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Encyclopedia > Masuria
Sailing on Lake Mikołajki
Sailing on Lake Mikołajki

Masuria (Polish: Mazury; German: ) is an area in northeastern Poland famous for its lakes and forests. Together with Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast to the north and a small section of Lithuania, the region used to be a part of Prussia and of the province of East Prussia, a German exclave between the world wars. Under territorial changes outlined at the Potsdam Conference, Masuria became part of Poland in 1945. The name Masuria comes from Mazurian ethnic group, Polish settlers from Masovia who repopulated much of the area after its conquest by the Teutonic Knights. with permission http://www. ... with permission http://www. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta w MikoÅ‚ajkach Mayor Piotr Jakubowski Area - km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 3800 - -/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°52 N 21°18 E Area code +48 87 Car plates - Twin towns - Municipal Website MikoÅ‚ajki is a... Image File history File links Masuren. ... Masurian Lakeland (Polish Pojezierze Mazurskie) - Lake district, northeastern Poland, containing more than 2,000 lakes. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The Mazurs (Polish: ) are a sub-ethnic group in the Masovian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeships in Poland. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...

Contents

History

Old Prussians

By the 13th century, Masuria was inhabited by the Baltic Old Prussians in the lands of Pomesania, Pogesania, Galindia, Bartia, and Sudovia. In the southern latter two regions, dense wilderness existed longer than in most of Europe, enabling moose, aurochs, bears, and other mammals to survive. It is estimated that around 220,000 Old Prussians lived in the territory in 1200. During the Baltic or Northern Crusades of the 13th century the Old Prussians used this remaining wilderness as defense against the German knights of the Teutonic Order and other visiting European crusaders. The declared mission of the Teutonic Knights was to baptize and convert the native population to Christianity; they did this mostly through conquest, which culminated in 1283 when the Prussian keep at Ełk (Lyck) was destroyed by the Order. http://www. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... Pogesania (German: ; Latin: Pogesania; Lithuanian: ) was a territory of the Baltic Prussians. ... Image:Prussia. ... Bartians (Barthi, Barti) is an extinct tribe of Prussians in the land of Barta/Bartia from the middle and lower flow of Lyna river, by Swina river, Lake Mamry, up to the Galindian woods. ... Sudovia (Lithuanian: SÅ«duva / Suvalkija, Polish: Suwalszczyzna), or Suvalkija (pronouncing soo-vul-kee-uh), is the name of one of ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For other uses, see Keep (disambiguation). ... EÅ‚k (former Polish name: Łęg, German Lyck) is a town in north-eastern Poland with 60000 inhabitants (2000). ...


Following the Order's conquest of the area, Polish settlers, mainly Mazurs from Masovia, began to settle in the southeast of the conquered region. Some Germans, French, Flemish, Danish, Dutch, and Norwegian colonists entered the area shortly afterward. The number of Polish settlers grew significantly again in the beginning of 15th century, especially after the First Peace of Toruń (1411) and the Second Peace of Toruń (1466). It is estimated that in the middle of the century, Polish settlers made about 60% of the Masurian population.[citation needed] At the same time the original Prussian population had already largely disappeared through earlier warfare with the Teutonic Knights and later assimilation with the Polish and Germanic colonists. Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... Peace of ToruÅ„ The Peace of ToruÅ„ of 1411 or the First Peace of ToruÅ„ or of Thorn was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in ToruÅ„ (German: ) between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) (see the Battle of Grunwald). ... The Second Treaty of ToruÅ„, Zweiter Friede von Thorn, (also referred to as Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466) was a peace treaty signed in the Hanse city of Thorn/ToruÅ„ on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic...


