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Encyclopedia > Massacres of Poles in Volhynia
Historian Volhyn All Ukraine
Norman Davies 60,000 500,000
Jan T. Gross 60-80,000
Ewa and Władysław Siemaszko 50-60,000 100,000
Wiktor Poliszczuk 50-60,000 120,000
Ryszard Torzecki 40,000 100,000
Michał Fijałka 40,000
Józef Turowski 60,000 300,000
Grzegorz Motyka 35-60,000
Antoni Szczęśniak, Wiesław Szota 100,000
Bogumiła Berdychowska 34,647-60,000
Mykhaylo Koval 40,000 +
Orest Subtelny 60-80,000

The Massacre of Poles in Volhynia was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhynia (Polish: Wołyń) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). This took place in 1943 and 1944, with the bulk of victims reported for summer and autumn 1944. Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Jan Tomasz Gross (born December 8, 1947 in Warsaw)- a controversial Polish-American historian of Jewish origin. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Massacres are individual events of deliberate mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents. ... UPA appeal poster. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

Contents

Background

Volhynia was the main ethnically Ukrainian region that during the Interbellum was under Polish administration. After World War I, when Poland regained independence, the Polish government had strongly supported the idea of an independent Ukraine (Ukrainian People's Republic). At the end of the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1921, under the Peace of Riga accords, overt Polish support for Ukraine's independence was ruled out. Poland initially promised local autonomy to her predominantly Ukrainian-populated territories. With, however, the demise of Józef Piłsudski's Międzymorze Federation and the rise of Polish nationalism fanned by Roman Dmowski's political adherents, Polish policy did an about-face and proceeded to suppress the Ukrainian language and culture. Between 100,000 and 300,000 Polish colonists were settled in these Ukrainian lands, and although the majority of the population were Ukrainian, virtually all of the officials (middle and uppper class) were Poles. One hundred ninety Orthodox churches were destroyed and 150 were forcibly transformed into Roman Catholic (not Ukrainian Catholic) churches, and Ukrainian libraries and reading rooms were burned down by Polish mobs who went unpunished by the Polish police forces. Local Polish youths organized into armed paramilitary strzelcy and further terrorized the Ukrainian population, under the pretext of maintaining law and order. In committing these acts the Poles did not, however, actually kill large numbers of civilians. In September 1939, following the outbreak of World War II and pursuant to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was occupied in the west by Nazi Germany and in the east by the Soviet Union. Volhyn fell within the Soviet zone of occupation. Soviets started to eliminate the middle and upper class. Almost the whole inteligence was of polish nationality and was living in cities. Whole fallies were killed or sent to Siberia. Within two years, in June 1941, with Adolf Hitler's Operation Barbarossa invasion of the Soviet Union, Volhyn was occupied by Nazi Germany. Each successive change of authorities brought political upheavals and arrests. Local Ukrainians, to protect themselves, began forming resistance groups that grew into a full-fledged guerilla army. An interbellum is a period between wars. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Roman Dmowski Roman Dmowski (b. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Soviet redirects here. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Hitler redirects here. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Massacres

Corpses of Poles murdered in Lipniki during the UPA raid of March 26, 1943

It is claimed that in February 1944 local elements of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army began attacking the Polish minority population, killing many in an effort to drive the Poles out of Volhyn. These actions were conducted by many units and seemed well-coordinated. Two delegates of the Polish government in Exile, J. Z. Rumel and K. Markiewicz, together with a group of representatives from the Polish Home Army, attempted to negotiate with UPA leaders, but soon they were found murdered (on July 8, 1943). Within three days, on July 11, a round of massacres began, with many reports of UPA units marching from village to village, killing Polish civilians. The massacres lasted 5 days, until July 16. It is also asserted that the UPA continued the ethnic cleansing, particularly in rural areas, until most Poles had been deported, killed or expelled. After 1944, the scale of such actions was limited. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti...


