus) to the present. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... A call of pan-pan is a very urgent message concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or persons on board who require immediate assistance. ... Srivijaya empire at its peak. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shahs son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. ... Jementah Civil War happened in 1879 in Jementah, Sultanate of Johor when Tengku Alam, the heir of Sultan Ali of Muar refused to give the district of Muar under temporary administration of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor. ... The White Rajahs refers to a dynasty that ruled Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, also known as the Treaty of London (one of several), was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in London on March 17, 1824. ... The Burney Treaty was a treaty signed between Siam and the British in 1826. ... The Straits Settlements were a collection of territories of the British East India Company in Southeast Asia, which were given collective administration in 1826. ... The Klang War or Selangor Civil War took placed in the Malay state of Selangor and was fought between Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, the administrator of Klang and Raja Mahdi bin Raja Sulaiman from 1867 to 1874. ... The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed between the Sir Andrew Clarke on behalf of the British and Raja Abdullah of Perak. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ... The Unfederated Malay States was a group of five Malay states, namely Johore, Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah and Perlis. ... The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1906 (in which the Malays were not represented) effectively dissected the northern Malay states into two parts: Pattani, Narathiwat, Songkhla, Satun and Yala remained under Siam, but Siam relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu to Great Britain. ... The Battle of Penang occured in 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... Throughout the Second World War, British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation. ... During the early morning hours of December 7th/8th, 1941, before the first bombs started falling on the United States Pacific base at Pearl Harbor (time zone differences), World War Two widened in the Pacific with the Battle for Malaya - the Japanase invasion of the British Malaya. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Combatants Allied forces: Indian Army; British Army; Australian Army; Malayan forces; Straits Settlements forces Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Arthur Percival Tomoyuki Yamashita Strength 85,000 36,000 Casualties about 5,000 killed; about 80,000 POWs 1,715 dead, 3,500 wounded The Battle of Singapore was a battle fought... During the Japanese Occupation of Malaya, control of the State of Kedah was given to Thailand by the Japanese. ... The Sandakan Death Marches are the most infamous incident in series of events which resulted in the deaths of more than 6,000 Javanese civilian slave labourers and Allied prisoners of war, held by the Empire of Japan during the Pacific campaign of World War II, at prison camps in... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... The Federation of Malaya, or in Malay Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, was formed in 1948 from the British settlements of Penang and Malacca and the nine Malay states and replaced the Malayan Union. ... The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Combatants Malayan Races Liberation Army or Malayan Communist Party Malayan Police Commanders Muhammad Indera Sgt Jamil Mohd Shah Strength 200 25 Casualties about 40 dead 25 dead including non-combatants Bukit Kepong Incident was a historic armed encounter which took place on the February 23, 1950 between the police and... Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule. ... Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu (English: Unity Is Strength) Anthem: Negaraku Capital Kuala Lumpur1 Largest city Kuala Lumpur Official language(s) Malay Government Federal Constitutional monarchy - Paramount Ruler - Prime Minister Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Independence Formation From the UK (Malaya only) August 31, 1957 With Sabah, Sarawak, Singapore... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... The Brunei Revolt broke out on the December 8, 1962 and was led by Yassin Affandi and his armed rebels. ... The history of Singapore had a relatively minor role in the greater history of Southeast Asia until 1819, when the Englishman Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles founded a British port on the island. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputra are given discounts on real estate. ... Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... North Borneo was a British Protectorate and later Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom, situated in what is now the province of Sabah Malaysia. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya Capital Kota Kinabalu Governor Tun Haji Ahmadshah Abdullah Chief Minister Hj. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ...

Contents


Causes of the rebellion

North Borneo during the late 1800s was under the administration of British North Borneo Company. The Company was trying to transform North Borneo into a producer of various agricultural products, especially tobacco. As the Company introduced new cash crops, North Borneo underwent inevitable economic and social changes. Events and Trends Beginning of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 - 1815). ... The British North Borneo Company was assigned to administer North Borneo (todays Sabah in Malaysia) in August 1881 and North Borneo became a protectorate of the British Empire with internal affairs administered by the company until 1946 when it became the colony of British North Borneo. ...


The Company tried hard to preserve local cultures but certain local practices had to be regulated to ensure the Company's control. For instance, slavery was abolished. More disrupting changes brought upon by the Company was introduction of taxes and the need firearms and boat licenses. Many locals disagreed with the new rulings.


Mat Salleh and the rebellion

One of the more influential dissenting local chiefs was Mat Salleh. He was born in Inanam, Sabah and was a governor at Sugut River. A member of Bajau and Suluk tribe, he married a Sulu princess. His father was previously the leader of Inanam. The Bajau are an indigenous ethnic group residing in Sabah, eastern Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sulu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ...


In 1895, Mat Salleh made a complaint to the Company regarding new rules imposed on Sugut River but the Company ignored him. At the same time, the Company was unhappy with the fact that Mat Salleh was collecting taxes from the local populace. Soon after the complaint, the Company burnt down his village. In 1897, he retaliated by razing the Company's harbor at Pulau Gaya. Immediately after the razing, he ordered a fort to be constructed in Ranau. Ranau is a town located in West Coast Division, in the center of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...


The Company tried to capture the fort but they were met with heavy resistance and failed. That failure prompted the Company to burn the fort. The confrontation ended with Mat Salleh's forces retreating into North Borneo hitherland. There were also skirmishes near Gaya island, Inanam and Menggatal. Inanam is a town in Sabah, Malaysia. ... Menggatal is a [[Malaysia|Malaysian}} town and district on the west coast of Sabah, on the outskirts of the capital, Kota Kinabalu. ...


Later, the Company offered Mat Salleh peace. Mat Salleh agreed. Unfortunately for him, the truce with the British so outraged his own people that he was forced to flee to Tambunan. The British later would let Mat Salleh control Tambunan. He built a new fort at there; the fort still stands today. Tambunan is a town located in Interior Division of Sabah, east Malaysia on the island of Borneo. ...


Despite the peace treaty, the Company decided to take over Tambunan from Mat Salleh in 1899. Mat Salleh refused and thus, hostility was renewed. On January 31, 1900, he was shot dead in Kampung Teboh, Tambunan. His death left the rebellion movement leaderless and effectively ended it. 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reference

  • Zainal Abidin Bin Abdul Wahid, Khoo Kay Kim, Muhd. Yusof Bin Ibrahim, D.S. Ranjit Singh. 1994. Sejarah Tingkatan 2. ISBN 983-62-1009-1

Dato Dr Khoo Kay Kim (b. ...

External links

  • EMas Sabah More about Mat Salleh.
  • Mat Salleh Origin of the phrase Mat Salleh.

  Results from FactBites:
 
KY speaks: Mat Salleh (302 words)
While most Malaysian knows that Mat Salleh refers to caucasian male, many does not have a slightest clue as to the origin of the term.
The term Mat Salleh has been documented for well over a hundred years in the Malaya Peninsula and the Borneo island.
and inevitably prounounced it wrongly as "Mat Salleh".
MAT SALLEH MEMORIAL Kampung Tibabar, Tambunan (692 words)
Appropriately, in recognition of Mat Salleh as one of Sabah's earliest freedom fighters, the State Government built a permanent memorial fort in a garden at the exact site where he was killed at Kampung Tibabar in Tambunan.
It is said that the main cause of Mat Salleh's revolt was the controversial tax on rice and the intrusion of the British Chartered Company into areas of local jurisdiction.
State Youth, Culture and Sports Development Minister Datuk Rubin Balang said Mat Salleh and thousands of his followers were killed in their quest to free Sabah from foreign rule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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