Polish sovereignty

In Masuria the Polish language dominated because of the many settlers from Masovia. In the Second Treaty of Toruń in 1466, the Teutonic Order came under the overlordship of the Polish crown. With the conversion of Albert of Prussia to Lutheranism in 1525, Masuria became part of Protestant Ducal Prussia. While most of the countryside was populated by Polish-speakers, the cities remained centres of mixed German and Polish population, with the upper class more German than the lower class. The ancient Old Prussian language survived in parts of the countryside until the early 18th century. Areas that were primarily Polish were known as the Polish departments (die polnischen Ämter in German). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Second Peace of ToruÅ„. (Discuss) Peace of Thorn 1466 (also Peace of ToruÅ„ 1466 or the Second Peace of Thorn) was a peace treaty signed on 19 October 1466 in Thorn (ToruÅ„) between Poland and the Teutonic Order... The Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons was the Polish state in the years between the death of Kazimierz III the Great in 1370 and the Union of Lublin in 1569. ... Albert of Prussia Albert I Hohenzollern of Brandenburg-Ansbach (German: ; Latin: Albertus; 16 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and, after converting to Lutheranism, the first duke of Ducal Prussia, which he made the first state to adopt the Lutheran faith. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ...


In 1656 Masuria was devastated by Tatar raids which practically destroyed all the townships and killed 30% of the population within 2 weeks. From 1708-1711 about 50% of the inhabitants of the newly rebuilt villages died from the Black Death. Losses in population were partly compensated by migration of Protestant settlers or refugees from Scotland, Salzburg (expulsion of Protestants 1731), France (Huguenot refugees after the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685), and especially from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including Polish brethren expelled from Poland in 1657. The last group of refugees to immigrate to Masuria were the Russian Filipons in 1830 when they were granted asylum by King Frederick William III of Prussia. Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the capital of the Austrian state of Salzburg. ... Events 10 Downing Street becomes the official residence of the United Kingdoms Prime Minister when Robert Walpole moves in. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, best known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1598, which had granted to the Huguenots the right to worship their religion without persecution from the state. ... Events February 6 - James Stuart, Duke of York becomes King James II of England and Ireland and King James VII of Scotland. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish Brethren (also called Antitrinitians, Arians, or Socinians) was the name of a Christian Polish sect from the 16th century. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ...


Kingdom of Prussia

Masuria in winter at Zyzdrój Wielki
Masuria in winter at Zyzdrój Wielki

As part of Ducal Prussia, Masuria passed under the control of the Hohenzollern dynasty of Brandenburg in 1618, and Polish sovereignty was revoked by the Treaty of Wehlau in 1657. The region became part of the Kingdom of Prussia after the coronation of King Frederick I of Prussia. Masuria became part of the newly-created administrative province of East Prussia upon its creation in 1773. The name Masuria began to be used officially after new administrative reforms in the kingdom after 1818. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 447 KB) Zyzdrój Wielki lake in Mazury Author: Wojsyl, 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Masuria ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 447 KB) Zyzdrój Wielki lake in Mazury Author: Wojsyl, 2006 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Masuria ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... The Treaty of Welawa was a political act signed in the Prussian town of Welawa (German Wehlau) between Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia during the Swedish Deluge on September 9, 1657. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Germanisation was slow and mainly done through the educational system: after the creation of the Prussian-led German Empire in 1871, the Polish language was removed from schools in 1872. Some local Poles resisted those attempts, mainly by publication of Polish newspapers such as Przyjaciel Ludu Łecki and Mazur. At the end of the 19th century Polish activists gathered around Gazeta Ludowa and the Mazurska Partia Ludowa ("Mazur People's Party"). However the great majority regarded themselves more as Prussians than as Poles and were loyal to the government (circumstances were quite different in the province of Posen). These differences were also obvious in the Reichstag elections where Polish parties never gained a really significant percentage of votes in Masuria in contrast to the province of Posen. Of the Masurian population in 1890, 143,397 gave German as their language (either primary or secondary), 152,186 Polish, and 94,961 Masurian. In 1910, the German language was given by 197,060, Polish by 30,121, and Masurian by 171,413. In 1925, 40,869 people gave Masurian as their native tongue and 2,297 gave Polish. However, the last result may have been a result of politics at the time and a desire to present the province as purely German; in reality the Masurian dialect was still in use. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Masurian (also known as Mazurian, Masovian, and Mazovian) is a dialect of Polish from Masovia and Masuria. ...