German army and police forces largely ignored the ethnic conflicts, though there are reports of Germans supplying weapons to both Ukrainians and Poles. These reports are not based on reliable evidence, however. Special German units formed from collaborationist Ukrainian or Polish police were also involved, and some of their crimes have been attributed to either the Polish Home Army or the Ukrainian UPA. Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The abbreviation UPA has several meanings: United Productions of America, USA-based animation studio Ukrayinska Povstanska Armia (Ukrainian Insurgent Army), a Ukrainian nationalist partisan organization during and after the World War II Uralic Phonetic Alphabet United Progressive Alliance A political coalition ruling India, as of 2005 University Preparatory Academy of...


The Soviet and Nazi invasions of pre-war eastern Poland, the UPA massacres of Poles, and postwar Soviet expulsions all contributed to the virtual elimination of a Polish presence in the region.


Casualties

Exact numbers of civilian victims remain unknown. Various historians estimate the number at between 35,000 and 60,000 in Volhyn alone, while estimates of all Polish victims of ethnic cleansing in Ukraine run as high as 100,000 or even 500,000. The ethnic cleansing was focused on unarmed countrymen as UIA partisans were not present in cities. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Blood libel · Black Legend Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Ku Klux Klan National Party (South Africa) American Nazi Party Kahanism · Supremacism Anti...


The Polish side engaged in acts of brutality and vengeance.[1] Although the exact number of Ukrainian victims is not documented, some claim that retaliation actions of the Home Army forces resulted in the deaths of as many as 20,000 Ukrainian civilians in Volhynia alone[2], with a possible total of 60,000 Ukrainian civilians in the region; the exact number is not documented. Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ...


It should be noticed that part of these numerous Ukrainian victims were killed during the acts of defensa of polish countrymen by polish partisans. What is more, these numbers includes also Ukrainians killed by UPA as part of mixted families. It was common that UPA forced the husband/wife of Ukrainian nationalidad to kill his polish wife/husband and children (otherwise he/she was killed also). There are still works on the estimation of real number of victims of each sides.


The numbers cited possibly also include victims of German Schutzmannschaft and Soviet partisans. Non-German cooperation with Nazis during World War 2 existed in all the countries occupied by Germany during World War 2. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...


Efforts are ongoing to bring about reconciliation between Poles and Ukrainians over these tragic events. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance, which is conducting an extensive investigation of them, has so far collected over 10,000 pages of documents and protocols. Institute of National Remembrance (Polish: ; IPN) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ...


References

  • Władysław Siemaszko, Ewa Siemaszko (2000). "Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia 1939-1945. ISBN 83-87689-34-3. 
  • Subtelny, Orest (1988). "Ukraine: A History". Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6. 
  • Filip Ożarowski Wolyn Aflame, Publishing House WICI, 1977, ISBN 0-9655488-1-3.
  • (English) Wiktor Poliszczuk "Bitter truth": The criminality of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), the testimony of a Ukrainian, ISBN 0-9699444-9-7
  • Tadeusz Piotrowski: Genocide and Rescue in Wolyn: Recollections of the Ukrainian Nationalist Ethnic Cleansing Campaign Against the Poles During World War II, McFarland & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-7864-0773-5.
  • Tadeusz Piotrowski: Vengeance of the Swallows: Memoir of a Polish Family's Ordeal Under Soviet Aggression, Ukrainian Ethnic Cleansing and Nazi Enslavement, and Their Emigration to America, McFarland & Company, 1995, ISBN 0-7864-0001-3.
  • Mikolaj Teres: Ethnic Cleansing of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia, Alliance of the Polish Eastern Provinces, 1993, ISBN 0-9698020-0-5.
  • (Polish) Andrzej L. Sowa (1998). "Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie 1939-1947". OCLC 48053561. 

Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ...

See also

SS-Division Galizien (Ukrainian: ), 14. ... 27 Volhynian Infantry Division (Polish 27 Wołyńska Dywizja Piechoty) was the World War II Polish Armia Krajowa unit fighting in 1944 in Volhynia region. ... In memory to the people deported from Lemkivshchyna “WisÅ‚a” (Vistula) Action was conducted in 1947 to relocate south-eastern Polands Ukrainian, Boyko and Lemko population. ... Germans execute Poles against a prison wall, Leszno, Poland, October 1939. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... PawÅ‚okoma massacre was a massacre in 1945 of over 360 Ukrainian civilians living in PawÅ‚okoma near PrzemyÅ›l in Poland. ...

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