During World War I, the Battle of Tannenberg between Imperial Germany and the Russian Empire took place within the borders of Masuria in 1914. After the war, the League of Nations held a plebiscite on June 11, 1920 to determine if the people of the two southern districts of East Prussia wanted to remain within East Prussia or to join the reborn state of Poland. 97.5% of the voters chose to remain with East Prussia. The plebiscite took place under Allied supervision and during the backdrop of the nearby Polish-Soviet War, when the continued existence of the Polish state was in doubt. However, it showed that the overwhelming majority did not regard themselves as Poles but as "East Prussians" and Germans instead. After 1933 oppression of Polish activities, albeit pursued only by a small minority, was performed by the Nazis. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Anthem: Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Republic President List Prime minister List Legislature Sejm Historical era Interwar period  - World War I November 11, 1918  - Invasion November 2, 1939 Area  - 1939 388,600 km2 150,039 sq mi Population  - 1939 est. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Nazi Germany

Mikołajki
Mikołajki

The Nazi government (1933-1945) changed thousands of toponyms (especially names of cities and villages) from Prussian and Polish to newly-created German names; about 50% of the existing names were changed in 1938 alone.[1] Many children were separated from their families in an attempt to eliminate Polish culture. Image File history File links Mikolajki. ... Image File history File links Mikolajki. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta w MikoÅ‚ajkach Mayor Piotr Jakubowski Area - km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 3800 - -/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°52 N 21°18 E Area code +48 87 Car plates - Twin towns - Municipal Website MikoÅ‚ajki is a... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


During World War II, Masuria was partially devastated by the retreating German and advancing Soviet armies during the Vistula-Oder Offensive. The region came under Polish rule at war's end in the Potsdam Conference. Most of the population fled to Germany or were killed during or after the war, while the rest were subject to "nationality verification" organized by the communist government of Poland. As a result, the number of native Masurians that remained in Masuria was initially relatively high, while most ethnic Germans were subsequently expelled. Many Poles, mostly expelled from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, were resettled in Masuria. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet Communist dominance over the Peoples Republic of Poland in the decades following World War II. These years, while featuring many improvements in the standards of living in Poland, were marred by political instability, social unrest, and... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Under the terms of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, adjusted by agreement on 28 September 1939, the Soviet Union annexed all Polish territory east of the line of the rivers Pisa, Narew, Western Bug, and San, except for Wilno Voivodship with its capital Wilno (Vilnius), which was given to Lithuania, and...


Polish Masuria

Soon after 1956, some Masurians were given the opportunity to join their families in West Germany. The majority (over 100 thousand) gradually left, mostly because the standard of living was higher in West Germany, and because the communist government persecuted their separate culture and identity. Approximately 5,000 Masurians still live in the area. Most of the originally Protestant churches in Masuria are now used by the Polish Roman Catholic Church. Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Masuria was incorporated into the voivodeship system of administration in 1945. In 1999 Masuria was constituted with neighbouring Warmia as a single administrative province through the creation of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. It has been suggested that Polish Voivodeships and Counties 1919-1939 - trivia be merged into this article or section. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Capital city Olsztyn Area 24,191. ...


Landscape

Lakes

Masurian Lake District
Masurian Lake District

Masuria and the Masurian Lake District are known in Polish as Kraina Tysiąca Jezior and in German as Land der Tausend Seen, meaning "land of a thousand lakes." These lakes were ground out of the land by glaciers during the Pleistocene ice age, when ice covered northeastern Europe. By 10,000 BC this ice started to melt. Great geological changes took place and even in the last 500 years the maps showing the lagoons and peninsulas on the Baltic Sea have greatly altered in appearance. As in other parts of northern Poland, such as from Pomerania on the Oder River to the Vistula River, this continuous stretch of lakes is popular among tourists. Image File history File links Masuria. ... Image File history File links Masuria. ... Sailing on Lake MikoÅ‚ajki. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Pommern redirects here. ... The Oder (known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as Odra) is a river in Central Europe. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ...


Main cities

EÅ‚k (former Polish name: Łęg, German Lyck) is a town in north-eastern Poland with 60000 inhabitants (2000). ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government Rada Miejska IÅ‚awy Mayor JarosÅ‚aw MaÅ›kiewicz Area 22 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 34 000 - 1545/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°36 N 19°34 E Area code +48 89 Car plates NIL Twin towns - Municipal Website... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miejski w Giżycku Mayor Jolanta Piotrkowska Area 13,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 29 800 - 2148/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 54°02 N 21°46 E Area code +48 87 Car plates NGI Twin towns - Municipal... Coat of arms GoÅ‚dap (German: ( ); Lithuanian: ) is a town and a seat of a powiat in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland. ... Church in KÄ™trzyn KÄ™trzyn (Polish ; German: ) is a town in northeastern Poland with 28,351 inhabitants (2004). ... MorÄ…g (IPA: ; German Mohrungen) is a town in north-eastern Poland in the voivodship of Warmia-Masuria, formerly part of East Prussia. ... MrÄ…gowo (former Polish: ; German: ) is a town in northeastern Poland and the seat of MrÄ…gowo County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miasta w MikoÅ‚ajkach Mayor Piotr Jakubowski Area - km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 3800 - -/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 53°52 N 21°18 E Area code +48 87 Car plates - Twin towns - Municipal Website MikoÅ‚ajki is a... Nidzica (-Polish, German: Neidenburg) is a town in the Warmia-Masuria Voivodship in Poland, between Olsztyn and MÅ‚awa. ... Olecko (town) Olecko (German: Marggrabowa since 1560, also Oletzko, Treuburg since 1928) is a town in Masuria, in the Warminsko-Mazurskie voivodship of Poland, near Elk and Suwalki. ... Ostróda Ostróda (former German: ) is a town in Ostróda County in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland, with 33,603 inhabitants as of January 1, 2005. ... For other uses, see Arys. ... Pisz is a town in the Masuria province of Poland. ... Szczytno (former German: ) is a town in north-eastern Poland with 27,970 inhabitants (2004). ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia and Masuria Municipal government Rada Miejska w WÄ™gorzewie Mayor Antoni Piotrowski Area km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 12 000 /km² Founded City rights 1571 Latitude Longitude 54°13 N 21°45 E Area code +48 87 Car plates Twin towns Municipal Website WÄ™gorzewo (former...

Notes

  1. ^ Bernd Martin, p. 55

References

  • Mazury Entry on the region in Polish PWN Encyclopedia.
  • Martin, Bernd (1998). "Masuren, Mythos und Geschichte". Karlsruhe: Ewangelische Akademie Baden. ISBN 3872101226 de icon. 
  • Kruk, Erwin (2003). "Warmia i Mazury". Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. ISBN 83-7384-028-1.  (Polish)
  • Kossert, Andreas (2006). "Masuren. Ostpreußens vergessener Süden". Pantheon. ISBN 3570550060.  (German)

External links

  • Mazury (polish)
  • Mazury (polish)
  • Masuren (German)
  • Natural tourism (birdwatching) in NE Poland
  • Topographical maps 1:50 000
  • Mazury - Poland - canoeing information (polish)
  • Masuren - Poland - canoeing information (german)
  • Masuria - Poland - canoeing information (english)

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Masuria, Poland (Polish Political Geography) - Encyclopedia (249 words)
The original population of the region was expelled by the Teutonic Knights and replaced (14th cent.) with Polish settlers.
Masuria later became part of East Prussia and was largely Germanized by the early 20th cent.
After Masuria passed to Poland in 1945, most of the German-speaking population was expelled and replaced by Poles.
Masuria (653 words)
Masuria is the English name for the area called Pojezierze Mazurskie or Mazury in Polish (Masurenland in German) in north-eastern Poland.
Masuria and the Masurian Lakes Plateau are known in Polish as the Kraina Tysiąca Jezior, and in German as the Land der Tausend Seen which means the same: land of a thousand lakes.
In 1656 the Ducal part of Masuria was devastated during the Deluge[?], when it was raided by Tartars and Poles as retaliation for betrayal of Prussian prince.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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